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  1. Rani Lill Anjum, Because You’Ll Find Out Anyway, Your Wife is Having an Affair - If and Because.
    In an explanation ‘y because x’, because can be used to express an explanatory relation between an explanandum ‘y’ and an explanans ‘x’. But because can also be used to express the speaker’s reason for uttering ‘y’. This difference will be elucidated by connecting it with the distinction between the at-issue dimension and the speaker dimension of meaning. There are also internal relations between if and because that can help us find and analyse different uses of because, and thus also (...)
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  2. Rani Lill Anjum (2008). Three Dogmas of 'If'. In A. Leirfall & T. Sandmel (eds.), Enhet i Mangfold. Unipub.
    In this paper I argue that a truth functional account of conditional statements ‘if A then B’ not only is inadequate, but that it eliminates the very conditionality expressed by ‘if’. Focusing only on the truth-values of the statements ‘A’ and ‘B’ and different combinations of these, one is bound to miss out on the conditional relation expressed between them. But this is not a flaw only of truth functionality and the material conditional. All approaches that try to treat conditionals (...)
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  3. Rani Lill Anjum (2007). The Logic of `If' — or How to Philosophically Eliminate Conditional Relations. Sorites - A Digital Journal of Analytic Philosophy 19:51-57.
    In this paper I present some of Robert N. McLaughlin's critique of a truth functional approach to conditionals as it appears in his book On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals. Based on his criticism I argue that the basic principles of logic together amount to epistemological and metaphysical implications that can only be accepted from a logical atomist perspective. Attempts to account for conditional relations within this philosophical framework will necessarily fail. I thus argue that it is not truth functionality (...)
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  4. David Malet Armstrong (1989). C. B. Martin, Counterfactuals, Causality and Conditionals. In J. Heil (ed.), Cause, Mind and Reality; Essays Honoring C. B. Martin. Kluwer. 7-15.
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  5. Diane Barense (1988). On the Tense Structure of Conditionals. Philosophy Research Archives 14:539-566.
    When philosophers and linguists theorize about the nature of conditionals, they tend to make a number of assumptions about the linguistic structure of these sentences. For example, they almost invariably assume that conditionals have “antecedents” and “consequents” and that these have the structure of independent clauses. With a few exceptions, they assume that conditionals are categorized according to whether they are in the “indicative” or the “subjunctive” “mood”. However, rarely do they formulate criteria for identifying these moods, or for distinguishing (...)
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  6. John A. Barker (1973). Hypotheticals: Conditionals and Theticals. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (93):335-345.
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  7. John A. Barker (1969). A Formal Analysis of Conditionals. [Carbondale, Southern Illinois University].
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  8. Sigrid Beck (1997). On the Semantics of Comparative Conditionals. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (3):229-271.
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  9. Jonathan Bennett (2003). A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    Conditional sentences are among the most intriguing and puzzling features of language, and analysis of their meaning and function has important implications for, and uses in, many areas of philosophy. Jonathan Bennett, one of the world's leading experts, distils many years' work and teaching into this Philosophical Guide to Conditionals, the fullest and most authoritative treatment of the subject. An ideal introduction for undergraduates with a philosophical grounding, it also offers a rich source of illumination and stimulation for graduate students (...)
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  10. Maria Bittner, Conditional Prospects in a Tenseless Language.
    DGfS workshop on Tense across Languages, Bamberg University, Germany. [handout].
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  11. Maria Bittner, Individuals and Possibilities (3): Notes on Issues Raised by Stone & Hardt (1997).
    This is the last of three lectures on anaphoric parallels between individuals and possibilities across languages (IMS, Stuttgart, 2000).
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  12. Maria Bittner (2011). Time and Modality Without Tenses or Modals. In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across Languages. Niemeyer. 147--188.
    In English, discourse reference to time involves grammatical tenses interpreted as temporal anaphors. Recently, it has been argued that conditionals involve modal discourse anaphora expressed by a parallel grammatical system of anaphoric modals. Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues that temporal and modal anaphora can be just as precise in a language that does not have either grammatical category. Instead, temporal anaphora directly targets eventualities of verbs, without mediating tenses, while modal anaphora involves anaphoric moods and/or attitudinal verbs.
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  13. Maria Bittner (2001). Topical Referents for Individuals and Possibilities. In R. Hastings, B. Jackson & Z. Zvolensky (eds.), Proceedings from SALT XI. CLC.
