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  1. Prudence Allen Sr (1990). Descartes, The Concept of Woman and the French Revolution. Social Philosophy Today 3:61-78.
  2. Lawrie Balfour (2005). Representative Women: Slavery, Citizenship, and Feminist Theory in Du Bois's "Damnation of Women". Hypatia 20 (3):127 - 148.
    In this essay, I contend that feminist theories of citizenship in the U.S. context must go beyond simply acknowledging the importance of race and grapple explicitly with the legacies of slavery. To sketch this case, I draw upon W.E.B. Du Bois's "The Damnation of Women," which explores the significance for all Americans of African American women's sexual, economic, and political lives under slavery and in its aftermath.
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  3. Benjamin R. Barber (1988). Spirit's Phoenix and History's Owl or the Incoherence of Dialectics in Hegel's Account of Women. Political Theory 16 (1):5-28.
  4. Louise Barrett (2013). Evolution's Empress: Darwinian Perspectives on the Nature of Women. Bioscience 63 (10):831-832.
  5. Louise Barrett (2013). Sisters Are Doing It for Themselves (and Always Have). Bioscience 63 (10).
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  6. T. Boni (2010). Wounded Bodies, Recovered Bodies: Discourses Around Female Sexual Mutilations. Diogenes 57 (1):15-29.
    This study reviews various discourses around female sexual mutilation from the perspective of the human and social sciences, and also current debates between supporters of the cultural argument and those defending the universality of human rights. An aside about the Dogon myth of world order recorded by Marcel Griaule in Dieu d’eau or Aristotle’s philosophical discourse in the Reproduction of Animals is required in order to widen the debate and see its importance as regards the dignity of the human person. (...)
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  7. Nuket Ornek Buken & Serap Sahinoglu (2012). Gender, Infertitlity, Motherhood, and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Turkey. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):218-232.
    In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman’s life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender, motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized (...)
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  8. Louise Collins (2010). Autonomy and Authorship: Storytelling in Children's Picture Books. Hypatia 25 (1):174 - 195.
    Diana Tietjens Meyers and Margaret Urban Walker argue that women's autonomy is impaired by mainstream representations that offer us impovenshed resources to tell our own stories. Mainstream picture books apprentice young readers in norms of representation. Two popufor picture books about child storyteüers present competing views of a child's authority to tell his or her own story. Hence, they offer rival models of the development of autonomy: neoAiberal versus relational. Feminist critics should attend to such implicit models and the hidden (...)
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  9. Filio Diamanti (2000). The Treatment of the 'Woman Question' in Radical Utopian Political Thought. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 3 (2-3):116-139.
    (2000). The treatment of the ‘woman question’ in radical utopian political thought. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy: Vol. 3, The Philosophy of Utopia, pp. 116-139.
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  10. Julie Dinh (2012). From Voluptuous Woman to Porky Butterball: The Rise and Fall of the Voluptuous Woman Ideal. Constellations 3 (2).
    This paper examines the rise and fall of voluptuousness as a beauty ideal in mid- nineteenth century America. It argues that the rise and fall of the fuller figured woman can be traced to shifting economic, social, and medical beliefs that in turn, affected perceptions about fatness‟ relationship to class, morality, health, and beauty.
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  11. Madalena D’Oliveira-Martins (2012). The New Feminine Emotional Codes in Hochschild. Cultura 9 (1):235-247.
    For some years now, amongst contemporary Western societies (where capitalism and globalization have a great influence), the presence and developmentof a well-defined and peculiar emotional culture has become clear. The appropriate use and management of emotions, support a system of relations and codes that draw new limits between public and private life and between people and their actions. Arlie Russell Hochschild has studied the dynamics of emotions, aiming to define their distinctive languages. Interactions between the public and the individual realm (...)
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  12. Jennifer Einspahr (2013). The History of Political Thought and the Category Woman. Political Theory 41 (3):499-504.
  13. Robin Fox (1999). Defending the Young: Female Aggression, Resources, Dominance, and the Emptiness of Patriarchy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):224-225.
    Points of criticism of the target include: the extreme violence of females in defence of young despite high potential cost, the reality of female dominance striving, differences in male and female ritualization of aggression, the real existence of institutionalized female instrumental aggression, and the uselessness of “patriarchy” as defined as a category for differential analysis. It is concluded that it may in fact be the decline of patriarchy in the strict sense that leads to the female use of exculpatory explanations (...)
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  14. Jacob Hale (1996). Are Lesbians Women? Hypatia 11 (2):94 - 121.
    I argue that Monique Wittig's view that lesbians are not women neglects the complexities involved in the composition of the category "woman." I develop an articulation of the concept "woman" in the contemporary United States, with thirteen distinct defining characteristics, none of which are necessary nor sufficient. I argue that Wittig's emphasis on the material production of "woman" through the political regime of heterosexuality, however, is enormously fruitful for feminist and queer strategizing.
