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  1. Debra Bergoffen & Gail Weiss (2012). Cluster: Contesting the Norms of Embodiment — Editors' Introduction. Hypatia 27 (2):241-242.
  2. Merriley Borell (1985). Organotherapy and the Emergence of Reproductive Endocrinology. Journal of the History of Biology 18 (1):1 - 30.
    Early scientific investigation of the reproductive process was neither a cause nor a direct result of changing social attitudes toward sex. It was instead part of the continuing search, initiated in the 1890s, to discover internal secretions that might be isolated and prove useful in therapy. Laboratory scientists, nonetheless, were among the many groups altering understanding of human sexual physiology in the first quarter of this century. The new data they generated regarding the dependence of human sexuality and fertility on (...)
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  3. Paisley Currah & Lisa Jean Moore (2009). "We Won't Know Who You Are": Contesting Sex Designations in New York City Birth Certificates. Hypatia 24 (3):113 - 135.
    This article examines shifts in the legal, medical, and common-sense logics governing the designation of sex on birth certificates issued by the City of New York between 1965 and 2006. In the initial iteration, the stabilization of legal sex categories was organized around the notion of "fraud"; in the most recent iteration, "permanence" became the measure of authenticity. We frame these legal constructions of sex with theories about the "natural attitude" toward gender.
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  4. P. -E. Dauzat (2005). Prevarication Over the Sex of Stones: Caillois and Myth (Postscript). Diogenes 52 (4):145-149.
    Anyone who might be surprised to find an issue on the figures of myth and gender appearing under the aegis of the poet of Pierres or Récurrences dérobées can only be referred to his mineral 'mythology', where all possible permutations of the sexes have a place, as in a Mendeleyev table. But Roger Caillois' interest in myths and the notion of gender, which is found in early texts from his youth, crops up unchanged in those from his maturity, such as (...)
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  5. Monique David-Ménard (2003). Sexual Alterity and the Alterity of the Real for Thought. Angelaki 8 (2):137 – 150.
  6. Monique David-Menard (2003). Sexual Alterity and the Alterity of the Real for Thought. Angelaki 8 (2):137-150.
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  7. Peggy DesAutels (2010). Sex Differences and Neuroethics. Philosophical Psychology 23 (1):95-111.
    Discussions in neuroethics to date have ignored an ever-increasing neuroscientific lilterature on sex differences in brains. If, indeed, there are significant differences in the brains of men versus women and in the brains of boys versus girls, the ethical and social implications loom very large. I argue that recent neuroscientific findings on sex-based brain differences have significant implications for theories of morality and for our understandings of the neuroscience of moral cognition and behavior.
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  8. M. Dhanda (1996). Rosalyn Diprose, The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. Journal of Applied Philosophy 13:327-328.
  9. Rosalyn Diprose (1991). In Excess: The Body and the Habit of Sexual Difference. Hypatia 6 (3):156 - 171.
    Through a re-reading of Antigone, I offer a critique of Hegel's use of the story to illustrate the unity which emerges from the representation of sexual difference in ethical life. Using Hegel's own account of habits, as the mechanism by which the body becomes a sign of the self, I argue that the pretense of social unity assumes the proper construction and representation of one body only. This critique is brought to bear upon contemporary moves towards a post-Hegelian ethics of (...)
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  10. Alice Dreger (2010). Sex Typing for Sport. Hastings Center Report 40 (2):22-24.
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  11. Nathan Q. Ha (2011). The Riddle of Sex: Biological Theories of Sexual Difference in the Early Twentieth-Century. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):505 - 546.
    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. (...)
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  12. John Harris (2003). Stem Cells, Sex, and Procreation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (04):353-371.
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  13. Harmon R. Holcomb Iii & Douglas Allchin (1997). Sociobiology Sex and Science. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):423.
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  14. Mary Anne Cline Horowitz (1976). Aristotle and Woman. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):183-213.
  15. Maryanne Cline Horowitz (1976). Aristotle and Woman. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):183 - 213.
  16. Leonard Lawlor (2008). “Benign Sexual Variation”. Chiasmi International 10:47-56.
  17. David Lesbarrères (2011). Sex or No Sex, Reproduction is Not the Question. Bioessays 33 (11):818-818.
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  18. Letitia Meynell (2013). Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference. By Cordelia Fine. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences. By Rebecca M. Jordan‐Young. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010. [REVIEW] Hypatia 28 (3):684-689.
  19. Kelly Oliver (2009). Sexual Difference, Animal Difference: Derrida and Difference "Worthy of Its Name". Hypatia 24 (2):54 - 76.