    Partee (1973) noted anaphoric parallels between English tenses and pronouns. Since then these parallels have been analyzed in terms of type-neutral principles of discourse anaphora. Recently, Stone (1997) extended the anaphoric parallel to English modals. In this paper I extend the story to languages of other types. This evidence also shows that centering parallels are even more detailed than previously recognized. Based on this evidence, I propose a semantic representation language (Logic of Change with Centered Worlds), in which the observed (...)
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  14. Gunnar Björnsson (2011). Towards a Radically Pragmatic Theory of If-Conditionals. In K. P. Turner (ed.), Making Semantics Pragmatic (CRiSPI, Vol. 24). Emerald.
    It is generally agreed that constructions of the form “if P, Q” are capable of conveying a number of different relations between antecedent and consequent, with pragmatics playing a central role in determining these relations. Controversy concerns what the conventional contribution of the if-clause is, how it constrains the pragmatic processes, and what those processes are. In this essay, I begin to argue that the conventional contribution of if-clauses to semantics is exhausted by the fact that these clauses introduce a (...)
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  15. Gunnar Björnsson, Comments on Lycan's ‘Conditional-Assertion Theories of Conditionals’. Philosophical Communications.
    The overall strategy of Lycan’s paper is to distinguish three kinds of conditional assertion theories, and then to show, in order, how they are variously afflicted by a set of problems. The three kinds of theory were the Quine-Rhinelander theory (or the Simple Illocutionary theory), The Semanticized Quine-Rhinelander, and the No Truth Value theory (or NTV). This strategy offers considerable clarity, but it comes at a cost, for what I take to be the best version of a conditional assertion theory (...)
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  16. John Cantwell (2008). Changing the Modal Context. Theoria 74 (4):331-351.
    Conditionals that contain a modality in the consequent give rise to a particular semantic phenomenon whereby the antecedent of the conditional blocks possibilities when interpreting the modality in the consequent. This explains the puzzling logical behaviour of constructions like "If you don't buy a lottery ticket, you can't win", "If you eat that poison, it is unlikely that you will survive the day" and "If you kill Harry, you ought to kill him gently". In this paper it is argued that (...)
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  17. Daniel H. Cohen (1992). Book Review:If P, Then Q: Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning David H. Sanford. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 59 (2):331-.
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  18. G. Crocco, Luis Fariñas del Cerro & Andreas Herzig (eds.) (1995). Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science. Oxford University Press.
    This book looks at the ways in which conditionals, an integral part of philosophy and logic, can be of practical use in computer programming. It analyzes the different types of conditionals, including their applications and potential problems. Other topics include defeasible logics, the Ramsey test, and a unified view of consequence relation and belief revision. Its implications will be of interest to researchers in logic, philosophy, and computer science, particularly artificial intelligence.
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  19. C. B. Cross (2007). Review: Conditionals in Context. [REVIEW] Mind 116 (464):1119-1122.
    This is a review of Christopher Gauker, CONDITIONALS IN CONTEXT (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2005).
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  20. Richard Davies (1995). Lowe on Conditionals. Philosophical Quarterly 45 (181):477-486.
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  21. V. H. Dudman (1990). Grammar, Semantics and Conditionals. Analysis 50 (4):214 - 224.
    Any semantic theory is bound to presume some structure in the messages it analyses, and the success of the theory depends on getting this structure right. But discovering this structure is the business of grammar. Therefore grammar is a necessary preliminary to semantics. Semantic theories of conditionals vividly illustrate this. All presume a provably untenable ternary structure: antecedent, operator, consequent. And all can be shown committed as a result to a thoroughly unbelievable set of connections between sentences and their informational (...)
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  22. V. H. Dudman (1986). Antecedents and Consequents. Theoria 52 (3):168-199.
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  23. Dorothy Edgington (1995). On Conditionals. Mind 104 (414):235-329.
  24. Brian Ellis (1978). A Unified Theory of Conditionals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 7 (1):107 - 124.
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  25. Jonathan St B. T. Evans (2004). If. Oxford University Press.
    'IF' is one of the most important and interesting words in the English language, being used to express hypothetical thought. The use of conditionals such as 'if' also distinguishes human intelligence from that of all other animals. In this volume, Jonathan Evans and David Over present a new theoretical approach to understanding hypothetical thought. The book draws on studies from the psychology of judgement and decision making, as well as philosophical logic.
