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Summary The term 'information' has become ubiquitous. In fact the notion of information is arguably amongst the most important of our `Information Age'. But just what exactly is information? This is a question without a straightforward response, particularly as information is a polysemantic concept, applied to a range of phenomena across a range of disciplines. Some of the most common formulation developed in the 20th century include: Fisher information, Shannon information, Kolmogorov complexity, quantum information, information as a state of an agent, and semantic information.  Some notions of information are associated with central concerns of philosophy and have been used in various ways. Dealings with information from within philosophy include work on conceptions and analyses of information, the application of information to philosophical topics such as epistemology and logic and information ethics. Further to this, conceptions of information within other disciplines such as biology and physics can be and have been of interest within philosophy. Two conceptions of information of particular interest to philosophers are semantic information and environmental information, which can be seen as roughly correlating to the Gricean notions of non-natural and natural meaning respectively.
Key works Floridi 2011 Floridi 2002 Dretske 1981 Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 Adriaans & van Benthem 2008
Introductions Floridi 2010, Floridi 2011
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  1. P. Adriaans & J. van Benthem (eds.) (2008). Hilosophy of Information. MIT Press.
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  2. Pieter Adriaans (2010). A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
    n various publications over the past years, Floridi has developed a theory of semantic information as well-formed, meaningful, and truthful data. This theory is more or less orthogonal to the standard entropy-based notions of information known from physics, information theory, and computer science that all define the amount of information in a certain system as a scalar value without any direct semantic implication. In this context the question rises what the exact relation between these various conceptions of information is and (...)
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  3. Anthony Alessandrini, Selwyn Cudjoe, Lewis Gordon & Paget Henry (1997). Contributor Information. Philosophy 154 (1):217-218.
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  4. Patrick Allo (2014). Relevant Information and Relevant Questions: Comment on Floridi's “Understanding Epistemic Relevance”. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 24 (1):71-83.
    Floridi’s chapter on relevant information bridges the analysis of “being informed” with the analysis of knowledge as “relevant information that is accounted for” by analysing subjective or epistemic relevance in terms of the questions that an agent might ask in certain circumstances. In this paper, I scrutinise this analysis, identify a number of problems with it, and finally propose an improvement. By way of epilogue, I offer some more general remarks on the relation between (bounded) rationality, the need to ask (...)
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  5. Patrick Allo (2011). The Logic of 'Being Informed' Revisited and Revised. Philosophical Studies 153 (3):417-434.
    The logic of ‘being informed’ gives a formal analysis of a cognitive state that does not coincide with either belief, or knowledge. To Floridi, who first proposed the formal analysis, the latter is supported by the fact that unlike knowledge or belief, being informed is a factive, but not a reflective state. This paper takes a closer look at the formal analysis itself, provides a pure and an applied semantics for the logic of being informed, and tries to find out (...)
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  6. Patrick Allo (2010). Putting Information First: Luciano Floridi and the Philosophy of Information. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):247-254.
    Abstract: The core aim of this special issue is to present the philosophy of information as a way of doing philosophy, to focus on the contributions of Luciano Floridi to that area, and most important, to stimulate the debate on the most distinctive and controversial views he has defended in that context. This introduction contains a description of the philosophy of information, a discussion of two common misconceptions about the scope and the ambition of the philosophy of information, and a (...)
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  7. Patrick Allo (2009). Reasoning About Data and Information. Synthese 167 (2):231-249.
    Cognitive states as well as cognitive commodities play central though distinct roles in our epistemological theories. By being attentive to how a difference in their roles affects our way of referring to them, we can undoubtedly accrue our understanding of the structure and functioning of our main epistemological theories. In this paper we propose an analysis of the dichotomy between states and commodities in terms of the method of abstraction, and more specifically by means of infomorphisms between different ways to (...)
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  8. Patrick Allo (2008). Formalising the 'No Information Without Data-Representation' Principle. In P. Brey, A. Briggle & K. Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy. IOS Press.
