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  1. A. R. Aitkenhead (1993). Conscious Awareness. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
  2. M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier & J. H. Fallon (2000). Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiologic Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):370-386.
    A unifying theory of general anesthetic-induced unconsciousness must explain the common mechanism through which various anesthetic agents produce unconsciousness. Functional-brain-imaging data obtained from 11 volunteers during general anesthesia showed specific suppression of regional thalamic and midbrain reticular formation activity across two different commonly used volatile agents. These findings are discussed in relation to findings from sleep neurophysiology and the implications of this work for consciousness research. It is hypothesized that the essential common neurophysiologic mechanism underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness is, as with (...)
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  3. M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier & H. F. James (1998). Toward the Neurobiology of Consciousness: Using Brain Imaging and Anesthesia to Investigate the Anatomy of Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.
  4. M. T. Alkire & Jeff G. Miller (2006). General Anesthesia and the Neural Correlates of Consciousness. In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  5. Jackie Andrade (2000). NMDa Receptor--Mediated Consciousness: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Anesthesia on Cognition? In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 271--279.
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  6. Jackie Andrade (1997). Investigations of Hypesthesia: Using Anesthetics to Explore Relationships Between Consciousness, Learning, and Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):562-80.
    This paper discusses the ways in which anesthetic agents can be used to investigate the role of awareness in learning and memory. It reviews research into learning during light, subclinical anesthesia, termedhypesthesia.This research suggests that the effects of anesthetics on implicit and explicit memory are roughly comparable, although implicit memory for simple stimuli may resist the effects of very low doses of anesthetic. In addition, this paper reports experimental data demonstrating that long-term retention of information is prevented by doses of (...)
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  7. Jackie Andrade (1995). Learning During Anesthesia: A Review. British Journal of Psychology 86:479-506.
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  8. Jackie Andrade & Catherine Deeprose (2006). A Starting Point for Consciousness Research: Reply to Thomas Schmidt. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):28-30.
    Anesthesia research has focused on showing learning in the absence of awareness for good practical reasons. Crucially, continued learning during otherwise clinically adequate anesthesia may affect patients’ well-being on recovery. Theoretically, preserved perceptual priming during anesthesia offers a useful starting point for consciousness research by determining the limits of memory function during minimal consciousness. The big question for consciousness research is not to demonstrate absolutely unconscious processing, but rather to map out the cognitive and neurobiological processes that enable conscious experience (...)
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  9. Jackie Andrade & J. G. Jones (1997). Awareness in Anesthesia. In G. Hall & Morris J. Morgan (eds.), Short Practice of Anesthesia. Chapman and Hall.
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  10. S. B. Backman, P. Fiset & G. Plourde (2004). Cholinergic Mechanisms Mediating Anesthetic Induced Altered States of Consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 145:197-206.
  11. H. Bennett (1993). FACE: A Sensitive and Specific Monitor for Adequacy of Anesthesia. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 322--332.
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  12. H. L. Bennett (1993). Memory for Events During Anesthesia Does Occur: A Psychologist's Viewpoint. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 459--466.
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  13. Knut Berner (2001). Local Anaesthesia, the Increase of the Evil Through Emotional Impoverishment. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (2):161-169.
    Evil should be characterised as a specific constellation, which results from destructive connections between individual activities and systemic influences. The article shows some important aspects of the structure of evil and prefers the terms of wickedness and obscene coincidences to describe its own character. Therefore, also the division between rationality and affectivity appears as inadequate, because evil has on the one side an intrinsic attractiveness for individuals and is on the other side in modern societies more and more a product (...)
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  14. R. S. Blacher (1993). Psychological Reactions to Awareness in Anesthesia. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 376--386.
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  15. Robert Bogešić (2013). Jure Dohnal-Operation Without Anesthesia. Kairos: Evanđeoski Teološki Časopis 7 (1):100-102.
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  16. B. Bonke, J. G. Bovill & N. Moerman (eds.) (1996). Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia III. Van Gorcum.