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  26. Anthony Everett (2006). Review of Christopher Gauker, Conditionals in Context. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (7).
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  27. Tim Fernando, Comic Relief for Anankastic Conditionals.
    Anankastic conditionals are analyzed in terms of events conceived as sequences of snapshots – roughly, comics. Quantification is applied not to worlds (sets of which are customarily identified with propositions) but to strings that record observations of actions. The account generalizes to other types of conditionals, sidestepping certain well-known problems that beset possible worlds treatments, such as logical omniscience and irrelevance. A refinement for anankastic conditionals is considered, incorporating action relations.
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  28. Joseph S. Fulda (2012). Austinian Ifs Revisited – And Squared Away with the Equivalence Thesis and the Theory of Conditional Elements. RASK 36:51-71.
    This paper deals with Austinian ifs of every stripe within classical logic. It is argued that they are truth-functional and the theory of conditional elements is used. Ellipsis is key. Corrects an error in Fulda (2010) in translation and therefore scope. -/- The PDF is made available gratis by the Publisher.
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  29. Joseph S. Fulda (2009). Rendering Conditionals in Mathematical Discourse with Conditional Elements. Journal of Pragmatics 41 (7):1435-1439.
    In "Material Implications" (1992), mathematical discourse was said to be different from ordinary discourse, with the discussion centering around conditionals. This paper shows how.
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  30. Joseph S. Fulda (1995). Reasoning with Imperatives Using Classical Logic. Sorites 3:7-11.
    As the journal is effectively defunct, I am uploading a full-text copy, but only of my abstract and article, and some journal front matter. -/- Note that the pagination in the PDF version differs from the official pagination because A4 and 8.5" x 11" differ. -/- Traditionally, imperatives have been handled with deontic logics, not the logic of propositions which bear truth values. Yet, an imperative is issued by the speaker to cause (stay) actions which change the state of affairs, (...)
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  31. Joseph S. Fulda (1985). Alpha Beta Pruning. SIGART Newsletter 94:26.
    Alpha-beta pruning is a technique for pruning trees in artificial intelligence game-playing. This note draws an analogy between the technique, which is, in essence, an application of many-valued logic to the cut-off of the evaluation of conditionals in computer programs (for efficiency).
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  32. Dov M. Gabbay (1972). A General Theory of the Conditional in Terms of a Ternary Operator. Theoria 38 (3):97-104.
  33. Christopher Gauker (2005). Conditionals in Context. MIT.
    "If you turn left at the next corner, you will see a blue house at the end of the street." That sentence -- a conditional -- might be true even though it is possible that you will not see a blue house at the end of the street when you turn left at the next corner. A moving van may block your view; the house may have been painted pink; a crow might swoop down and peck out your eyes. Still, (...)
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  34. Christopher Gauker (1987). Conditionals in Context. Erkenntnis 27 (3):293 - 321.
    This paper is obsolete. It is superseded by the book, Conditionals in Context, MIT Press, 2005.
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  35. Liliane Haegeman (2003). Conditional Clauses: External and Internal Syntax. Mind and Language 18 (4):317–339.
    The paper focuses on the difference between eventconditionals and premiseconditionals. An eventconditional contributes to event structure: it modifies the main clause event; a premiseconditional structures the discourse: it makes manifest a proposition that is the privileged context for the processing of the associated clause. The two types of conditional clauses will be shown to differ both in terms of their 'external syntax' and in terms of their 'internal syntax'. The peripheral structure of event conditionals will be shown to lack the (...)
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  36. Alan Hájek, Two Interpretations of Two Stoic Conditionals.
    Four different conditionals were known to the Stoics. The so-called ‘first’ (Philonian) conditional has been interpreted fairly uncontroversially as an ancient counterpart to the material conditional of modern logic; the ‘fourth’ conditional is obscure, and seemingly of little historical interest, as it was probably not held widely by any group in antiquity. The ‘second’ (Diodorean) and ‘third’ (Chrysippean) conditionals, on the other hand, pose challenging interpretive questions, raising in the process issues in philosophical logic that are as relevant today as (...)
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  37. John F. Halpin (1986). Stalnaker's Conditional and Bell's Problem. Synthese 69 (3):325 - 340.
