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  1. Brad Abernethy (1987). Glymour on Bootstrap Confirmation of Ptolemaic Theory. Philosophy of Science 54 (3):473-479.
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  2. Peter Achinstein (1997). On Evidence: A Reply to McGrew. Analysis 57 (1):81–83.
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  3. Peter Achinstein (1992). The Evidence Against Kronz. Philosophical Studies 67 (2):169-175.
  4. Robert Ackermann (1969). Sortal Predicates and Confirmation. Philosophical Studies 20 (1-2):1 - 4.
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  5. Jonathan E. Adler (1990). Conservatism and Tacit Confirmation. Mind 99 (396):559-570.
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  6. Ken Akiba (2000). Shogenji's Probabilistic Measure of Coherence is Incoherent. Analysis 60 (4):356–359.
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  7. H. G. Alexander (1959). The Paradoxes of Confirmation--A Reply to Dr Agassi. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (39):229-234.
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  8. H. G. Alexander (1958). The Paradoxes of Confirmation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (35):227-233.
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  9. H. G. Alexander (1956). DUHEM, P. -The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. [REVIEW] Mind 65:572.
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  10. Staffan Angere (2008). Coherence as a Heuristic. Mind 117 (465):1-26.
    The impossibility results of Bovens and Hartmann (2003) and Olsson (2005) call into question the strength of the connection between coherence and truth. As part of the inquiry into this alleged link, I define a notion of degree of truth-conduciveness, relevant for measuring the usefulness of coherence measures as rules-of-thumb for assigning probabilities in situations of partial knowledge. I use the concept to compare the viability of some of the measures of coherence that have been suggested so far under different (...)
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  11. Staffan Angere (2007). The Defeasible Nature of Coherentist Justification. Synthese 157 (3):321 - 335.
    The impossibility results of Bovens and Hartmann (2003, Bayesian epistemology. Oxford: Clarendon Press) and Olsson (2005, Against coherence: Truth, probability and justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.) show that the link between coherence and probability is not as strong as some have supposed. This paper is an attempt to bring out a way in which coherence reasoning nevertheless can be justified, based on the idea that, even if it does not provide an infallible guide to probability, it can give us an (...)
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  12. Michael Aristidou (2013). Irrationality Re-Examined: A Few Comments on the Conjunction Fallacy. Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):329-336.
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  13. G. Arnold (2001). Kluge. Systematic Biology 50 (3):322-330.
    Sir Karl Popper is well known for explicating science in falsificationist terms, for which his degree of corroboration formalism, C(h,e,b), has become little more than a symbol. For example, de Queiroz and Poe in this issue argue that C(h,e,b) reduces to a single relative (conditional) probability, p(e,hb), the likelihood of evidence e, given both hypothesis h and background knowledge b, and in reaching that conclusion, without stating or expressing it, they render Popper a verificationist. The contradiction they impose is easily (...)
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  14. David Atkinson (2012). Confirmation and Justification. A Commentary on Shogenji's Measure. Synthese 184 (1):49-61.
    So far no known measure of confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence has satisfied a minimal requirement concerning thresholds of acceptance. In contrast, Shogenji’s new measure of justification (Shogenji, Synthese, this number 2009) does the trick. As we show, it is ordinally equivalent to the most general measure which satisfies this requirement. We further demonstrate that this general measure resolves the problem of the irrelevant conjunction. Finally, we spell out some implications of the general measure for the Conjunction Effect; in (...)
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  15. David Atkinson, Jeanne Peijnenburg & Theo Kuipers, How to Confirm the Disconfirmed. On Conjunction Fallacies and Robust Confirmation.
    Can some evidence confirm a conjunction of two hypotheses more than it confirms either of the hypotheses separately? We show that it can, moreover under conditions that are the same for nine different measures of confirmation. Further we demonstrate that it is even possible for the conjunction of two disconfirmed hypotheses to be confirmed by the same evidence.
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  16. R. H. Austin (1967). Uranus Observed. British Journal for the History of Science 3 (3):275-284.
    One of the difficulties with which scientific endeavour is fraught is that of maintaining detachment. The scientist's interest in his work will lead him to formulate hypotheses and the hypotheses will lead him to expectations about future observations. Is disinterested investigation then possible? Surely the very formulation of a hypothesis engenders a paternal affection and a desire to preserve it. Knowing this, however, the scientist is able to guard against his expectations influencing his observations, defending thus both his objectivity and (...)
