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  1. N. D. B. (1961). Leviathan. Review of Metaphysics 15 (1):195-195.
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  2. Izabela Bondecka-Krzykowska (2012). Remarks on Ontology of Virtual Reality. Filozofia Nauki 20 (4).
  3. Paul L. Borrill & Leigh Tesfatsion (2011). Agent-Based Modeling: The Right Mathematics for the Social Sciences? In J. B. Davis & D. W. Hands (eds.), Elgar Companion to Recent Economic Methodology. Edward Elgar Publishers. 228.
    This study provides a basic introduction to agent-based modeling (ABM) as a powerful blend of classical and constructive mathematics, with a primary focus on its applicability for social science research. The typical goals of ABM social science researchers are discussed along with the culture-dish nature of their computer experiments. The applicability of ABM for science more generally is also considered, with special attention to physics. Finally, two distinct types of ABM applications are summarized in order to illustrate concretely the duality (...)
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  4. Roberto Diodato (2012). Interfacce virtuali. Aisthesis. Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 5.
    The essay concerns the notion of interface. From theoretical point of view, interface is a virtual environment develops in the interaction with a user; in this context “virtual” means the dynamic configuration of forces which have the intrinsic tendency of being actualised in a form not entirely pre-existing. The virtual in this case has to do with Aesthetics and its present status as discipline, since it is a field of continuous formal invention and of a particular type of interaction author/user (...)
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  5. Alan Dorin, Virtual Animals in Virtual Environments.
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  6. David Kirsh, T. Elvins & D. Nadeau (1997). Worldlets, 3D Thumbnails for Wayfinding in Virtual Environments. UIST 97 ACM Press:21-30.
    Virtual environment landmarks are essential in wayfinding: they anchor routes through a region and provide memorable destinations to return to later. Current virtual environment browsers provide user interface menus that characterize available travel destinations via landmark textual descriptions or thumbnail images. Such characterizations lack the depth cues and context needed to reliably recognize 3D landmarks. This paper introduces a new user interface affordance that captures a 3D representation of a virtual environment landmark into a 3D thumbnail, called a worldlet. Each (...)
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  7. Ilkka Maunu Niiniluoto (2011). Virtual Worlds, Fiction, and Reality. Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):13 - 28.
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  8. A. T. Nuyen, Faking the Real and Realizing the Fake: From Virtual Reality to Hyperreality.
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  9. Yukiko Okamoto (2008). Fundamental Problem of Digital Interaction. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 35:37-42.
    The promised open space of cyber-interaction has its dark side hidden behind its brilliant rhetoric. The danger emerges within the very center of developing this technology (cyber-evolution). That is a more fundamental danger than this dark side seems to have. The possible replacement of our primary reality with virtual reality might erode the significance of our existential reality. This means also that the virtual reality might lose its own ground to be constructed. In order to clarify this fundamental problem at (...)
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  10. Matthew W. Parker (2009). Computing the Uncomputable; or, the Discrete Charm of Second-Order Simulacra. Synthese 169 (3):447 - 463.
    We examine a case in which non-computable behavior in a model is revealed by computer simulation. This is possible due to differing notions of computability for sets in a continuous space. The argument originally given for the validity of the simulation involves a simpler simulation of the simulation , still further simulations thereof, and a universality conjecture. There are difficulties with that argument, but there are other, heuristic arguments supporting the qualitative results. It is urged, using this example, that absolute (...)
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  11. John L. Pollock (2008). What Am I? Virtual Machines and the Mind/Body Problem. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (2):237–309.
    When your word processor or email program is running on your computer, this creates a "virtual machine” that manipulates windows, files, text, etc. What is this virtual machine, and what are the virtual objects it manipulates? Many standard arguments in the philosophy of mind have exact analogues for virtual machines and virtual objects, but we do not want to draw the wild metaphysical conclusions that have sometimes tempted philosophers in the philosophy of mind. A computer file is not made of (...)
