||The time period covered by "Contemporary Chinese Philosophy" runs from the late nineteenth century (the late Qing dynasty) to the present. One of the central dynamics of this era is Chinese thinkers' engagement with European, Indian, and American philosophical traditions. Chinese versions of liberalism and Marxism flourish. Chinese philosophers also reflect critically on their own traditions, leading some to advocate the abandonment of Chinese traditions while others promote renewed or synthetic forms. Several varieties of "New Confucianism" emerge, the most prominent of which is Mou Zongsan's Kantian reading of Song-Ming Neo-Confucianism. ("Neo-Confucianism" generally refers to the revival of Confucianism that began around 1000 CE; "New Confucianism" refers to twentieth-century developments.) In recent years, two main trends have dominated: on the one hand, a back-to-the classics movement that has sometimes been coupled with suspicion about the aptness to China of the Western-inspired category of "philosophy (zhexue)," and on the other hand, the continued proliferation of eclectic, synthetic philosophizing drawing on various sources.