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  1. Elisa Aaltola & Markku Oksanen (2002). Species Conservation and Minority Rights: The Case of Spring Time Bird Hunting. Environmental Values 11 (4):443-460.
    The article examines the case of springtime bird hunting in Åland from a moral point of view. In Åland springtime hunting has been a cultural practice for centuries but is now under investigation due to the EU Directive on the protection of birds. The main question of the article is whether restrictions on bird hunting have a sound basis. We approach this question by analysing three principles: The animal rights principle states that if hunting is not necessary for survival, it (...)
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  2. David Abram (2010). Becoming Animal: An Essay on Wonder. Pantheon Books.
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  3. E. M. Adams (1972). Ecology and Value Theory. Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):3-6.
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  4. Nick Agar (2003). GM Food, Risk, and Taste. Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):599-606.
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  5. Joseph Agassi, The Brundtland Report, P.
    Why are the efforts at coordination so feeble? Unless we face this question, we may never see progress. The answer is not hard to find. Decisions on matters of life and death are awesome; decisions on some awesome questions are guided by accepted laws, rules or customs; other awesome questions are open. Obviously, having to decide on an open, awesome question is a hardship in every possible manner: intellectually and practically, legally and morally, socially and psychologically. People are reluctant to (...)
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  6. G. M. Aitken (1998). Extinction. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  7. Gill Aitken (1997). Conservation and Individual Worth. Environmental Values 6 (4):439-454.
    It is commonly supposed that individual animals are of little relevance to conservation which is concerned, instead, with groups of things or 'wholes' such as species, habitats, and the like. It is further contended by some that by prioritising individuals, two of those values that are held dear by conservation – namely natural selection and fitness – are compromised. Taking wildlife rehabilitation as a paradigm case of concern for the individual, it is argued that the latter claim is based upon (...)
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  8. Peter S. Alagona (2012). A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (4):651 - 680.
    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding (...)
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  9. G. Albrecht, C. R. McMahon, Dmjs Bowman & C. J. A. Bradshaw (2009). Convergence of Culture, Ecology, and Ethics: Management of Feral Swamp Buffalo in Northern Australia. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):361-378.
    This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, (...)
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  10. Glenn Albrecht, Clive R. McMahon, David M. J. S. Bowman & Corey J. A. Bradshaw (2009). Convergence of Culture, Ecology, and Ethics: Management of Feral Swamp Buffalo in Northern Australia. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):361-378.
    This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, (...)
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  11. Garland E. Allen (2013). “Culling the Herd”: Eugenics and the Conservation Movement in the United States, 1900–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):31-72.
    While from a late twentieth- and early twenty-first century perspective, the ideologies of eugenics (controlled reproduction to eliminate the genetically unfit and promote the reproduction of the genetically fit) and environmental conservation and preservation, may seem incompatible, they were promoted simultaneously by a number of figures in the progressive era in the decades between 1900 and 1950. Common to the two movements were the desire to preserve the “best” in both the germ plasm of the human population and natural environments (...)
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  12. William L. Andreen, Developing a More Holistic Approach to Water Management in the United States.
    Americans have generally treated water, just like land and other natural resources, as a commodity for human use, manipulation, and degradation. Little thought or significance, at least until relatively recently, was attached to the adverse environmental impact of reduced stream flows and the damage caused by hydrologic modifications such as dams and by various development activities that disrupt and pollute aquatic habitats. The United States, therefore, faces the difficult challenge of trying at a late date to bring together three separate, (...)
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  13. William L. Andreen, The Evolving Contours of Water Law in the United States: Bridging the Gap Between Water Rights, Land Use and the Protection of the Aquatic Environment.
    Although Australia and the United States share a common law heritage, water law has developed in significantly different patterns in the two nations. Much of the credit for Australia's different course can be ascribed to Alfred Deakin, who after taking a study tour of the American West in 1885, wrote a report that rejected the doctrine of prior appropriation as used in the arid states of the American West and advocated a system in which the rights of the state were (...)
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  14. Babette Babich (2011). On Mitchell and on Glazebrook on Βίος. In Pol Vandevelde (ed.), Supplement to the 2011 Proceedings of the Heidegger Circle.
    Commentary on Andrew Mitchell and Patricia Glazebrook on plants and agriculture in the context of Heidegger's own reflections on botany and technology in which I discuss, bees, cell phone radiation, the relatively complex but fairly obvious sociological dynamics of science and powerful commercial interests (capital), and mantid copulation.
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  15. J. Baird Callicott (2013). Ecology and Moral Ontology. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 296:101-116.
