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Summary This section focuses on philosophy of conscious and nonconscious memory. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is flooding of data on the brain areas involved in the processing of aspects of conscious and nonconscious memory. These data could be used as an excellent base to formulate neural underpinnings of conscious experience. These data therefore can be used to initiate conversation between neuroscientists and philosophers. This conversation will help neuroscientists to expand their horrizon and design experiemnts that transcends biases in their scientific inquiries. It should also help philosophers propose novel ideas based on experimental data. Thus this section is intended to be a forum for formulation of novel pespective both in neuroscience and philosophy research.
Key works The relationship between neuroscience of memory and philosophy of human cognitiion has intrigued a number of cognitive scientists. A collection of articles of some of them can be found in Tulving 2000. For a relatively recent discussion Gifford 2011 is a good reading. Additional intersting work that make a connection between neurocience of memory and philosophical underpinnings of human congnition include: Schacter 1990, Schacter 1989, Badgaiyan 2005 and Badgaiyan 2012 Kihlstrom 1993 Moscovitch 1995 Moscovitch 1992
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  1. A. R. Aitkenhead (1993). Conscious Awareness. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
  2. Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger (1999). The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed as a consequence of (...)
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  3. J. Allik (2000). Available and Accessible Information in Memory and Vision. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  4. D. A. Allport (1979). Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Computational Metaphor for the Mechanism of Attention and Integration. In L. Nilsson (ed.), Perspectives on Memory Research. 61--89.
  5. Jackie Andrade (2001). The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience. In , Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press. 60-78.
  6. Jackie Andrade (1997). Investigations of Hypesthesia: Using Anesthetics to Explore Relationships Between Consciousness, Learning, and Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):562-80.
  7. N. Andreasen (2000). Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of Memory or Consciousness? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  8. Luis M. Augusto (2010). Unconscious Knowledge: A Survey. Advances in Cognitive Psychology 6:116-141.
    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge (...)
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  9. Lee Averell & Andrew Heathcote (2009). Long Term Implicit and Explicit Memory for Briefly Studied Words. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 978--0.
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  10. H. B., R. D. & J. M. (2003). Part-List Reexposure and Release of Retrieval Inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):354-375.
    In list-method directed forgetting, reexposure to forgotten List 1 items has been shown to reduce directed forgetting. proposed that reexposure to a few List 1 items only during a direct test of memory reinstates the entire List 1 episode. In the present experiments, part-list reexposure in the context of indirect as well as direct memory tests reduced directed forgetting. Directed forgetting was reduced when 50% or more of the items were reexposed, and was intact when only 25% were reexposed. Furthermore, (...)
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  11. Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--11.
  12. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  13. Bernard J. Baars (2001). A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
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  14. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
  15. Bernard J. Baars (1987). What is Conscious in the Control of Action? A Modern Ideomotor Theory of Voluntary Action. In D. Gorfein & Robert R. Hoffman (eds.), Learning and Memory: The Ebbinghaus Centennial Symposium. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  16. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  17. A. BAddeley (1992). Consciousness and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 1 (1):3-6.
  18. A. D. Baddeley (1993). Working Memory and Conscious Awareness. In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  19. Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.) (2002). Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.
    The term 'episodic memory' refers to our memory for unique, personal experiences, that we can date at some point in our past - our first day at school, the day we got married. It has again become a topic of great importance and interest to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers. How are such memories stored in the brain, why do certain memories disappear (especially those from early in childhood), what causes false memories (memories of events we erroneously believe have really taken (...)
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  20. Rajendra D. Badgaiyan (2009). Theory of Mind and Schizophrenia☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):320-322.
    A number of cognitive and behavioral variables influence the performance in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). Since two of the most important variables, memory and explicit expression, are impaired in schizophrenic patients, the ToM appears inconsistent in these patients. An ideal instrument of ToM should therefore account for deficient memory and impaired ability of these patients to explicitly express intentions. If such an instrument is developed, it should provide information that can be used not only to understand the pathophysiology (...)
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  21. Rajendra D. Badgaiyan (2005). Conscious Awareness of Retrieval: An Exploration of the Cortical Connectivity. International Journal of Psychophysiology 55 (2):257-262.