    One of the basic principles of the general definition of information is its rejection of dataless information, which is reflected in its endorsement of an ontological neutrality. In general, this principles states that “there can be no information without physical implementation” (Floridi (2005)). Though this is standardly considered a commonsensical assumption, many questions arise with regard to its generalised application. In this paper a combined logic for data and information is elaborated, and specifically used to investigate the consequences of restricted (...)
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  9. Christina Alm-Arvius, Margarita Alonso Ramos, Goranka Antunovic, Teresa Cadierno, Bert Cappelle, Anna Cieslicka, Alejandro Cur ado Fuentes, Maria Carmelita Dias & Hannele Dufva (2007). Contact Information of the Authors. In Marja Nenonen & Sinikka Niemi (eds.), Collocations and Idioms 1: Papers From the First Nordic Conference on Syntactic Freezes, Joensuu, May 19-20, 2006. Joensuun Yliopisto. 394.
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  10. Gregory J. Anderson (1999). 10. Information for Contributors. BioScience 49 (12).
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  11. Jacques J. Arsac (1971). Le Concept ?Information Et Ľinformatique. Dialectica 25 (3‐4):207-219.
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  12. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1955). An Examination of Information Theory. Philosophy of Science 22 (2):86-105.
  13. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel & Rudolf Carnap (1953). Semantic Information. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (14):147-157.
  14. Lionel Barbe (2012). Mutations des frontières de la connaissance à l'heure du Web 2.0. Hermes 63.
    Depuis une dizaine d'années, des centaines des millions d'internautes ont donné naissance à des édifices informationnels novateurs. Ces dispositifs dits Web 2.0 constituent de nouveaux modèles éditoriaux. Ces changements,qui s'inscrivent dans la continuité de l'histoire des techniques et des usages, accélèrent considérablement les processus historiques en cours. Par la métaphore des frontières, cet article analyse les profondes mutations intervenues dans le domaine des savoirs : question de l'accès, enjeux de la mémoire collective, transformation de la nature des savoirs.
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  15. Marcello Barbieri (2012). What is Information? Biosemiotics 5 (2):147-152.
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  16. Shifra Baruchson-Arbib & Vicky Horenstein (2007). An Experiment to Enhance Awareness of the Power of Information: The Social Information Science Concept and Individual Empowerment in Israeli High Schools. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):79-97.
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  17. O. Costa Beauregard (1968). On Time, Information and Life1. Dialectica 22 (3‐4):187-205.
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  18. Anthony F. Beavers (2011). Historicizing Floridi. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):255-275.
  19. A. W. Bendig (1953). Twenty Questions: An Information Analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (5):345.
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  20. Thomas Bittner (2001). Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2205.
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  21. Jay Black (1994). Areopagitica in the Information Age. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (3):131 – 134.
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  22. Albert Borgmann (1999). Holding on to Reality the Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  23. Robert Bornstein & J. Brown Grier (1968). Pretask Information in Concept Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):306.
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  24. Manuel E. Bremer (2003). Do Logical Truths Carry Information? Minds and Machines 13 (4):567-575.
    The paper deals with the question whether logical truth carry information. On the one hand it seems that we gain new information by drawing inferences or arriving at some theorems. On the other hand the formal accounts of information and information content which are most widely known today say that logical truth carry no information at all. The latter is shown by considering these accounts. Then several ways to deal with the dilemma are distinguished, especially syntactic and ontological solutions. A (...)
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  25. Manuel Bremer & Daniel Cohnitz (2004). Information and Information Flow. Ontos Verlag.
    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow.
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  26. David Burrows & Ronald Okada (1973). Parallel Scanning of Semantic and Formal Information. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (2):254.
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  27. Stephen F. Bush (forthcoming). Reasoning About Information Assurance Policy with Uncertainty Using the Semantic Web. Annual Symposium on Information Assurance:1--7.