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  17. B. Bonke, W. Fitch & K. Millar (eds.) (1990). Memory and Awareness In Anesthesia. Swets & Zeitlinger.
  18. J. Boyle (2008). Contraception and Anesthesia: A Reply to James DuBois. Christian Bioethics 14 (2):217-225.
    This is a response to James Dubois’ “Is anesthesia intrinsically wrong?” I do not address many of the claims in this article but only DuBois’ use of the moral evaluation of the medical use of anesthesia as a counter example to two lines of reasoning developed to defend the traditional Catholic prohibition of contraception. Elizabeth Anscombe's dialectical defense of this teaching does not imply that such a defense must logically apply to the use of anesthesia. John Finnis’ defense of this (...)
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  19. Alan S. Brown, Michael R. Best, David B. Mitchell & Lloyd C. Haggard (1992). Memory Under Anesthesia: Evidence for Response Suppression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (3):244-246.
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  20. Roland R. Brusseau & George A. Mashour (2007). Subcortical Consciousness: Implications for Fetal Anesthesia and Analgesia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):86-87.
    In this commentary we discuss the possibility of subcortical consciousness and its implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia. We review the neural development of structural and functional elements that may participate in conscious representation, with a particular focus on the experience of pain. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  21. Peter Cariani (2000). Anesthesia, Neural Information Processing, and Consciousness Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):387-395.
    Possible systemic effects of general anesthetic agents on neural information processing are discussed in the context of the thalamocortical suppression hypothesis presented by Drs. Alkire, Haier, and Fallon (this issue) in their PET study of the anesthetized state. Accounts of the neural requisites of consciousness fall into two broad categories. Neuronal-specificity theories postulate that activity in particular neural populations is sufficient for conscious awareness, while process-coherence theories postulate that particular organizations of neural activity are sufficient. Accounts of anesthetic narcosis, on (...)
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  22. G. Caseley-Rondi, Philip M. Merikle & K. S. Bowers (1994). Unconscious Cognition in the Context of General Anesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (2):166-95.
    In the present article we consider general anesthesia as a means of exploring questions regarding unconscious influence. The primary questions addressed in the research are whether surgical patients who are under adequate general anesthesia unconsciously perceive auditory information and whether they can benefit from such information. In addition, we consider the relevance of individual hypnotic ability for perceptual processing in this context. Ninety-six adult patients, undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy, were randomly allocated to one of four tape-recorded conditions: therapeutic suggestions, melodies, (...)
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  23. B. S. Chortkoff & E. I. Eger (1993). Memory for Events for During Anesthesia has Not Been Demonstrated: An Anesthesiologist's Viewpoint. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 467--475.
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  24. P. Cogliolo, V. Romano, R. Villani & M. Galano (1993). Effectiveness of Evans' Technique for the Evaluation of Awareness. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia 2. Prentice-Hall.
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  25. M. Corner (1976). The Nature of Consciousness: Some Persistent Conceptual Difficulties and a Practical Suggestion. Progress in Brain Research 45:471-5.
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  26. S. B. Cummings Jr (1938). The Effect of Local Anesthesia on Tactile and Vibratory Thresholds. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (4):321.
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  27. A. de Roode, J. F. V. Caekebeke, J. G. van Dgk & J. G. Bovill (1993). The Feasibility of Aerp Registration During Alfentanil, Halothane and Propofol Anesthesia. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
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  28. Catherine Deeprose & Jackie Andrade (2006). Is Priming During Anesthesia Unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):1-23.
    General anesthesia provides an alternative to typical laboratory paradigms for investigating implicit learning. We assess the evidence that a simple type of learning—priming—can occur without consciousness. Although priming has been shown to be a small but persistent phenomenon in surgical patients there is reason to question whether it occurs implicitly due to problems in detecting awareness using typical clinical signs. This paper reviews the published studies on priming during anesthesia that have included a measure of awareness or of anesthetic depth. (...)
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  29. Vicky Dierckx & Andr (2004). Plugging a Tooth Before Anaesthetising the Patient? The Influence of People's Beliefs on Reasoning About the Temporal Order of Actions. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (4):371 – 404.