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  12. K. J. Salsbery (2000). Philip Zhai, Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality. Philosophy in Review 20 (4):307-309.
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  13. Christa Sommerer & Laurent Mignonneau (1997). Interacting with Artificial Life: A‐Volve: Linking Human Design and Interaction to the Virtual World. Complexity 2 (6):13-21.
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  14. Robert Scott Stewart & Roderick Nicholls (2002). Virtual Worlds, Travel, and the Picturesque Garden. Philosophy and Geography 5 (1):83 – 99.
    Debate concerning virtual reality is often drawn in terms of sharply defined dichotomies--for example, between "real" (or "actual") and "virtual," "authentic" and "inauthentic," and "natural" and "artificial." In this paper we offer an alternative approach by suggesting a conception of a virtual world that highlights a continuity and commonality with our sense of everyday reality. We accomplish this in part by an examination of the English picturesque garden as if it were a virtual world partially constructed out of ideas and (...)
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  15. John Strain (2007). Ethics in the Virtual World. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (1):4-6.
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  16. John Tiffin & Nobuyoshi Terashima (eds.) (2001). Hyperreality: Paradigm for the Third Millenium. Routledge.
    What comes after the Internet? The world of the virtual, a place where you could be hard pressed to know if the person standing next to you is physically real or virtual or whether they have human or artificial intelligence. The Third Millennium promises to bridge the gap between the natural and artificial in new and powerful ways- namely HyperReality. Here there are new scopes for telemedicine, HyperTranslation (to speak in one language and be heard in another), and virtual reality (...)
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  17. Eric B. Winsberg (2010). Science in the Age of Computer Simulation. The University of Chicago Press.
    Introduction -- Sanctioning models : theories and their scope -- Methodology for a virtual world -- A tale of two methods -- When theories shake hands -- Models of climate : values and uncertainties -- Reliability without truth -- Conclusion.
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  18. Benjamin Woolley (1992). Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality. Blackwell.
    In Virtual Worlds, Benjamin Woolley examines the reality of virtual reality.
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  19. Eva Zackova (2011). Humans as Products of Artificial Experience? Filozofia 66 (5):469-474.
    The “immersion conception” concerned with the virtual reality was discussed and criticised mainly in the 1990's. However, there were anticipations of the impendent creation of the tools for reality simulation and of the following preference of such reality at the expense of “basic” reality. An individual was meant to be shaped by the artificial experience of virtual world. The “immersion conception” has been overcome due to new relationships between humans and computers and by different “augmentation” conceptions corresponding much more to (...)
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Simulation and Reality
  1. Marcus Arvan, The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will. Scientia Salon.
  2. Gordana Dodig-Crncovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (2013). Computing Nature. Springer.
    The articles in this volume present a selection of works from the Symposium on Natu-ral/Unconventional Computing at AISB/IACAP (British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour and The International Association for Computing and Philosophy) World Congress 2012, held at the University of Birmingham, celebrating Turing centenary. This book is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe. By physical we mean all phenomena - objects and processes - that are possible to detect (...)
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  3. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves (2012). “Machine” Consciousness and “Artificial” Thought: An Operational Architectonics Model Guided Approach. Brain Research 1428:80-92.
    Instead of using low-level neurophysiology mimicking and exploratory programming methods commonly used in the machine consciousness field, the hierarchical Operational Architectonics (OA) framework of brain and mind functioning proposes an alternative conceptual-theoretical framework as a new direction in the area of model-driven machine (robot) consciousness engineering. The unified brain-mind theoretical OA model explicitly captures (though in an informal way) the basic essence of brain functional architecture, which indeed constitutes a theory of consciousness. The OA describes the neurophysiological basis of the (...)
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  4. James Franklin (1999). Structure and Domain-Independence in the Formal Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 30:721-723.
    Replies to Kevin de Laplante’s ‘Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity’ (de Laplante, 1999), defending the thesis of J. Franklin, ‘The formal sciences discover the philosophers’ stone’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25 (1994), 513-33, that the sciences of complexity can combine certain knowledge with direct applicability to reality.