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  15. Nicola Lacey, From Moll Flanders to Tess of the D'Urbervilles: Women, Autonomy and Criminal Responsibility in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century England.
    In the early 18th Century, Daniel Defoe found it natural to write a novel whose heroine was a sexually adventurous, socially marginal property offender. Only half a century later, this would have been next to unthinkable. In this paper, the disappearance of Moll Flanders, and her supercession in the annals of literary female offenders by heroines like Tess of the d'Urbervilles, serves as a metaphor for fundamental changes in ideas of selfhood, gender and social order in 18th and 19th Century (...)
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  16. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2002). Gender in the Mirror: Cultural Imagery and Women's Agency. OUP USA.
    The cultural imagery of women is deeply ingrained in our consciousness. So deeply, in fact, that feminists see this as a fundamental threat to female autonomy because it enshrines procreative heterosexuality as well as the relations of domination and subordination between men and women. Diana Meyers' book is about this cultural imagery - and how, once it is internalized, it shapes perception, reflection, judgement, and desire. These intergral images have a deep impact not only on the individual psyche, but also (...)
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  17. Moshe Negbi (1995). Male and Female in Theophrastus's Botanical Works. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (2):317 - 332.
  18. Peg O'Connor (2005). Book Review: Cressida J. Heyes. Line Drawings: Defining Women Through Feminist Practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. [REVIEW] Hypatia 20 (2):194-197.
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  19. Kelly Oliver (2010). Media Representations of Women and the “Iraq War”. Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 5 (12):14-22.
    This essay examines media images of women in recent conflicts in the Middle East. From the Abu Ghraib prison abuses to protests in Iran, women have become the public face of violence, carried out and suffered. Women’s bodies are figured as sexual and violent, a potent combination that stirs public imagination and feeds into stereotypes of women as femme fatales or “bombshells.”.
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  20. Kelly Oliver (2010). Motherhood, Sexuality, and Pregnant Embodiment: Twenty-Five Years of Gestation. Hypatia 25 (4):760-777.
    My essay is framed by Hypatia's first special issue on Motherhood and Sexuality at one end, and by the most recent special issue (as of this writing) on the work of Iris Young, whose work on pregnant embodiment has become canonical, at the other. The questions driving this essay are: When we look back over the last twenty-five years, what has changed in our conceptions of pregnancy and maternity, both in feminist theory and in popular culture? What aspects of feminist (...)
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  21. Kelly Oliver (2008). Women: The Secret Weapon of Modern Warfare? Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 1-16.
    The images from wars in the Middle East that haunt us are those of young women killing and torturing. Their media circulated stories share a sense of shock. They have both galvanized and confounded debates over feminism and women's equality. And, as Oliver argues in this essay, they share, perhaps subliminally, the problematic notion of women as both offensive and defensive weapons of war, a notion that is symptomatic of fears of women's "mysterious" powers.
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  22. Linnell Secomb (1999). Beauvoir’s Minoritarian Philosophy. Hypatia 14 (4):96-113.
    : Drawing on Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's elaborations of the project of philosophy and styles of minoritarian literature, it becomes possible to reveal new dimensions in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex. In this work she uses a minoritarian philosophy, which is an accessible and collaborative mode of philosophizing, to create a concept of Woman as an incarnate-becoming. This concept overcomes the dichotomizing of transcendence and immanence, and revalues feminine existence within philosophical discourses.
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  23. Mariëlle Smith (2013). Subjectivity as Encounter: Feminine Ethics in the Work of Bracha Lichtenberg‐Ettinger and Anne Enright. Hypatia 28 (3):633-645.
    The fragility of the subject is a recurring issue in the work of Anne Enright, one of Ireland's most remarkable and innovative writers. It is this specific interest, together with her attempt to make women into subjects, that inevitably links her work to Bracha Lichtenberg-Ettinger's theory of the matrixial borderspace, a feminine sphere that coexists with the Lacanian symbolic order and that, even before our entrance into this linguistic system, informs our subjectivity. By turning to a point in time before (...)
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  24. Jonathan Wright (2011). Whores of Babylon: Catholicism, Gender and Seventeenth Century Print Culture. By Frances E. Dolan. Heythrop Journal 52 (5):870-871.
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Biological Conceptions of Womanhood
  1. Cordelia Fine (2008). Will Working Mothers' Brains Explode? The Popular New Genre of Neurosexism. Neuroethics 1 (1):69-72.
    A number of recent popular books about gender differences have drawn on the neuroscientific literature to support the claim that certain psychological differences between the sexes are ‘hard-wired’. This article highlights some of the ethical implications that arise from both factual and conceptual errors propagated by such books.
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  2. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1).
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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Womanhood as a Social Collective
  1. Christine James (2010). The Common Vernacular of Power Relations in Heavy Metal and Christian Fundamentalist Performances. In Rosemary Hill Karl Spracklen (ed.), Heavy Fundametalisms: Music, Metal and Politics. Inter-Disciplinary Press.