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  17. Thomas Michael Avery (1995). The Duhem-Popper-Quine Thesis. Dissertation, City University of New York
    In this dissertation I examine critically the scientific holism of Pierre Duhem, Karl Popper and W. V. Quine. I contend that there is a central thesis, which I have dubbed the "Duhem-Popper-Quine thesis," that is common to the work of these three authors but that in each author's work it is reflected differently. ;Duhem's holism was rather sweeping--he contended that no isolated hypothesis can be refuted by the results of experiment--but also rather restricted, being limited to physical science. I argue (...)
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  18. Patricia Baillie (1973). Confirmation and the Dutch Book Argument. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (4):393-397.
  19. Patricia Baillie (1971). Confirmation and Probability: A Reply to Settle. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):285-286.
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  20. Davis Baird (1984). Tests of Significance Violate the Rule of Implication. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:81 - 92.
    The rule of implication, (+) If hypothesis H implies hypothesis I, then evidence sufficient to warrant the rejection of I, in turn warrants the rejection of H, is a very plausible principle of inductive inference. It is shown that significance tests violate this principle. Two ways to account for this violation are considered; neither account is fully satisfactory. First, a distinction might be made between the absolute degree of confirmation and the change in the degree of confirmation due to a (...)
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  21. Sorin Bangu (2006). Underdetermination and the Argument From Indirect Confirmation. Ratio 19 (3):269–277.
    In this paper I criticize one of the most convincing recent attempts to resist the underdetermination thesis, Laudan’s argument from indirect confirmation. Laudan highlights and rejects a tacit assumption of the underdetermination theorist, namely that theories can be confirmed only by empirical evidence that follows from them. He shows that once we accept that theories can also be confirmed indirectly, by evidence not entailed by them, the skeptical conclusion does not follow. I agree that Laudan is right to reject this (...)
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  22. Jerusalem Bar-Hillel (1955). Comments on `Degree of Confirmation' by Professor K. R. Popper. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 6 (22):155.
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  23. Y. Bar-hillel (1956). Content and Degreb of Confirmation: Further Comments on Probability and Confirmation a Rejoinder to Professor Popper. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (27):245-248.
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  24. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1956). Further Comments on Probability and Confirmation: A Rejoinder to Professor Popper. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (27):245-248.
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  25. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1955). Comments on 'Degree of Confirmation' by Professor K. R. Popper. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 6 (22):155-157.
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  26. Thomas Bartelborth (2004). Wofür Sprechen Die Daten? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 35 (1):13-40.
    What Do the Data Tell Us? Justification of scientific theories is a three-place relation between data, theories, and background knowledge. Though this should be a commonplace, many methodologies in science neglect it. The article will elucidate the significance and function of our background knowledge in epistemic justification and their consequences for different scientific methodologies. It is argued that there is no simple and at the same time acceptable statistical algorithm that justifies a given theory merely on the basis of certain (...)
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  27. M. S. Bartlett (1949). Probability in Logic, Mathematics and Science. Dialectica 3 (1‐2):104-113.
    Historically the emergence of a precise technical meaning for probability, as distinct from its vague popular useage, has taken time; and confusion still arises from the concept of probability having different meanings in different flelds of discourse. Its technical meaning and appropriate rules are surveyed in the flelds of logic , mathematics , and science , and the relation between these three aspects of probability theory discussed. ‐. M. S. B.
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  28. Diderik Batens (1971). The Paradoxes of Confirmation. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 25 (95/96):101-117.
    A distinction is made between the internal paradox (inconsistency of our intuitions) and the external one (no explicatum captures all our intuitions). seemingly counterintuitive aspects of carnap's inductive logic (external paradox) are shown to be sound. considering the purpose of formulating an hypothesis, and its intended competitors, it is explained why nicod's criterion seems plausible (internal paradox). incidentally baumer's theory (bjps, 15) is proved to violate the equivalence condition.
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  29. William H. Baumer (1968). Confirmation Still Without Paradoxes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):57-63.
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  30. William H. Baumer (1964). Confirmation Without Paradoxes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15 (59):177-195.
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  31. Charles A. Baylis (1952). The Confirmation of Value Judgments. Philosophical Review 61 (1):50-58.
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  32. Michael Beaney (1999). Presuppositions and the Paradoxes of Confirmation. Disputatio:28-34.
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  33. Laura Jane Bennett, Realism and Evidence in the Philosophy of Mind.
    This thesis evaluates a variety of important modern approaches to the study of the mind/brain in the light of recent developments in the debate about how evidence should be used to support a theory and its constituent hypotheses. Although all these approaches are ostensibly based upon the principles of scientific realism, this evaluation will demonstrate that all of them fall well short of these requirements. Consequently, the more modern, co-evolutionary theories of the mind/brain do not constitute the significant advance upon (...)