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  5. James Franklin (1994). The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (4):513-533.
    The last fifty years have seen the creation of a number of new "formal" or "mathematical" sciences, or "sciences of complexity". Examples are operations research, theoretical computer science, information theory, descriptive statistics, mathematical ecology and control theory. Theorists of science have almost ignored them, despite the remarkable fact that (from the way the practitioners speak) they seem to have come upon the "philosophers' stone": a way of converting knowledge about the real world into certainty, merely by thinking.
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  6. Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf (2014). The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation. Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance of instructional information for (...)
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  7. Geert Gooskens (2011). Beyond Good and Evil? Morality in Video Games. Philosophical Writings (1):37-44.
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  8. Rowan Grigg, BIT From BIT (IT).
    The author suggests the subjugation of physical reality (IT) to a pair of self-supporting virtual realities (BIT from BIT), neither of which exists without the other.
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  9. Rowan Grigg, A Case for Lattice Schemes in Fundamental Physics.
    A synthesis of trending topics in pancomputationalism. I introduce the notion that "strange loops" engender the most atomic levels of physical reality, and introduce a mechanism for global non-locality. Writen in a simple and accesssible style, it seeks to draw research in fundamental physics back to realism, and have a bit of fun in the process.
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  10. Gerhard König (2013). Simulation and the Problem of Simplification. Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):81-91.
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  11. Ulrich Krohs (2008). How Digital Computer Simulations Explain Real-World Processes. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):277 – 292.
    Scientists of many disciplines use theoretical models to explain and predict the dynamics of the world. They often have to rely on digital computer simulations to draw predictions fromthe model. But to deliver phenomenologically adequate results, simulations deviate from the assumptions of the theoretical model. Therefore the role of simulations in scientific explanation demands itself an explanation. This paper analyzes the relation between real-world system, theoretical model, and simulation. It is argued that simulations do not explain processes in the real (...)
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  12. Margaret Morrison (2009). Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33 - 57.
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing on the connections (...)
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  13. Barry Smith (2006). A Realism-Based Approach to the Evolution of Biomedical Ontologies. In Proceedings of the Annual AMIA Symposium.
    We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those that (...)
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  14. Eric Steinhart (1998). Digital Metaphysics. In Terrell Ward Bynum & James Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers. 117--134.
    I discuss the view, increasingly common in physics, that the foundational level of our physical reality is a network of computing machines (so that our universe is ultimately like a cellular automaton). I discuss finitely extended and divided (discrete) space-time and discrete causality. I examine reasons for thinking that the foundational computational complexity of our universe is finite. I discuss the emergence of an ordered complexity hierarchy of levels of objects over the foundational level and I show how the special (...)
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  15. Franck Varenne (2013). Chains of Reference in Computer Simulations. FMSH Working Papers 51:1-32.
    This paper proposes an extensionalist analysis of computer simulations (CSs). It puts the emphasis not on languages nor on models, but on symbols, on their extensions, and on their various ways of referring. It shows that chains of reference of symbols in CSs are multiple and of different kinds. As they are distinct and diverse, these chains enable different kinds of remoteness of reference and different kinds of validation for CSs. Although some methodological papers have already underlined the role of (...)
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  16. Douglas B. Vogt (1977/1978). Reality Revealed: The Theory of Multidimensional Reality. Vector Associates.
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Are We in a Simulation?
  1. Marcus Arvan, The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will. Scientia Salon.
  2. Gordon C. F. Bearn (1987). Reply to Martin's “A Critique of Nietzsche's Metaphysical Scepticism”. International Studies in Philosophy 19 (2):61-65.
  3. Jonathan Birch (2013). On the 'Simulation Argument' and Selective Scepticism. Erkenntnis 78 (1):95-107.
    Nick Bostrom’s ‘Simulation Argument’ purports to show that, unless we are confident that advanced ‘posthuman’ civilizations are either extremely rare or extremely rarely interested in running simulations of their own ancestors, we should assign significant credence to the hypothesis that we are simulated. I argue that Bostrom does not succeed in grounding this constraint on credence. I first show that the Simulation Argument requires a curious form of selective scepticism, for it presupposes that we possess good evidence for claims about (...)