    According to the mental models theory, reasoning performance is primarily influenced by the number of models of a problem that can be constructed. This study investigates whether the content of the model may also influence performance. Linear reasoning problems were devised that either described a believable (script-consistent) or an unbelievable (script-inconsistent) order of actions. The results of two experiments showed that conclusions were inferred more slowly and less accurately on the basis of an unbelievable model than on a believable one. (...)
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  30. Jure Dohnal (2013). Surgery Without Anesthesia. Kairos: Evanđeoski Teološki Časopis 1:129-131.
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  31. J. M. Dubois (2008). Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology. Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition (or mystical perceptions), and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. (...)
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  32. Eric Eich, J. L. Reeves & R. L. Katz (1985). Anesthesia, Amnesia, and the Memory/Awareness Distinction. Anesthesia and Analgesia 64:1143-48.
  33. J. M. Evans (1987). Patient's Experiences of Awareness During General Anesthesia. In Michael Rosen & J. N. Lunn (eds.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Pain in General Anesthesia. Butterworths.
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  34. Hélène Fabre (1997). Responsabilité Conjointe Ou Partagée de l'Anesthésiste Et du Chirurgien (Ou Obstétricien). Médecine Et Droit 1997 (22):9-14.
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  35. A. D. Farr (1984). Religious Opposition to Obstetric Anesthesia-Hardly a Myth-Reply. Annals of Science 41 (2):180-180.
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  36. P. Fiset, G. Plourde & S. B. Backman (2006). Brain Imaging in Research on Anesthetic Mechanisms: Studies with Propofol. In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  37. Hans Flohr (2000). NMDA-Receptor-Mediated Computational Processes and Phenomenal Consciousness. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 245-258.
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  38. Hans Flohr (1998). On the Mechanism of Action of Anesthetic Agents. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press. 2--459.
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  39. Hans Flohr (1995). An Information-Processing Theory of Anesthesia. Neuropsychologia 33:1169-80.
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  40. Pamela Flood (2002). General Anesthetics. In Elaine Perry, Heather Ashton & Allan Young (eds.), Neurochemistry of Consciousness: Neurotransmitters in Mind. John Benjamins. 149-162.
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  41. N. P. Franks & W. R. Lieb (2000). The Role of NMDA Receptors in Consciousness: What We Learn From Anesthetic Mechanisms? In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 265--269.
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  42. N. P. Franks & W. R. Lieb (1998). The Molecular Basis of General Anesthesia: Current Ideas. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press. 2--443.
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  43. M. Furlong & C. Read (1993). Therapeutic Suggestions During General Anesthesia. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 166--175.
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  44. Liane Gabora (1999). Microtubules, Anesthetics, and Quantum Consciousness:An Interview with Stuart Hameroff. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (2):205-223.
  45. Prashant Gajwani, David Muzina, Kerning Gao & Joseph R. Calabrese (2006). Awareness Under Anesthesia During Electroconvulsive Therapy Treatment. Journal of ECT 22 (2):158-159.
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  46. M. M. Ghoneim & R. I. Block (1993). Memory for Events During Anesthesia Does Occur: An Anesthesiologist's Viewpoint. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall. 452--458.
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  47. M. M. Ghoneim & R. I. Block (1992). Learning and Consciousness During General Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 76:279-305.
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  48. G. Gurman, A. Porath, S. Fajer & A. Pearlman (1993). Correlation of EEG Spectral Edge Frequency with Hemodynamic Stability During Maintenance of General Anesthesia. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
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  49. Scott Hagan, Marj Jibu & Kunio Yasue (1994). Consciousness and Anesthesia: A Hypothesis Involving Biophoton Emission in the Microtubular Cytoskeleton of the Brain. In Karl H. Pribram (ed.), Origins: Brain and Self-Organization. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  50. G. Hall & Morris J. Morgan (eds.) (1997). Short Practice of Anesthesia. Chapman and Hall.
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