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  34. N. Bonini, K. Tentori & D. Osherson (forthcoming). A New Conjunction Fallacy. Mind and Language.
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  35. Darren Bradley & Branden Fitelson (2003). Monty Hall, Doomsday and Confirmation. Analysis 63 (277):23–31.
    We give an analysis of the Monty Hall problem purely in terms of confirmation, without making any lottery assumptions about priors. Along the way, we show the Monty Hall problem is structurally identical to the Doomsday Argument.
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  36. Darren Bradley & Branden Fitelson (2003). Monty Hall, Doomsday and Confirmation. Analysis 63 (1):23-31.
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  37. Gerry Curtis Bridgeman (2001). Practical Reasoning Through Coherent Goal Specification. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
    In this work, I try to further specify what practical coherence should amount to. Any account of practical reasoning ought to be able to say something about how we ought to go about specifying our goals. One possibility is coherence theory. But coherence theory as it is normally conceived cannot be sufficient for rationality. Practical reasoning, which takes place over time, poses special difficulties for the coherence theorist. There is a danger that unless coherence theory has some element of stability (...)
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  38. Ingo Brigandt (2011). Critical Notice of Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science by Elliott Sober, Cambridge University of Press, 2008. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):159–186.
    This essay discusses Elliott Sober’s Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science. Valuable to both philosophers and biologists, Sober analyzes the testing of different kinds of evolutionary hypotheses about natural selection or phylogenetic history, including a thorough critique of intelligent design. Not at least because of a discussion of different schools of hypothesis testing (Bayesianism, likelihoodism, and frequentism), with Sober favoring a pluralism where different inference methods are appropriate in different empirical contexts, the book has lessons for philosophy of (...)
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  39. Ingo Brigandt (2010). Scientific Reasoning Is Material Inference: Combining Confirmation, Discovery, and Explanation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):31-43.
    Whereas an inference (deductive as well as inductive) is usually viewed as being valid in virtue of its argument form, the present paper argues that scientific reasoning is material inference, i.e., justified in virtue of its content. A material inference is licensed by the empirical content embodied in the concepts contained in the premises and conclusion. Understanding scientific reasoning as material inference has the advantage of combining different aspects of scientific reasoning, such as confirmation, discovery, and explanation. This approach explains (...)
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  40. Baruch Brody (1974). More Confirmation and Explanation. Philosophical Studies 26 (1):73 - 75.
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  41. Peter Brössel (2008). Theory Assessment and Coherence. Abstracta 4 (1):57-71.
    One of the most important questions in epistemology and the philosophy of science is: what is a good theory and when is a theory better than another theory, given some observational data? The coherentist‟s answer would be the following twofold conjecture: (i) A theory is a good theory given some observational data iff that theory coheres with the observational data and (ii) a theory is better than another theory given some observational data iff the first theory coheres more with the (...)
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  42. Matthew J. Brown (2014). Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidential considerations over values is (...)
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  43. David J. Buller (1993). Confirmation and the Computational Paradigm, or, Why Do You Think They Call It Artificial Intelligence? [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 3 (2):155-81.
    The idea that human cognitive capacities are explainable by computational models is often conjoined with the idea that, while the states postulated by such models are in fact realized by brain states, there are no type-type correlations between the states postulated by computational models and brain states (a corollary of token physicalism). I argue that these ideas are not jointly tenable. I discuss the kinds of empirical evidence available to cognitive scientists for (dis)confirming computational models of cognition and argue that (...)
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  44. Richard M. Burian (1992). Book Review:The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory Elisabeth A. Lloyd. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 59 (1):153-.
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  45. R. Butts (1999). Hypothetico-Deductive Method. In Robert Audi (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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  46. Richmond Campbell (1990). Book Review:Fact and Method: Explanation, Confirmation, and Reality in the Natural and Social Sciences. Richard W. Miller. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (4):897-.
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  47. Rudolf Carmap (1956). Content and Degreb of Confirmation: Remarks on Popper's Note on Content and Degree of Confirmation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (27):243-244.
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  48. Rudolf Carnap (1956). Remarks on Popper's Note on Content and Degree of Confirmation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7 (27):243-244.
  49. Rudolf Carnap (1949). Truth and Confirmation. In Harry Fiegl & Wilfred Sellars (eds.), Readings in Philosophical Analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 119--127.
  50. Christopher D. Carroll, Patricia W. Cheng & Hongjing Lu (2010). Uncertainty in Causal Inference: The Case of Retrospective Revaluation. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
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