    I challenge the age-old binary opposition between human and animal, not as philosophers sometimes do by claiming that humans are also animals, or that animals are capable of suffering or intelligence, but rather by questioning the very category of "the animal" itself. This category groups a nearly infinite variety of living beings into one concept measured in terms of humans—animals are those creatures that are not human. In addition, I argue that the binary opposition between human and animal is intimately (...)
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  20. Nelly Oudshoorn (1990). Endocrinologists and the Conceptualization of Sex, 1920-1940. Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):163 - 186.
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  21. Alice Pechriggl & Gertrude Postl (2005). Body and Gender Within the Stratifications of the Social Imaginary. Hypatia 20 (2):102 - 118.
    Using the notion of a transfiguration of sexed bodies, this text deals with the stratifications of the gender-specific imaginary. Starting from the figurative-thus creative-force of the psyche-soma, its interaction with the configurations of a collective body will be developed from the perspectives of social philosophy and philosophy of history. At the center of my discussion is the interdependence between the individual psyche-soma, the socialized individual, and a collective bodily imaginary, on the one hand, and the strata of a gender imaginary (...)
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  22. Alice Pechriggl & Translated By Gertrude Postl (2005). Body and Gender Within the Stratifications of the Social Imaginary. Hypatia 20 (2):102-118.
  23. Rob Sparrow (2012). Human Enhancement and Sexual Dimorphism. Bioethics 26 (9):464-475.
    I argue that the existence of sexual dimorphism poses a profound challenge to those philosophers who wish to deny the moral significance of the idea of ‘normal human capacities’ in debates about the ethics of human enhancement. The biological sex of a child will make a much greater difference to their life prospects than many of the genetic variations that the philosophical and bioethical literature has previously been concerned with. It seems, then, that bioethicists should have something to say about (...)
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  24. Robert Sparrow (2010). Better Than Men?: Sex and the Therapy/Enhancement Distinction. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):pp. 115-144.
    The normative significance of the distinction between therapy and enhancement has come under sustained philosophical attack in recent discussions of the ethics of shaping future persons by means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and other advanced genetic technologies. In this paper, I argue that giving up the idea that the answer to the question as to whether a condition is “normal” should play a crucial role in assessing the ethics of genetic interventions has unrecognized and strongly counterintuitive implications when it comes (...)
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  25. Robert Sparrow (2010). Should Human Beings Have Sex? Sexual Dimorphism and Human Enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):3-12.
    Since the first sex reassignment operations were performed, individual sex has come to be, to some extent at least, a technological artifact. The existence of sperm sorting technology, and of prenatal determination of fetal sex via ultrasound along with the option of termination, means that we now have the power to choose the sex of our children. An influential contemporary line of thought about medical ethics suggests that we should use technology to serve the welfare of individuals and to remove (...)
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  26. Robert Sparrow (2010). Why Bioethicists Still Need to Think More About Sex …. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):W1-W3.
  27. Silvia Stoller & tr Nielsen, Camilla (2005). Asymmetrical Genders: Phenomenological Reflections on Sexual Difference. Hypatia 20 (2):7-26.
    : One of the most fundamental premises of feminist philosophy is the assumption of an invidious asymmetry between the genders that has to be overcome. Parallel to this negative account of asymmetry we also find a positive account, developed in particular within the context of so-called feminist philosophies of difference. I explore both notions of gender asymmetry. The goal is a clarification of the notion of asymmetry as it can presently be found in feminist philosophy. Drawing upon phenomenology (Merleau-Ponty, Levinas) (...)
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  28. J. P. Sullivan (1984). Philosophizing About Sex. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 14 (1):83-96.
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  29. M. -B. Tahon (2005). Myth and Sex: Some Thoughts Around the Work of Françoise Héritier. Diogenes 52 (4):183 - 188.
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  30. J. Arthur Thomson (1895). Book Review:Man and Woman: A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters. Havelock Ellis. [REVIEW] Ethics 5 (3):386-.
  31. Luca Tommasi (2005). Evolutionary Tango: Perceptual Asymmetries as a Trick of Sexual Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):614-615.
    I suggest that a communicative context that has the potential to establish and maintain a shared advantage of behavioral lateralization should be identified in the domain of sexual selection, specifically in the interactions that individuals exploit to assess the fitness of potential mates.
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  32. Joseph Daniel Unwin (1934). Sex and Culture. London, Oxford University Press, H. Milford.
  33. Anne van Leeuwen (2010). Sexuate Difference, Ontological Difference: Between Irigaray and Heidegger. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 43 (1):111-126.