    A review of the patterns of brain activation observed in implicit and explicit memory tasks indicates that during conscious retrieval studied items are first retrieved nonconsciously and are retained in a buffer at the extrastriate cortex. It also indicates that the awareness of the retrieved item is made possible by the activation of a reentrant signaling loop between the extrastriate and left prefrontal cortices.
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  22. N. BallardiNi, J. Yamashita & W. Wallace (2008). Presentation Duration and False Recall for Semantic and Phonological Associates. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):64-71.
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  23. William P. Banks (1996). Introduction: Implicit Memory, Part 2. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):1-.
  24. Zoltán Bánréti (1999). Interfaces in Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):96-96.
    A distinction between interpretive processing and post-interpretive processing calls for a consideration of interface relations in systems of verbal memory. Syntactic movement of a phrase and the cognitive system of thought/mind interact. Systems of declarative memory and procedural memory interact.
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  25. Moshe Bar (2000). Conscious and Nonconscious Processing of Visual Object Identity. In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.
  26. G. Barba (2000). Memory, Consciousness, and Temporality: What is Retrieved and Who Exactly is Controlling the Retrieval? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  27. John A. Bargh (2005). Bypassing the Will: Toward Demystifying the Nonconscious Control of Social Behavior. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. 37-58.
  28. Amanda Barnier & John Sutton (2008). From Individual Memory to Collective Memory: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Memory 16 (3):177-182.
    Very often our memories of the past are of experiences or events we shared with others. And ‘‘in many circumstances in society, remembering is a social event’’ (Roediger, Bergman, & Meade, 2000, p. 129): parents and children reminisce about significant family events, friends discuss a movie they just saw together, students study for exams with their roommates, colleagues remind one another of information relevant to an important group decision, and complete strangers discuss a crime they happened to witness together. Psychology (...)
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  29. Lisa Feldman Barrett, Paula M. Niedenthal & Piotr Winkielman (eds.) (2005). Emotion and Consciousness. Guilford Press.
    Presenting state-of-the-art work on the conscious and unconscious processes involved in emotion, this integrative volume brings together leading psychologists, ...
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  30. Catherine Barsics & Serge Brédart (2011). Recalling Episodic Information About Personally Known Faces and Voices. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):303-308.
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  31. B. H. Basden, D. R. Basden & M. J. Wright (2003). Part-List Reexposure and Release of Retrieval Inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):354-375.
    In list-method directed forgetting, reexposure to forgotten List 1 items has been shown to reduce directed forgetting. proposed that reexposure to a few List 1 items only during a direct test of memory reinstates the entire List 1 episode. In the present experiments, part-list reexposure in the context of indirect as well as direct memory tests reduced directed forgetting. Directed forgetting was reduced when 50% or more of the items were reexposed, and was intact when only 25% were reexposed. Furthermore, (...)
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  32. Kathy Behrendt (2010). Scraping Down the Past: Memory and Amnesia in W. G. Sebald's Anti-Narrative. Philosophy and Literature 34 (2):394-408.
    Vanguard anti-narrativist Galen Strawson declares personal memory unimportant for self-constitution. But what if lapses of personal memory are sustained by a morally reprehensible amnesia about historical events, as happens in the work of W.G. Sebald? The importance of memory cannot be downplayed in such cases. Nevertheless, contrary to expectations, a concern for memory needn’t ally one with the narrativist position. Recovery of historical and personal memory results in self-dissolution and not self-unity or understanding in Sebald’s characters. In the end, Sebald (...)
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  33. John Beloff (1980). Is Normal Memory a Paranormal Phenomenon? Theoria to Theory 14 (September):145-162.
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  34. Henri Bergson (1991/2004). Matter and Memory. MIT Press.
    A monumental work by an important modern philosopher, Matter and Memory (1896) represents one of the great inquiries into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Nobel Prize-winner Henri Bergson surveys these independent but related spheres, exploring the connection of mind and body to individual freedom of choice. Bergson’s efforts to reconcile the facts of biology to a theory of consciousness offered a challenge to the mechanistic view of nature, and his original and innovative views exercised a profound (...)
