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Summary The time period covered by "Contemporary Chinese Philosophy" runs from the late nineteenth century (the late Qing dynasty) to the present. One of the central dynamics of this era is Chinese thinkers' engagement with European, Indian, and American philosophical traditions. Chinese versions of liberalism and Marxism flourish. Chinese philosophers also reflect critically on their own traditions, leading some to advocate the abandonment of Chinese traditions while others promote renewed or synthetic forms. Several varieties of "New Confucianism" emerge, the most prominent of which is Mou Zongsan's Kantian reading of Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism. ("Neo-Confucianism" generally refers to the revival of Confucianism that began around 1000 CE; "New Confucianism" refers to twentieth-century developments.) In recent years, two main trends have dominated: on the one hand, a back-to-the classics movement that has sometimes been coupled with suspicion about the aptness to China of the Western-inspired category of "philosophy (zhexue)," and on the other hand, the continued proliferation of eclectic, synthetic philosophizing drawing on various sources.
Key works Relatively few of the key works of contemporary Chinese philosophy have been translated, though see Angle & Svensson 2001. For a good collection of secondary essays on major thinkers, see Cheng & Bunnin 2002. CAP provides an important, if controversial, overview of modern Chinese political thinking. Mao's thought is given an insightful treatment in Wakeman 1973; see also Knight 2005. For a good overview of Mou Zongsan, see Chan 2011; for recent developments within Confucianism, see Angle 2012 and Dallmayr & Zhao 2012.
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  1. Daniel A. Bell (2004). Review: Human Rights and Social Criticism in Contemporary Chinese Political Theory. [REVIEW] Political Theory 32 (3):396 - 408.
  2. Chung-ying Cheng (1997). On a Comprehensive Theory of Xing (Naturality) in Song-Ming Neo-Confucian Philosophy: A Critical and Integrative Development. Philosophy East and West 47 (1):33-46.
    The question of xing has received much attention in the revival of Neo-Confucian philosophy (called Contemporary Neo-Confucianism) in present-day Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China and among scholars of Chinese philosophy in the United States. It also has much to do with a critical consciousness of both the difference and the affinity between the Chinese philosophy of man and morality and the contemporary Western philosophy of human existence and moral virtues. The study of this has great meaning for the development of (...)
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  3. Leigh K. Jenco (2012). How Meaning Moves: Tan Sitong on Borrowing Across Cultures. Philosophy East and West 62 (1):92-113.
    This essay offers an attempt at a cross-cultural inquiry into cross-cultural inquiry by examining how one influential Chinese reformer, Tan Sitong (1865–1898), thought creatively about the possibilities of learning from differently situated societies. That is to say, rather than focusing on developing either Tan’s substantive ideas or elaborating a methodology for how such an approach might proceed, I mine his work for the methodological lessons it offers. I hope to offer both argument and example for the possibility not only that (...)
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New Confucianism
  1. Stephen C. Angle (2012). Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism. Polity.
    This book provides an accessible introduction to the main perspectives and topics being debated today, and shows why Progressive Confucianism is a particularly promising approach.
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  2. Stephen C. Angle (2010). A Reply to Fan Ruiping. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):463-464.
    A Reply to F an Ruiping Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11712-010-9189-7 Authors Stephen C. Angle, Department of Philosophy, Wesleyan University, 350 High Street, Middletown, CT 06459, USA Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009.
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  3. Stephen C. Angle (2010). Fan, Ruiping, Reconstructionist Confucianism: Rethinking Morality After the West. [REVIEW] Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (3):353-357.
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  4. Stephen C. Angle (2004). New Confucianism: A Critical Examination, Edited by John Makeham. [REVIEW] Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (4):535–540.
    This collection of essays explores the development of the New Confucianism movement during the 20th century and questions whether it is, in fact, a distinctly new intellectual movement or one that has been mostly retrospectively created. The questions that contributors to this book seek to answer about this neo-conservative philosophical movement include: “What has been the cross-fertilization between Chinese scholars in China and overseas made possible by the shared discourse of Confucianism?” “To what extent does this discourse transcend geographical, political, (...)