    This is a brief letter outlining speculative ideas for semantic web reasoning about information assurance. Much work has been done on the development of semantic web applications for reasoning about information assurance. A significant portion of this work is focused upon semantic web ontologies and reasoning about security policies and the underlying implementation of those policies. While numerous semantic web-based security policy ontologies and reasoners exist, both academically and commercially, I will briefly focus on ideas related to solutions to the (...)
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  28. Gustavo Cevolani (2012). Verisimilitude and Strongly Semantic Information. Etica E Politica 13 (2):159-179.
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents a theory of “strongly semantic information”, based on the idea that “information encapsulates truth” . Starting with Popper, philosophers of science have developed different explications of the notion of verisimilitude or truthlikeness, construed as a combination of truth and information. Thus, the theory of strongly semantic information and the theory of verisimilitude are intimately tied. Yet, with few exceptions, this link has virtually pass unnoticed. In this paper, we briefly survey both theories (...)
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  29. Gustavo Cevolani (2011). Strongly Semantic Information and Verisimilitude. Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):159-179.
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents a theory of “strongly semantic information”, based on the idea that “information encapsulates truth” (the so-called “veridicality thesis”). Starting with Popper, philosophers of science have developed different explications of the notion of verisimilitude or truthlikeness, construed as a combination of truth and information. Thus, the theory of strongly semantic information and the theory of verisimilitude are intimately tied. Yet, with few exceptions, this link has virtually pass unnoticed. In this paper, we briefly (...)
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  30. David J. Chalmers (1996). The Metaphysics of Information. In The Conscious Mind.
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  31. Michael J. Clark (1989). Information and a Changing World. In Derek Gregory & Rex Walford (eds.), Horizons in Human Geography. Barnes & Noble Books. 14.
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  32. Jonathan Cohen & Aaron Meskin (2006). An Objective Counterfactual Theory of Information. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):333 – 352.
    We offer a novel theory of information that differs from traditional accounts in two respects: (i) it explains information in terms of counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities, and (ii) it does not make essential reference to doxastic states of subjects, and consequently allows for the sort of objective, reductive explanations of various notions in epistemology and philosophy of mind that many have wanted from an account of information.
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  33. John Collier, Information.
    Information is commonly understood as knowledge or facts acquired or derived from, e.g., study, instruction or observation (Macmillan Contemporary Dictionary, 1979). On this notion, information is presumed to be both meaningful and veridical, and to have some appropriate connection to its object; it is concerned with representations and symbols in the most general sense MacKay 1969 ). Information might be misleading, but it can never be false. Deliberately misleading data is misinformation. The scientific notion of information abstracts from the representational (...)
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  34. Gary L. Comstock & Jürgen Habermas (2003). Information for Contributors. Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (3):601-603.
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  35. Robert C. Cummins (1986). Inexplicit Information. In Myles Brand & Robert M. Harnish (eds.), The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. University of Arizona Press.
  36. Simon D'Alfonso (2011). On Quantifying Semantic Information. Information 2 (1):61-101.
    The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and (...)
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  37. Osten Dahí (1976). What is New Information? In Nils Erik Enkvist & Viljo Kohonen (eds.), Reports on Text Linguistics: Approaches to Word Order. [Åbo Akademi].
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  38. D. Dantzig (1955). Some Informal Information on “Information”. Synthese 9 (1):137 - 144.
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  39. Pierre de Latil (1971). La Notion ?Information. Dialectica 25 (3-4):197-205.
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  40. Hilmi Demir (2008). Counterfactuals Vs. Conditional Probabilities: A Critical Analysis of the Counterfactual Theory of Information. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (1):45 – 60.
    Cohen and Meskin 2006 recently offered a counterfactual theory of information to replace the standard probabilistic theory of information. They claim that the counterfactual theory fares better than the standard account on three grounds: first, it provides a better framework for explaining information flow properties; second, it requires a less expensive ontology; and third, because it does not refer to doxastic states of the information-receiving organism, it provides an objective basis. In this paper, I show that none of these is (...)
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  41. S. Dockx (1965). Information and Prediction in Science. New York, Academic Press.
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  42. Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Mark Burgin (eds.) (forthcoming). INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION. World Scientific.