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  16. Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel & Fabio Prezoto (2015). Forrageamento Por Recurso Alternativo Em Época de Estiagem Por Apis Mellifera Linnaeus, 1758. Mensagem Doce 131 (2):1-4.
    Forrageamento por Recurso Alternativo em Época de Estiagem por Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758.
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  17. Nathaniel F. Barrett (2011). The Promise and Peril of Ecological Restoration: Why Ritual Can Make a Difference 1. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 32 (2):139 - 155.
    Writing in 1992, biologist E. O. Wilson prophesied, "Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm. The next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology." 2 This statement has become the rallying cry for advocates of ecological restoration, an emerging international environmental movement focused on the renewal of damaged or destroyed ecosystems. 3 The benefits promised by ecological restoration are manifold. In addition to its primary ecological goals of replenished biodiversity and improved ecosystem functioning, (...)
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  18. John Basl (2010). Restitutive Restoration. Environmental Ethics 32 (2):135-147.
    Our environmental wrongdoings result in a moral debt that requires restitution. One component of restitution is reparative and another is remediative. The remediative component requires that we remediate our characters in ways that alter or eliminate the character traits that tend to lead, in their expression, to environmental wrongdoing. Restitutive restoration is a way of engaging in ecological restoration that helps to meet the remediative requirement that accompanies environmental wrongdoing. This account of restoration provides a new motivation and justification for (...)
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  19. Jason Bausher (2005). Greening" James L. Marsh's "Philosophy After Catonsville. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 79:131-143.
    American Catholic Philosophical Association President James Marsh is calling for a “Philosophy after Catonsville.” This paper begins by examining Catonsvilleas specifically American, Catholic, and philosophical. “Wildness” is then presented as it has emerged recently as a category in environmental philosophy andis shown to necessitate a social ecology for Catonsville. Finally, Marsh’s problematic relationship to ecology will be presented and resolved by discussing the necessary entailment of social ecology by his trilogy of Post-Cartesian Meditations, Critique, Action, and Liberation, and Process, Praxis, (...)
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  20. Randal Beeman (1995). Friends of the Land and the Rise of Environmentalism, 1940–1954. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (1):1-16.
    The rise of the postwar environmental movement is rooted in the development of ecological consciousness within intellectual circles as well as the general public. Though many commentators cite the 1960s as the focal point of the new environmentalism, the ecological ethic had actually evolved by the 1930s in the writings and speeches of both scientists and public commentators. Agricultural conservationists led the way in broadcasting the message of ecology. Friends of the Land, an agriculturally-oriented conservation organization formed in 1940 and (...)
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  21. Marc Bekoff (forthcoming). Compassionate Conservation and the Ethics of Species Research and Preservation: Hamsters, Black-Footed Ferrets, and a Response to Rob Irvine: Comment on" Ethics of Species Research and Preservation" by Rob Irvine. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.
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  22. Marc Bekoff (2013). Compassionate Conservation and the Ethics of Species Research and Preservation: Hamsters, Black-Footed Ferrets, and a Response to Rob Irvine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):527-529.
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  23. Erzsébet Beliczay (2009). State Budget and Environment Protection. World Futures 65 (5):356-364.
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  24. M. Bensenane, A. Moussaoui & P. Auger (2013). On the Optimal Size of Marine Reserves. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (1):109-118.
    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include (...)
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  25. E. B. Beresford (1995). Book Reviews : How to Think About the Earth: Philosophical and Theological Models for Ecology, by Stephen R. L. Clark. London, Mowbray, 1993. Viii + 168pp. Pb. 12.99. [REVIEW] Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (1):100-102.
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  26. Donato Bergandi (2013). Epilogue: The Epistemic and Practical Circle in an Evolutionary, Ecologically Sustainable Society. In The Structural Links between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Springer 151-158.
    Abstract In a context of human demographic, technological and economic pressure on natural systems, we face some demanding challenges. We must decide 1) whether to “preserve” nature for its own sake or to “conserve” nature because nature is essentially a reservoir of goods that are functional to humanity’s wellbeing; 2) to choose ways of life that respect the biodiversity and evolutionary potential of the planet; and, to allow all this to come to fruition, 3) to clearly define the role of (...)
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  27. Donato Bergandi (2001). Biodiversité. In Gilbert Hottois & Jean-Noël Missa (eds.), Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique. Médecine, environnement, biotechnologie. De Boeck Université 104-112.
  28. Jacques Blondel (2007). Landscape Ecology in the Mediterranean: Inside and Outside Approaches. Natures Sciences Sociétés 15 (2):193-194.
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  29. J. Baird Callicott (1979). Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community. Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
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  30. Douglas Campbell (2016). A Case for Resurrecting Lost Species—Review Essay of Beth Shapiro’s, “How to Clone a Mammoth: The Science of De-Extinction”. Biology and Philosophy 31 (5):747-759.