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  5. Stephen C. Angle (2002). Human Rights in Chinese Thought: A Cross-Cultural Inquiry. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about the origins and development of Chinese ideas of human rights, and about what we in the contemporary world should make of different cultures having different moral ideas. It differs from competing books in two ways. First, its historical account is much fuller, since it shows how Chinese discussions of rights grew out of pre-existing Confucian philosophical concerns. Second, it is also a work of philosophy: it explains what it means to have moral concepts that differ from (...)
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  6. Tomomi Asakura (2011). On Buddhistic Ontology: A Comparative Study of Mou Zongsan and Kyoto School Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 61 (4):647-678.
    Mou Zongsan's notion of "Buddhistic ontology" is interpreted here in its fundamental difference from his own previous metaphysical scheme, in the light of the Kyoto School philosophers' similar attempts to resolve the Kantian antinomy of practical reason. This is an alternative both to the analysis provided by previous interpreters of Mou's Buddhistic philosophy, such as Hans-Rudolf Kantor and N. Serina Chan, and to the comparative studies of Mou's theories with Kyoto School philosophy by Ng Yu-kwan. Previous researchers considered Mou's Buddhist (...)
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  7. Ji'an Bai (2009). Liang Shuming Kou Shu Shi Lu. Tuan Jie Chu Ban She.
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  8. John B. Berthrong (2008). Riding the Third Wave: T U Weiming's Confucian Axiology. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (4):423-435.
    Weiming) has assisted in defining the New Confucian movement, a philosophical discourse that depends on axiological themes and traits based on an exegesis and defense of the revival and reform of traditional Confucian discourse inherited from the Classical and Neo-Confucian waves in East Asia. Thomas A. Metzger’s discussion of the profound difference between modern Western post-Enlightenment discourse and New Confucian discourse challenges many of Du’s primary assumptions. My conclusion is that Du is both a citizen of the modern Western academy (...)
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  9. Sébastien Billioud (2012). Clower, Jason: The Unlikely Buddhologist, Tiantai Buddhism in Mou Zongsan's New Confucianism. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (1):101-104.
    Clower, Jason: The Unlikely Buddhologist, Tiantai Buddhism in M ou Zongsan’s New Confucianism Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11712-011-9261-y Authors Sébastien Billioud, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité. UFR LCAO/East Asian Studies Department, Case 7009, 16 rue Marguerite Duras, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 Paris, France Journal Dao Online ISSN 1569-7274 Print ISSN 1540-3009.
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  10. Sébastien Billioud (2011). Thinking Through Confucian Modernity: A Study of Mou Zongsan's Moral Metaphysics. Brill.
    This book explores a pivotal dimension of Mou Zongsan’s philosophy—that is, his project of reconstructing a moral metaphysics based largely on a dialogue between reinterpreted Chinese thought and Kantism—and thoroughly analyzes a ...
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  11. Sébastien Billioud (2006). Mou Zongsan's Problem with the Heideggerian Interpretation of Kant. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (2):225–247.
    The article elucidates the modern Chinese philosopher Mou Zongsan's relation to the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. It postulates that Mou's appropriation of Immanuel Kant to build up his metaphysical system encountered one real obstacle, which was Heidegger's interpretation of the "Critique of Pure Reason" in the "Kantbuch." Heidegger and Mou both link their conceptions of the Self with understandings of ontology which are totally incompatible.
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  12. Nicholas Bunnin (2008). God's Knowledge and Ours: Kant and Mou Zongsan on Intellectual Intuition. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (4):613-624.
  13. Wenhua Chai (2006). Traditional Confucianism in Modern China: Ma Yifu's Ethical Thought. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):366-381.
    Modem neo-Confucianism is studied at two levels, one is at the historical level and the other at the academic level. Modern neo-Confucianism at the historical level was developed in the modern context, but its basic content belongs to the traditional Confucianism or the study of Confucian classics. Modem neo-Confucianism at the academic level recognizes both the deficiencies of the traditional Confucianism and rationality of western learning, and dedicates itself to the modernization of Confucianism. Though Ma Yifu's moral philosophy is developed (...)