    Animating Luce Irigaray’s oeuvre are two indissociable projects: the disruption of Western metaphysics and the thinking of sexual difference. The intersection of these two projects implies that any attempt to think through the meaning and significance of Irigaray’s notoriously fraught invocation of sexual difference must take seriously the way in which this invocation is itself always already inflected by her disruptive gesture. In this paper, I will attempt to elucidate one moment of this intersection by focusing on her critical engagement (...)
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  34. C. Vidal (2005). Brain, Sex and Ideology. Diogenes 52 (4):127-133.
    Since the 19th century, and despite tremendous progress in science, the topic of 'brain and sex' remains a matter of misleading interpretations, far beyond the field of science. The media are not solely responsible for this situation. Some scientific circles still actively promote the ideology of biological determinism in their attempt to explain differences in behaviour and cognitive abilities between men and women. Experimental data from brain imaging studies, cognitive tests or the discovery of new genes are often distorted to (...)
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  35. Georgia Warnke (2001). Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex. Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    : Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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  36. Jami Weinstein (2010). A Requiem to Sexual Difference:A Response to Luciana Parisi's “Event and Evolution”. Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (s1):165-187.
  37. Guy Widdershoven, Annemie Halsema & Jenny Slatman (2010). Sex and Enhancement: A Phenomenological-Existential View. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):20-22.
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  38. Jan Wilczyński (1942). Les États Asexués Et la Sexualité au Point de Vue Biométrique (Binomien). Acta Biotheoretica 6 (3).
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  39. Christina L. Williams & Noah J. Sandstrom (1998). Parallel or Serial Processes in Sexual Differentiation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):340-341.
    We argue that estrogen feminization of the brain is the result of a series of events initiated by differential androgen exposure. There is no need to postulate a feminizing process parallel to androgen-induced masculinization to explain the findings.
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  40. Bradley E. Wilson (1998). Sociobiology, Sex, and Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 29 (1):201-210.
  41. John Wilson (1993). Sexual Differences: The Contingent & The Necessary. Journal of Applied Philosophy 10 (2):237-242.
  42. H. Winthrop (1970). The Future of Sexual Revolution. Diogenes 18 (70):57-85.
  43. Kristin Zeiler (2010). Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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The Sex/Gender Distinction
  1. Christa Davis Acampora (2003). Body Talk: Philosophical Reflections on Sex and Gender (Review). Hypatia 18 (3):212-215.
  2. Jami L. Anderson (ed.) (2003). Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice. Prentice Hall.
    This anthology of contemporary articles (and court cases provides a philosophical analysis of race, sex and gender concepts and issues. Divided into three relatively independent yet thematically linked sections, the anthology first addresses identity issues, then injustices and inequalities, and then specific social and legal issues relevant to race, sex and gender. By exposing readers to both theoretical foundations, opposing views, and "real life" applications, the anthology prepares them to make critically reasoned decisions concerning today's race, gender and sex social (...)
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  3. Ann Ferguson (1989). Blood at the Root: Motherhood, Sexuality and Male Dominance. Pandora/Unwin & Hyman.
    This is a book on feminist theory from a socialist-feminist (materialist feminist) perspective. I categorize existing paradigms of Western feminist theory in the 1980s and contrast them with my own view, which adds to a critique of capitalism inspired by Marxism another system in which male domination persists, which I call the system of "sex-affective production" (inspired but going beyond Freud, Foucault and Deleuze and Guattari). I also discuss motherhood and sexuality using my paradigm personally, politically and philosophically.
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  4. Marilyn Friedman (1996). The Unholy Alliance of Sex and Gender. Metaphilosophy 27 (1-2):78-91.
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  5. Marilyn Friedman (1991). Reclaiming the Sex/Gender Distinction. Noûs 25 (2):200-201.
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  6. Kate Ince (1996). Questions to Luce Irigaray. Hypatia 11 (2):122 - 140.
    This article traces the "dialogue" between the work of the philosophers Luce Irigaray and Emmanuel Levinas. It attempts to construct a more nuanced discussion than has been given to date of Irigaray's critique of Levinas, particularly as formulated in "Questions to Emmanuel Levinas" (Irigaray 1991). It suggests that the concepts of the feminine and of voluptuosity articulated by Levinas have more to contribute to Irigaray's project of an ethics of sexual difference than she herself sometimes appears to think.
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  7. Ludger Jansen (2009). Die Ontologie des Geschlechts. In Hella Ehlers, Beate Rudlof, Heike Trappe, Gabriele Linke & Heike Kahlert (eds.), Geschlechterdifferenz – und kein Ende? Sozial- und geisteswissenschaftliche Beiträge zur Genderforschung. LIT-Verlag. 19-39.
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