    The title of Beth Shapiro’s ‘How to Clone a Mammoth’ contains an implicature: it suggests that it is indeed possible to clone a mammoth, to bring extinct species back from the dead. But in fact Shapiro both denies this is possible, and denies there would be good reason to do it even if it were possible. The de-extinct ‘mammoths’ she speaks of are merely ecological proxies for mammoths—elephants re-engineered for cold-tolerance by the addition to their genomes of a few mammoth (...)
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  31. Jane Carruthers (2008). Conservation and Wildlife Management in South African National Parks 1930s-1960s. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):203 - 236.
    In recent decades conservation biology has achieved a high position among the sciences. This is certainly true of South Africa, a small country, but the third most biodiverse in the world. This article traces some aspects of the transformation of South African wildlife management during the 1930s to the 1960s from game reserves based on custodianship and the "balance of nature" into scientifically managed national parks with a philosophy of "command and control" or "management by intervention." In 1910 the four (...)
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  32. Richard Christian (2016). Nature’s Legacy: On Rohwer and Marris and Genomic Conservation. Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):265-267.
    Rohwer & Marris claim that “many conservation biologists” believe that there is a prima facie duty to preserve the genetic integrity of species. (A prima facie duty is a necessary pro tanto moral reason.) They describe three possible arguments for that belief and reject them all. They conclude that the biologists they cite are mistaken, and that there is no such duty: duties to preserve genetic integrity are merely instrumental: we ought act to preserve genetic integrity only because doing so (...)
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  33. John P. Clark, Em Memoria Chico Mendes.
    On December 22, 1988, Chico Mendes, the leader of the struggle to preserve the Amazonian rainforest, stepped out of the back door of his house and was assassinated. Chico was a seringueiro, a rubber tapper who collects latex from the trees of the forest. He had a vision of the people of the rainforest living in balance with the natural world, supporting their communities through harvesting the natural, renewable forest products in a sustainable manner. It was for this vision that (...)
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  34. with James P. Collins (2012). A Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Biodiversity Managers. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Refounding Environmental Ethics: Pragmatism, Principle, and Practice. Temple University Press
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  35. Mark Colyvan, James Justus & Helen M. Regan, The Natural Environment is Valuable but Not Infinitely Valuable.
    It has been argued in the conservation literature that giving conservation absolute priority over competing interests would best protect the environment. Attributing infinite value to the environment or claiming it is ‘priceless’ are two ways of ensuring this priority (e.g. Hargrove 1989; Bulte and van Kooten 2000; Ackerman and Heinzerling 2002; McCauley 2006; Halsing and Moore 2008). But such proposals would paralyse conservation efforts. We describe the serious problems with these proposals and what they mean for practical applications, and we (...)
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  36. Mark Cowell (1993). Ecological Restoration and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):19-32.
    Restoration ecology has recently emerged as a branch of scientific ecology that challenges many of the traditional tenets of environmentalism. Because the restoration of ecosystems, “applied ecology,” has the potential to advance theoretical understanding to such an extent that scientists can extensively manipulate the environment, it encourages increasingly active human participation within ecosystemsand could inhibit the preservation of areas from human influences. Despite the environmentally dangerous possibilities that this form of science and technology present, restoration offers an attractive alternative for (...)
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  37. A. Cunningham (2000). Science and Religion in the Thirteenth Century Revisited: The Making of St Francis the Proto-Ecologist - Part 1: Creature Not Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (4):613-643.
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  38. Mateus Detoni, Maria do Carmo Mattos, Mariana Monteiro de Castro, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fabio Prezoto (2015). Activity Schedule and Foraging in Protopolybia Sedula (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Revista Colombiana de Entomología 41 (2).
    Protopolybia sedula is a social swarming wasp, widely spread throughout many countries in the Americas, including most of Brazil. Despite its distribution, studies of its behavioral ecology are scarce. This study aimed to describe its foraging activity and relation to climatic variables in the city of Juiz de Fora in southeastern Brazil. Three colonies were under observation between 07:00 and 18:00 during April 2012, January 2013, and March 2013. Every 30 minutes, the number of foragers leaving and returning to the (...)
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  39. M. Drenthen & J. Keulartz (eds.) (2014). Old and New World Perspectives on Environmental Philosophy. Transatlantic Conversations. Springer.
    This is the first collection of essays in which European and American philosophers explicitly think out their respective contributions and identities as environmental thinkers in the analytic and continental traditions. The American/European, as well as Analytic/Continental collaboration here bears fruit helpful for further theorizing and research. The essays group around three well-defined areas of questioning all focusing on the amelioration/management of environmentally, historically and traditionally diminished landscapes. The first part deals with differences between New World and the Old World perspectives (...)