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  14. N. Serina Chan (2011). The Thought of Mou Zongsan. Brill.
    The first thorough study in English of the multi-faceted system of Mou Zongsan, this book examines key influences on the New Confucian thinker and introduces his Kantian- and Mah?y?na Fo-inflected moral metaphysical reading of the Lu-Wang ...
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  15. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2011). Mou Zongsan and Tang Junyi on Zhang Zai's and Wang Fuzhi's Philosophies of Qi : A Critical Reflection. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):85-98.
    Fuzhi’s philosophies of qi. In this essay, both the strength and weakness of their interpretations will be critically examined. As a contrast, an alternative interpretation of the School of qi in Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism will be outlined. This new interpretation will uncover that, like Leibniz, Zhang Zai and Wang Fuzhi introduced a non-substantivalist approach in natural philosophy in terms of an innovative concept of force. This interpretation not only helps to show the limitations of Mou Zongsan’s and Tang Junyi’s understandings of (...)
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  16. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2011). Mou Zongsan on Confucian and Kant's Ethics: A Critical Reflection. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):146-164.
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  17. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2011). On Mou Zongsan's Hermeneutic Application of Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):174-189.
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  18. Wing-cheuk Chan (2010). Yang, Zebo 楊澤波, an Examination of Mou Zongsan's Three-Fold Typology 牟宗三三系論論衡. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (1):133-136.
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  19. Wing-Cheuk Chan (2006). Mou Zongsan on Zen Buddhism. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (1):73-88.
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  20. Wing-cheuk Chan (2006). Mou Zongsan's Transformation of Kant's Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 33 (1):125–139.
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  21. Wing-Cheuk Chan & Henry C. H. Shiu (2011). Introduction: Mou Zongsan and Chinese Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):169-173.
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  22. Wing-Tsit Chan (1956). Hu Shih and Chinese Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 6 (1):3-12.
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  23. Cheung Chan-fai (1998). T'ang Chün-I's Philosophy of Love. Philosophy East and West 48 (2):257-271.
    T'ang Chün-i's early work Ai-ching chih fu-yin (Gospel of love) has been much neglected by T'ang scholars. This essay argues that this text is not a caprice, and that it marks an important stage in T'ang's life and studies. Furthermore, in the history of Chinese philosophy, it is probably the first book ever written on the philosophy of love.
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  24. Chung-Ying Cheng (2011). Preface: New Confucianism as a Philosophy of Humanity and Governance. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):1-2.
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  25. Zhihua Cheng (2009). Mou Zongsan Zhe Xue Yan Jiu: Dao de de Xing Shang Xue Zhi Ke Neng = Mouzongsan Zhexue Yanjiu: Daode Xingshanxue Zhi Keneng. Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  26. Hsiao Chieh-Fu, Chu Po-Kung, T'ang I.-Chieh & Lu Yü-San (1971). A Critique of Leftist Chang Tai-Nien's So-Called "Some Characteristics of Classical Chinese Philosophy". Contemporary Chinese Thought 2 (4):196-245.
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  27. Huang Chun-Chieh (2009). Confucian Thought in Postwar Taiwanese Culture. Contemporary Chinese Thought 41 (1):28-48.
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  28. Huang Chun-Chieh (2009). The Conservative Trend of Confucianism in Taiwan After World War II. Contemporary Chinese Thought 41 (1):49-69.
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  29. T'ang Chun-I. (1959). The Development of Ideas of Spiritual Value in Chinese Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 9 (1/2):32-34.
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  30. T'ang Chün-I. (1974). My Option Between Philosophy and Religion. Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (4):4-38.
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  31. T'ang Chün-I. (1974). Philosophical Consciousness, Scientific Consciousness, and Moral Reason. Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (4):72-109.
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  32. T'ang Chün-I. (1973). Cosmologies in Ancient Chinese Philosophy. Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (1):4-47.