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  4. By Nick Bostrom (2003). Are We Living in a Computer Simulation? Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243–255.
    This paper argues that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is (...)
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  5. Nick Bostrom (2010). The Simulation Argument. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):28-29.
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  6. Nick Bostrom (2009). The Simulation Argument: Some Explanations. Analysis 69 (3):458-461.
    Anthony Brueckner, in a recent article, proffers ‘a new way of thinking about Bostrom's Simulation Argument’ . His comments, however, misconstrue the argument; and some words of explanation are in order.The Simulation Argument purports to show, given some plausible assumptions, that at least one of three propositions is true . Roughly stated, these propositions are: almost all civilizations at our current level of development go extinct before reaching technological maturity; there is a strong convergence among technologically mature civilizations such that (...)
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  7. Nick Bostrom (2005). The Simulation Argument: Reply to Weatherson. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (218):90 - 97.
    I reply to some recent comments by Brian Weatherson on my 'simulation argument'. I clarify some interpretational matters, and address issues relating to epistemological externalism, the difference from traditional brain-in-a-vat arguments, and a challenge based on 'grue'-like predicates.
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  8. Anthony Brueckner (2008). The Simulation Argument Again. Analysis 68 (299):224–226.
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  9. David J. Chalmers (2005). The Matrix as Metaphysics. In Christopher Grau (ed.), Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. 132.
    The Matrix presents a version of an old philosophical fable: the brain in a vat. A disembodied brain is floating in a vat, inside a scientist’s laboratory. The scientist has arranged that the brain will be stimulated with the same sort of inputs that a normal embodied brain receives. To do this, the brain is connected to a giant computer simulation of a world. The simulation determines which inputs the brain receives. When the brain produces outputs, these are fed back (...)
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  10. Lyle Crawford (2013). Freak Observers and the Simulation Argument. Ratio 26 (3):250-264.
    The simulation hypothesis claims that the whole observable universe, including us, is a computer simulation implemented by technologically advanced beings for an unknown purpose. The simulation argument (as I reconstruct it) is an argument for this hypothesis with moderately plausible premises. I develop two lines of objection to the simulation argument. The first takes the form of a structurally similar argument for a conflicting conclusion, the claim that I am a so-called freak observer, formed spontaneously in a quantum or thermodynamic (...)
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  11. Adam Elga, Why Neo Was Too Confident That He Had Escaped the Matrix.
    According to a typical skeptical hypothesis, the evidence of your senses has been massively deceptive. Venerable skeptical hypotheses include the hypotheses that you have been deceived by a powerful evil demon, that you are now having an incredibly detailed dream, and that you are a brain in a vat. It is obviously reasonable for you now to be confident that neither of the above hypotheses is true. Epistemologists have proposed many stories to explain why that is reasonable. One theory is (...)
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  12. Paul Franceschi, The Simulation Argument and the Self-Indication Assumption.
    I present in this paper a line of refutation of the Simulation Argument. I recall first Bostrom's Simulation Argument. I draw then a comparison between the Emerald Case and the core analogy underlying the Simulation Argument. I also discuss the justification of the Self-Indication Assumption and its relationship with the Simulation Argument. I show lastly that the Simulation Argument is a disguised reformulation of an application of an extended form of the Self-Indication Assumption to the situation related to the Simulation (...)
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  13. Rowan Grigg, BIT From BIT (IT).
    The author suggests the subjugation of physical reality (IT) to a pair of self-supporting virtual realities (BIT from BIT), neither of which exists without the other.
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  14. Rowan Grigg, Pomposo, Ma Non Allegro.
  15. Rowan Grigg, Longing for Integration.
    A lighthearted look at some big themes in metaphysics and epistemology.
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