    The book focuses on relations between information and computation. Information is a basic structure of the world, while computation is a process of the dynamic change of information. In order for anything to exist for an individual, the individual must get information on it, either by means of perception or by re-organization of the existing information into new patterns and networks in the brain. With the advent of World Wide Web and a prospect of semantic web, the ways of information (...)
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  43. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Investigations Into Information Semantics and Ethics of Computing.
    The recent development of the research field of Computing and Philosophy has triggered investigations into the theoretical foundations of computing and information. This thesis consists of two parts which are the result of studies in two areas of Philosophy of Computing (PC) and Philosophy of Information (PI) regarding the production of meaning (semantics) and the value system with applications (ethics). The first part develops a unified dual-aspect theory of information and computation, in which information is characterized as structure, and computation (...)
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  44. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2003). Shifting the Paradigm of Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Information and a New Renaissance. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (4):521-536.
    Computing is changing the traditional field of Philosophy of Science in a very profound way. First as a methodological tool, computing makes possible ``experimental Philosophy'' which is able to provide practical tests for different philosophical ideas. At the same time the ideal object of investigation of the Philosophy of Science is changing. For a long period of time the ideal science was Physics (e.g., Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, and Chalmers). Now the focus is shifting to the field of Computing/Informatics. There are (...)
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  45. Fred Dretske (1981/1999). Knowledge and the Flow of Information. MIT Press.
    This book presents an attempt to develop a theory of knowledge and a philosophy of mind using ideas derived from the mathematical theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. Perception is the delivery of information in analog form (experience) for conceptual utilization by cognitive mechanisms. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning (or belief content) (...)
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  46. A. Duwell (2003). Quantum Information Does Not Exist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (3):479-499.
    Some physicists seem to believe that quantum information theory requires a new concept of information (Jozsa, 1998, Quantum information and its properties. In: Hoi-Kwong Lo, S. Popescu, T. Spiller (Eds.), Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information, World Scientific, Singapore, (pp. 49-75); Deutsch & Hayden, 1999, Information flow in entangled quantum subsystems, preprint quant-ph/9906007). I will argue that no new concept is necessary. Shannon's concept of information is sufficient for quantum information theory. Properties that are cited to contrast quantum information and (...)
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  47. Armond Duwell (2008). Quantum Information Does Exist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (1):195-216.
    Some physicists seem to believe that quantum information theory requires a new concept of information , Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information, World Scientific, Singapore, ; Deutsch & Hayden, 1999, Information flow in entangled quantum subsystems, preprint quant-ph/9906007). I will argue that no new concept is necessary. Shannon's concept of information is sufficient for quantum information theory. Properties that are cited to contrast quantum information and classical information actually point to differences in our ability to manipulate, access, and transfer information (...)
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  48. Board Editorial (2004). Information for Contributors. Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (3):449-450.
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  49. Charbel Niño El-Hani (2008). A Peircean Approach to 'Information' and its Relationship with Bateson's and Jablonka's Ideas. American Journal of Semiotics 24 (1/3):75-94.
    The Peircean semiotic approach to information that we developed in previous papers raises several new questions, and shows both similarities and differenceswith regard to other accounts of information. We do not intend to present here any exhaustive discussion about the relationships between our account and otherapproaches to information. Rather, our interest is mainly to address its relationship to ideas about information put forward by Gregory Bateson and Eva Jablonka. We conclude that all these authors offer quite broad concepts of information, (...)
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  50. David Ellerman (2013). An Introduction to Logical Entropy and its Relation to Shannon Entropy. International Journal of Semantic Computing 7 (2):121-145.
    The logical basis for information theory is the newly developed logic of partitions that is dual to the usual Boolean logic of subsets. The key concept is a "distinction" of a partition, an ordered pair of elements in distinct blocks of the partition. The logical concept of entropy based on partition logic is the normalized counting measure of the set of distinctions of a partition on a finite set--just as the usual logical notion of probability based on the Boolean logic (...)
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