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Summary This section focuses on philosophy of conscious and nonconscious memory. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is flooding of data on the brain areas involved in the processing of aspects of conscious and nonconscious memory. These data could be used as an excellent base to formulate neural underpinnings of conscious experience. These data therefore can be used to initiate conversation between neuroscientists and philosophers. This conversation will help neuroscientists to expand their horrizon and design experiemnts that transcends biases in their scientific inquiries. It should also help philosophers propose novel ideas based on experimental data. Thus this section is intended to be a forum for formulation of novel pespective both in neuroscience and philosophy research.
Key works The relationship between neuroscience of memory and philosophy of human cognitiion has intrigued a number of cognitive scientists. A collection of articles of some of them can be found in Tulving 2000. For a relatively recent discussion Gifford 2011 is a good reading. Additional intersting work that make a connection between neurocience of memory and philosophical underpinnings of human congnition include: Schacter 1990, Schacter 1989, Badgaiyan 2005 and Badgaiyan 2012 Kihlstrom 1993 Moscovitch 1995 Moscovitch 1992
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  1. A. R. Aitkenhead (1993). Conscious Awareness. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
  2. Daniel O. Aleshire (2010). Connecting, Learning, and Working. Colloquy 18 (2).
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  3. Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger (1999). The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed as a consequence of (...)
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  4. Arthur S. Reber Rhianon Allen (2000). Individual Differences in Implicit Learning Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness. In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: J Benjamins. 227.
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  5. Esterson Allen & J. Ceci Stephen (2006). Freud Did Not Anticipate Modern Reconstructive Memory Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5).
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  6. J. Allik (2000). Available and Accessible Information in Memory and Vision. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  7. D. A. Allport (1979). Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Computational Metaphor for the Mechanism of Attention and Integration. In L. Nilsson (ed.), Perspectives on Memory Research. 61--89.
  8. Susan L. Ames, Ingmar Ha Franken & Kate Coronges (2006). Implicit Cognition and Drugs of Abuse. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltd.
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  9. Md Anderson & Pa Hornby (1990). Effects of Task Characteristics on Memory Strategy and Performance in College-Students. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):493-493.
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  10. Nicole D. Anderson & Fregus Im Craik (2000). Memory in the Aging Brain. In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.
  11. Richard C. Anderson (1971). Encoding Processes in the Storage and Retrieval of Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):338.
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  12. Jackie Andrade (2001). The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience. In Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press. 60-78.
  13. Jackie Andrade (1997). Investigations of Hypesthesia: Using Anesthetics to Explore Relationships Between Consciousness, Learning, and Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):562-80.
    This paper discusses the ways in which anesthetic agents can be used to investigate the role of awareness in learning and memory. It reviews research into learning during light, subclinical anesthesia, termedhypesthesia.This research suggests that the effects of anesthetics on implicit and explicit memory are roughly comparable, although implicit memory for simple stimuli may resist the effects of very low doses of anesthetic. In addition, this paper reports experimental data demonstrating that long-term retention of information is prevented by doses of (...)
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  14. N. Andreasen (2000). Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of Memory or Consciousness? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  15. Moshe Anisfeld & Margaret Knapp (1968). Association, Synonymity, and Directionality in False Recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):171.
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  16. Anonymous (1969). Memory During Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):52.
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  17. Linda J. Anooshian (1989). Effects of Attentive Encoding on Analytic and Nonanalytic Processing in Implicit and Explicit Retrieval Tasks. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (1):5-8.
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  18. Lj Anooshian (1990). Generalization of Implicit Memory to Same-Name Pictures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):488-488.
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  19. Hal R. Arkes & Philip E. Tetlock (2004). Attributions of Implicit Prejudice, or" Would Jesse Jackson'Fail'the Implicit Association Test?", 15 Psychol. Inquiry 257:275.
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  20. Magda B. Arnold (1984). Memory and the Brain. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  21. Arnoud Arntz, Corlijn de Groot & Merel Kindt (2005). Emotional Memory is Perceptual. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 36:19-34.
    In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two versions, a neutral version, or a version with an emotional mid-phase. In week 2, memory performance for the slides and story (...)
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  22. Mark H. Ashcraft & Elizabeth P. Kirk (2001). The Relationships Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (2):224.
  23. Luis M. Augusto (2010). Unconscious Knowledge: A Survey. Advances in Cognitive Psychology 6:116-141.
    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge (...)
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  24. Lee Averell & Andrew Heathcote (2009). Long Term Implicit and Explicit Memory for Briefly Studied Words. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 978--0.
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  25. Badgaiyan RD Conscious Awareness & the Brain processingElements (2005). .
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  26. H. B., R. D. & J. M. (2003). Part-List Reexposure and Release of Retrieval Inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):354-375.
    In list-method directed forgetting, reexposure to forgotten List 1 items has been shown to reduce directed forgetting. proposed that reexposure to a few List 1 items only during a direct test of memory reinstates the entire List 1 episode. In the present experiments, part-list reexposure in the context of indirect as well as direct memory tests reduced directed forgetting. Directed forgetting was reduced when 50% or more of the items were reexposed, and was intact when only 25% were reexposed. Furthermore, (...)