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  40. R. Shannon Duval (1989). Conservation Ethics and the Japanese Intellectual Tradition. Environmental Ethics 11 (3):197-214.
    A systematic philosophy that presupposes an ecocentric world view, rather than a homocentric or egocentric world view, can be a viable resource for investigating issues in environmental philosophy and conservation ethics. Generally speaking, the Japanese philosophical and religious tradition represents a commitment to ecocentrism. This philosophical orientation is in concert with the world view of manynaturalists. We explore one example of ecocentrism by unveiling the crosscultural connection between the naturalistic philosophy of Louis Agassiz, a nineteenth-century French-American biologist, and the early (...)
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  41. Mark Ereshefsky (2007). Where the Wild Things Are: Environmental Preservation and Human Nature. Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):57-72.
    Environmental philosophers spend considerable time drawing the divide between humans and the rest of nature. Some argue that humans and our actions are unnatural. Others allow that humans are natural, but maintain that humans are nevertheless distinct. The motivation for distinguishing humans from the rest of nature is the desire to determine what aspects of the environment should be preserved. The standard view is that we should preserve those aspects of the environment outside of humans and our influence. This paper (...)
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  42. Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan Newman (2016). Is It Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):170-182.
    Conservationists have two types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems: instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more useful than (...)
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  43. Mark Greene (2011). On the Origin of Species Notions and Their Ethical Limitations. In Tom L. Beauchamp & R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press 577-602.
    I argue that defenders of general duties of species preservation are faced with an impossible task. I distinguish derivative from non-derivative value and argue that the derivative value of species can yield only limited and contingent duties of preservation. There can be no general duty of species preservation unless all species have non-derivative value. Ongoing controversy over the ’species’ notion has not deterred some from claiming settled authority for whatever notion appears most conducive to their favored account of species value. (...)
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  44. William Grove-Fanning (2010). Biodiversity Loss, the Motivational Gap, and the Failure of Conservation Education. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):119-130.
    While the precipitous decline of biodiversity threatens life-sustaining processes and vast segments of the human population, concern about its loss remains extremely shallow. Nearly all motivational campaigns falsely assume that upon appreciating the relevant information, people will be sufficiently motivated to do something. But rational argumentation is doomed to fail, for there exists a motivational gap between a comprehension of the crisis and action taken based upon such knowledge. The origin of the gap lies neither in the quantity and quality (...)
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  45. Alastair S. Gunn (1991). The Restoration of Species and Natural Environments. Environmental Ethics 13 (4):291-310.
    My aims in this article are threefold. First, I evaluate attempts to drive a wedge between the human and the natural in order to show that destroyed natural environments and extinct species cannot be restored; next, I examine the analogy between aesthetic value and the value of natural environments; and finally, I suggest briefly a different set of analogies with such human associations as families and cultures. My tentative conclusion is that while the recreation of extinct species may be logically (...)
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  46. Richard B. Harris (1996). Approaches to Conserving Vulnerable Wildlife in China: Does the Colour of Cat Matter – If It Catches Mice? Environmental Values 5 (4):303-334.
    China's environmental problems are well known, but recently its record in the area of wildlife conservation, particularly with regard to endangered species, has come under scrutiny. Environmental values colour how we in the West view both China's past experience with wildlife and what strategies it should adopt to foster better conservation. Chinese have long taken a utilitarian view of wildlife, valuing species primarily as resources for man's use and only secondarily for other reasons. However, China has not developed institutions capable (...)
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  47. Thomas Heyd (2000). Sacred Ecology: Traditional Knowledge and Resource Management. Environmental Ethics 22 (4):419-421.
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  48. Leslie A. Howe (2005). A Feminist Cosmology: Ecology, Solidarity, and Metaphysics (Review). Hypatia 20 (2):197-199.
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  49. Howard M. Huynh (2011). Pleistocene Re‐Wilding is Unsound Conservation Practice. Bioessays 33 (2):100-102.
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  50. Simon P. James (2006). Buddhism and the Ethics of Species Conservation. Environmental Values 15 (1):85 - 97.
    Efforts to conserve endangered species of animal are, in some important respects, at odds with Buddhist ethics. On the one hand, being abstract entities, species cannot suffer, and so cannot be proper objects of compassion or similar moral virtues. On the other, Buddhist commitments to equanimity tend to militate against the idea that the individual members of endangered species have greater value than those of less-threatened ones. This paper suggests that the contribution of Buddhism to the issue of species conservation (...)
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