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  33. T'ang Chün-I. (1973). On the Direction of the Development of Political Consciousness in the Chinese People in the Past One Hundred Years. Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (1):86-111.
  34. T'ang Chün-I. (1973). Religious Beliefs and Modern Chinese Culture Part II: The Religious Spirit of Confucianism. Contemporary Chinese Thought 5 (1):48-85.
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  35. Kwan Chun-Keung (2011). Mou Zongsan's Ontological Reading of Tiantai Buddhism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):206-222.
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  36. Jason Clower (2012). The Religious Philosophy of Liang Shuming: The Hidden Buddhist. By Thierry Meynard. (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011. Xxv, 226 Pp. Hardback, ISBN 1875-9386.). [REVIEW] Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (4):614-616.
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  37. Jason Clower (2010). The Unlikely Buddhologist: Tiantai Buddhism in Mou Zongsan's New Confucianism. Brill.
    This highly accessible book provides a comprehensive unpacking and interpretation, suitable for students and scholars in all fields, of towering philosopher Mou ...
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  38. Jason T. Clower (2011). Mou Zongsan on the Five Periods of the Buddha's Teaching. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):190-205.
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  39. A. S. Cua (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
    Featuring contributions from the world's most highly esteemed Asian philosophy scholars, this important encyclopedia covers the complex and increasingly influential field of Chinese thought, from earliest recorded times to the present day. Including coverage on the subject previously unavailable to English speakers, the Encyclopedia sheds light on the extensive range of concepts, movements, philosophical works, and thinkers that populate the field. It includes a thorough survey of the history of Chinese philosophy; entries on all major thinkers from Confucius to Mou (...)
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  40. Zhang Dainian (1994). The Historical Significance of Feng Youlan's Zhen Yuan Liu Shu. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 21 (3-4):283-301.
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  41. Fred Dallmayr & Tingyang Zhao (eds.) (2012). Contemporary Chinese Political Thought: Debates and Perspectives. University Press of Kentucky.
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  42. Yang Disheng (1994). Mourning Professor Feng Youlan: "Method of Abstract Inheriting" Should Not Be Denied. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 21 (3-4):407-430.
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  43. David Elstein (2012). Chan, N. Serina, The Thought of M Ou Zongsan. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):533-536.
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  44. David Elstein (2010). Why Early Confucianism Cannot Generate Democracy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):427-443.
    A central issue in Chinese philosophy today is the relationship between Confucianism and democracy. While some political figures have argued that Confucian values justify non-democratic forms of government, many scholars have argued that Confucianism can provide justification for democracy, though this Confucian democracy will differ substantially from liberal democracy. These scholars believe it is important for Chinese culture to develop its own conception of democracy using Confucian values, drawn mainly from Kongzi (Confucius) and Mengzi (Mencius), as the basis. This essay (...)
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  45. Ruiping Fan (ed.) (2011). The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China. Springer.
    Under the clear and thoughtful editorship of Ruiping Fan, The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China provides new and highly substantive insights into the emergence of a renewed, relevant, and perceptively engaged Confucianism in 21st century China. Through the vibrantly diverse essays contained in this volume, and in cogent overview through Fan’s introduction, one learns that Confucianism is thoroughly misunderstood, if it is seen only through Western lenses. It cannot be absorbed into that rights-based “global” discourse that has been the (...)
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  46. Youlan Feng (1983). A History of Chinese Philosophy. Princeton University Press.
    Since its original publication in Chinese in the 1930s, this work has been accepted by Chinese scholars as the most important contribution to the study of their country's philosophy. In 1952 the book was published by Princeton University Press in an English translation by the distinguished scholar of Chinese history, Derk Bodde, "the dedicated translator of Fung Yu-lan's huge history of Chinese philosophy" ( New York Times Book Review ). Available for the first time in paperback, it remains the most (...)
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  47. Youlan Feng (1948). A Short History of Chinese Philosophy. New York, Macmillan Co..
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