    In his (1981) paper, Stalnaker has revised his old theory of conditionals and has given the revision an interesting defense. Indeed, Stalnaker shows that this new theory meets the standard objections put to the old. However, I argue that the revision runs into difficulties in the context of quantum mechanics: If Stalnaker's theory of the conditional is assumed, then from plausible assumptions certain Bell-like conflicts with experiment can be derived. This result, I go on to argue, is a good reason (...)
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  38. John Heil (ed.) (1989). Cause, Mind, and Reality: Essays Honoring C. B. Martin. Norwell: Kluwer.
  39. James Higginbotham (2003). Conditionals and Compositionality. Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):181–194.
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  40. Harry Ide (1992). Chrysippus's Response to Diodorus's Master Argument. History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (2):133-148.
    Chrysippus claims that some propositions perish. including some true conditionals whose consequent is impossible and antecedent is possible, to which he appeals against Diodorus?s Master Argument. On the standard interpretation. perished propositions lack truth values. and these conditionals are true at the same time as their antecedents arc possible and consequents impossible. But perished propositions are false, and Chrysippus?s conditionals are true when their antecedent and consequent arc possible, and false when their antecedent is possible and consequent impossible. The claim (...)
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  41. Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (2008). The Logical Vs. The Ontological Understanding of Conditions. Metaphysica 9 (2):129-137.
    According to the truth-functional analysis of conditions, to be ‘necessary for’ and ‘sufficient for’ are converse relations. From this, it follows that to be ‘necessary and sufficient for’ is a symmetric relation, that is, that if P is a necessary and sufficient condition for Q, then Q is a necessary and sufficient condition for P. This view is contrary to common sense. In this paper, I point out that it is also contrary to a widely accepted ontological view of conditions, (...)
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  42. Frank Jackson (1998). Mind, Method, and Conditionals: Selected Essays. Routledge.
    This collection brings together some of Frank Jackson's most influential essays on mind, action, conditionals, method in metaphysics, and ethics. These have each been revised for this edition, and are presented along with his challenge to orthodoxy on the new riddle of induction.
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  43. Frank Jackson (ed.) (1991). Conditionals. Oxford University Press.
    This collection introduces the reader to some of the most interesting current work on conditionals. Particular attention is paid to possible world semantics for conditionals, the role of conditional probability in helping us to understand conditionals, implicature and the material conditional, and subjunctive versus indicative conditionals. Contributors include V.H. Dudman, Dorothy Edgington, Nelson Goodman, H.P. Grice, David Lewis, and Robert Stalnaker.
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  44. E. Keshet (2013). Focus on Conditional Conjunction. Journal of Semantics 30 (2):211-256.
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  45. Simo Knuuttila & Taina Holopainen (1993). Conditional Will and Conditional Norms in Medieval Thought. Synthese 96 (1):115 - 132.
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  46. Angelika Kratzer (1979). Conditional Necessity and Possibility. In. In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds.), Semantics From Different Points of View. Springer-Verlag. 117--147.
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  47. Frederick Kroon (2010). Mind, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (2):367 - 370.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 89, Issue 2, Page 367-370, June 2011.
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  48. Peter Lasersohn (1996). Adnominal Conditionals. In T. Galloway & J. Spence (eds.), Papers from Semantics and Linguistic Theory VI. CLC Publications.
    Argues that certain conditional clauses are irreducibly adnominal, so that 'if' cannot be treated purely as a sentential connective. A unified analysis of adnominal if-clauses and ordinary if-clauses is possible, however, if we assume a semantic theory in which sentences denote sets of events rather than truth values.
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  49. Brian Leahy, A Teleosemantic Theory of Mental Conditionals.
    The purposes of this paper are first, to develop clearly the problem of mental conditionals for Millikan’s theory; second, to show why existing approaches to conditional semantics face serious challenges from a teleosemantic perspective; and third, to offer an account of the function of mental conditionals that meets the requirements of Millikan’s theory. We end up not only with a solution to a standing problem for teleosemantics, but also with a novel avenue for research in conditional semantics.
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  50. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2008). 'If', 'Unless', and Quantification. In R. Stainton & C. Viger (eds.), Compositionality, Context, and Semantic Values.
    Higginbotham (1986) argues that conditionals embedded under quantifiers (as in ‘no student will succeed if they goof off’) constitute a counterexample to the thesis that natural language is semantically compositional. More recently, Higginbotham (2003) and von Fintel and Iatridou (2002) have suggested that compositionality can be upheld, but only if we assume the validity of the principle of Conditional Excluded Middle. I argue that these authors’ proposals (...)
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