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  27. Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--11.
  28. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  29. Bernard J. Baars (2001). A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
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  30. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
    When “divided attention” methods were discovered in the 1950s their implications for conscious experience were not widely appreciated. Yet when people process competing streams of sensory input they show both selective processesandclear contrasts between conscious and unconscious events. This paper suggests that the term “attention” may be best applied to theselection and maintenanceof conscious contents and distinguished from consciousness itself. This is consistent with common usage. The operational criteria for selective attention, defined in this way, are entirely different from those (...)
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  31. Bernard J. Baars (1987). What is Conscious in the Control of Action? A Modern Ideomotor Theory of Voluntary Action. In D. Gorfein & Robert R. Hoffman (eds.), Learning and Memory: The Ebbinghaus Centennial Symposium. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  32. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  33. Mary J. Bach (1974). Implicit Response Frequency and Recognition Memory Over Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):675.
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  34. A. Baddeley (2000). The Episodic Buffer: A New Component of Working Memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (11):417-423.
  35. A. BAddeley (1992). Consciousness and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 1 (1):3-6.
  36. A. D. Baddeley (1993). Working Memory and Conscious Awareness. In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  37. A. D. Baddeley (1992). Implicit Memory and Errorless Learning: A Link Between Cognitive Theory and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press. 2--309.
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  38. A. D. Baddeley, D. L. Schacter & E. Tulving (1994). Memory Systems. In Memory Systems. Mit Press.
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  39. Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.) (2002). Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.
    The term 'episodic memory' refers to our memory for unique, personal experiences, that we can date at some point in our past - our first day at school, the day we got married. It has again become a topic of great importance and interest to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers. How are such memories stored in the brain, why do certain memories disappear (especially those from early in childhood), what causes false memories (memories of events we erroneously believe have really taken (...)
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  40. R. D. Badgaiyan, D. L. Schacter & Alpert NM Retrieval of Relational Information: A. Role for the Left Inferior Prefrontal cortexNeuroimage (2002). (1).
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  41. R. D. Badgaiyan, D. L. Schacter & Alpert NM Priming of New Associations: A. PET studyNeuroreport (2003). (18).
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  42. R. D. Badgaiyan, D. L. Schacter, Alpert NM Priming Within, Across Modalities: Exploring the Nature of rCBF Increases & DecreasesNeuroimage (2001). (2).
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  43. Rajendra D. Badgaiyan (2009). Theory of Mind and Schizophrenia☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):320-322.
    A number of cognitive and behavioral variables influence the performance in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). Since two of the most important variables, memory and explicit expression, are impaired in schizophrenic patients, the ToM appears inconsistent in these patients. An ideal instrument of ToM should therefore account for deficient memory and impaired ability of these patients to explicitly express intentions. If such an instrument is developed, it should provide information that can be used not only to understand the pathophysiology (...)
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  44. Rajendra D. Badgaiyan (2005). Conscious Awareness of Retrieval: An Exploration of the Cortical Connectivity. International Journal of Psychophysiology 55 (2):257-262.
    A review of the patterns of brain activation observed in implicit and explicit memory tasks indicates that during conscious retrieval studied items are first retrieved nonconsciously and are retained in a buffer at the extrastriate cortex. It also indicates that the awareness of the retrieved item is made possible by the activation of a reentrant signaling loop between the extrastriate and left prefrontal cortices.
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  45. Harry P. Bahrick (1989). The Laboratory and Ecology: Supplementary Sources of Data for Memory Research. In L. Poon, David C. Rubin & B. Wilson (eds.), Everyday Cognition in Adulthood and Late Life. Cambridge University Press. 73--83.
  46. Daniel J. Bain, Mark B. Green, John L. Campbell, John F. Chamblee, Sayo Chaoka, Jennifer M. Fraterrigo, Sujay S. Kaushal, Sherry L. Martin, Thomas E. Jordan & Anthony J. Parolari (2012). Legacy Effects in Material Flux: Structural Catchment Changes Predate Long-Term Studies. BioScience 62 (6):575-584.
  47. Raymond Baird (1974). Recall of Embedded Sentences: Perceptual or Performance Deficit? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 3 (1):36-38.
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  48. E. R. Balken (1933). Affective, Volitional and Galvanic Factors in Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (1):115.
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  49. N. BallardiNi, J. Yamashita & W. Wallace (2008). Presentation Duration and False Recall for Semantic and Phonological Associates. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):64-71.
    Two experiments examined false recall for lists of semantically and phonologically associated words as a function of presentation duration. Veridical recall increased with long exposure durations for all lists. For semantically associated lists, false recall increased from 20–250 ms, then decreased. There was a high level of false recall with 20 ms durations for phonologically associated lists , which declined as duration increased. In Experiment 2, for lists presented at 20 and 50 ms rates, false recall given zero correct recall (...)
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  50. Mahzarin R. Banaji & R. Bhaskar (2000). Implicit Stereotypes and Memory: The Bounded Rationality of Social Beliefs. In Daniel L. Schacter & Elaine Scarry (eds.), Memory, Brain, and Belief. Harvard Univ Pr. 139--175.
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