    Wittgenstein’s comment that what can be shown cannot be said has a special resonance with visual representations of power in both Heavy Metal and Fundamentalist Christian communities. Performances at metal shows, and performances of ‘religious theatre’, share an emphasis on violence and destruction. For example, groups like GWAR and Cannibal Corpse feature violent scenes in stage shows and album covers, scenes that depict gory results of unrestrained sexuality that are strikingly like Halloween ‘Hell House’ show presented by neo-Conservative, Fundamentalist Christian (...)
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  2. Claudia Leeb (2009). The Im-Possibility of a Feminist Subject. Social Philosophy Today 25:47-60.
    It is widely acknowledged that the notion of a stable feminist subject, which refers to the category “woman” as a shared identity for all women, has led to the exclusion of all those women who do not fit neatly into its boundaries. Against the giving up of the subject or the invoking of the feminist subject as a pragmatic strategy, as suggested by Judith Butler, this paper suggests that we need a feminist subject-in-outline for an emancipatory feminist politics. Such a (...)
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  3. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1).
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  4. Mari Mikkola (2006). Elizabeth Spelman, Gender Realism, and Women. Hypatia 21 (4):77-96.
    : Elizabeth Spelman has famously argued against gender realism (the view that women have some feature in common that makes them women). By and large, feminist philosophers have embraced Spelman's arguments and deemed gender realist positions counterproductive. To the contrary, Mikkola shows that Spelman's arguments do not in actual fact give good reason to reject gender realism in general. She then suggests a way to understand gender realism that does not have the adverse consequences feminist philosophers commonly think gender realist (...)
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Womanhood as a Political Kind
  1. Christine James (2010). The Common Vernacular of Power Relations in Heavy Metal and Christian Fundamentalist Performances. In Rosemary Hill Karl Spracklen (ed.), Heavy Fundametalisms: Music, Metal and Politics. Inter-Disciplinary Press.
    Wittgenstein’s comment that what can be shown cannot be said has a special resonance with visual representations of power in both Heavy Metal and Fundamentalist Christian communities. Performances at metal shows, and performances of ‘religious theatre’, share an emphasis on violence and destruction. For example, groups like GWAR and Cannibal Corpse feature violent scenes in stage shows and album covers, scenes that depict gory results of unrestrained sexuality that are strikingly like Halloween ‘Hell House’ show presented by neo-Conservative, Fundamentalist Christian (...)
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  2. Kate Nash (1998). Universal Difference: Feminism and the Liberal Undecidability of "Women". St. Martin's Press.
  3. Ruth Sample (2000). Locke on Political Authority and Conjugal Authority. Locke Newsletter 31:115-146.
Conceptions of Womanhood, Misc
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher (2009). Trans Identities and First-Person Authority. In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford University Press.
  2. Cordelia Fine (2008). Will Working Mothers' Brains Explode? The Popular New Genre of Neurosexism. Neuroethics 1 (1):69-72.
    A number of recent popular books about gender differences have drawn on the neuroscientific literature to support the claim that certain psychological differences between the sexes are ‘hard-wired’. This article highlights some of the ethical implications that arise from both factual and conceptual errors propagated by such books.
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  3. Tom Grimwood (2011). Hesitation and Irony in Nietzsche's “Woman and Child”. Angelaki 15 (2):115-128.
  4. Mari Mikkola, Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Feminism is the movement to end women’s oppression. One possible way to understand ‘woman’ in this claim is to take it as a sex term: ‘woman’ picks out human females and being a human female depends on various anatomical features (like genitalia). Historically many feminists have understood ‘woman’ differently: not as a sex term, but as a gender term that depends on social and cultural factors (like social position). In so doing, they distinguished sex (being female or male) from gender (...)
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  5. Prasita Mukherjee (2012). Revolutionizing Agency: Sameness and Difference in the Representation of Women by Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain and Mahasweta Devi. ARGUMENT 2 (1):117-127.
    In this paper the sameness and difference between two distinguished Indian authors, Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880–1932) and Mahasweta Devi (b. 1926), representing two generations almost a century apart, will be under analysis in order to trace the generational transformation in women’s writing in India, especially Bengal. Situated in the colonial and postcolonial frames of history, Hossain and Mahasweta Devi may be contextualized differently. At the same time their subjects are also differently categorized; the former is not particularly concerned with subalterns (...)
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  6. Lidia Wiśniewska (2012). Cleopatra – a Queen, a Lover, a Mother: Transformations of the Image. ARGUMENT 2 (1):151-169.
    Transformations are not only conditioned by facts encompassing narrower or wider panoramas: from concentrating on death and one (political) role (the ode of Horace), through recalling Cleopatra’s mature life and love (the drama of Shakespeare), to creating an image embracing the heroine’s whole life with its numerous roles, but as a mother and a daughter in the first place, because even her lovers resemble a father and a child (the fictional biography of Karen Essex). Above all, they appear to be (...)
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