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  35. Zara M. Bergström, Max Velmans, Jan de Fockert & Alan Richardson-Klavehn (2007). ERP Evidence for Successful Voluntary Avoidance of Conscious Recollection. Brain Research 1151:119-133.
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  36. Christopher J. Berry, David R. Shanks & Richard N. A. Henson (2008). A Unitary Signal-Detection Model of Implicit and Explicit Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (10):367-373.
    Do dissociations imply independent systems? In the memory field, the view that there are independent implicit and explicit memory systems has been predominantly supported by dissociation evidence. Here, we argue that many of these dissociations do not necessarily imply distinct memory systems. We review recent work with a single-system computational model that extends signal-detection theory (SDT) to implicit memory. SDT has had a major influence on research in a variety of domains. The current work shows that it can be broadened (...)
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  37. Christopher J. Berry, David R. Shanks & Richard N. A. Henson (2008). A Unitary Signal-Detection Model of Implicit and Explicit Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (10):367-373.
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  38. Christopher J. Berry, David R. Shanks & Richard N. A. Henson (2006). On the Status of Unconscious Memory: Merikle and Reingold (1991) Revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (4):925-934.
  39. Dianne C. Berry (1997). How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.
  40. Dianne C. Berry & Zoltán Dienes (eds.) (1993). Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    This book presents an overview of these studies and attempts to clarify apparently disparate results by placing them in a coherent theoretical framework.
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  41. Shaila Bhandare (1993). Memory in Indian Epistemology, its Nature and Status. Sri Satguru Publications.
  42. John Bickle (2006). Reducing Mind to Molecular Pathways: Explicating the Reductionism Implicit in Current Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Synthese 151 (3):411-434.
    As opposed to the dismissive attitude toward reductionism that is popular in current philosophy of mind, a “ruthless reductionism” is alive and thriving in “molecular and cellular cognition”—a field of research within cellular and molecular neuroscience, the current mainstream of the discipline. Basic experimental practices and emerging results from this field imply that two common assertions by philosophers and cognitive scientists are false: (1) that we do not know much about how the brain works, and (2) that lower-level neuroscience cannot (...)
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  43. Michael Billig (2001). Discursive Approaches to Studying Conscious and Unconscious Thoughts. In Deborah L. Tolman & Mary Brydon-Miller (eds.), From Subjects to Subjectivities: A Handbook of Interpretive and Participatory Methods. New York University Press. 290-303.
  44. E. Bjork & R. Bjork (eds.) (1996). Memory: Handbook of Perception and Cognition. Academic Press.
    Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, Robert A. Bjork. where people studied information in a drug state and then were tested in the same state 4 hr later—people recalled the material better than those who also had learned while under the drug but were ...
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  45. Elizabeth Ligon Bjork & Robert A. Bjork (1996). Continuing Influences of To-Be-Forgotten Information. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):176-196.
  46. Colin Blakemore & Susan A. Greenfield (1987). Mindwaves: Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity, and Consciousness. Blackwell.
  47. Ned Block (2003). Spatial Perception Via Tactile Sensation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (7):285-286.
    I’m now looking at a soccer ball and a Nintendo Game Cube, and thus am having a perceptual experience of a sphere and a cube. My friend, blind from birth, (who’s helping me with the cleaning) is touching these items, and is thus having a perceptual experience of the same things. Not only are we perceiving the same items, but in doing so we apply the terms ‘sphere’ and ‘cube’, respectively, to them. Are we, in doing so, applying the same, (...)
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  48. Richard A. Block & Dan Zakay (2001). Retrospective and Prospective Timing: Memory, Attention and Consciousness. In Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormark (eds.), Time and Memory. Oxford University Press. 59--76.
  49. Giacomo Bonanno (2003). Memory of Past Beliefs and Actions. Studia Logica 75 (1):7 - 30.
    Two notions of memory are studied both syntactically and semantically: memory of past beliefs and memory of past actions. The analysis is carried out in a basic temporal logic framework enriched with beliefs and actions.
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  50. A. E. Bonebakker, M. Jelicic, J. Passchier & B. Bonke (1996). Memory During General Anesthesia: Practical and Methodological Aspects. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):542-561.
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