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Summary

Continental feminist philosophy refers to feminist thought emerging from various continental philosophical and intellectual traditions. In France in particular, movements such as existentialism, psychoanalysis, phenomenology, and deconstruction have been taken up by feminist thinkers, making central questions of gender, sexual difference, women’s sexuality, women’s language, and the presence, or more accurately the absence, of women in the dominant Western philosophical tradition. In the Anglophone context, new areas of continental feminism have emerged including gender theory, feminist race theory, feminist phenomenology, postcolonial feminist theory, and queer theory.  Continental feminism includes all these, plus continentally informed critical-feminist approaches to knowledge and science, economic and political structures, cultural practices (arts, popular culture, practices of everyday life), and approaches to and engagements with contemporary and historical figures in the continental philosophical tradition.

Key works Simone de Beauvoir’s insight that “one is not born, but becomes a woman” in De Beauvoir 1952 arguably marks the inception of contemporary continental feminism. Other foundational texts for French feminist philosophy include Cixous 1976Irigaray 1985, and Kristeva 1984. Other key figures are Michèle Le Doeuff, Sarah Kofman, and Monique Wittig. For a key text in Italian feminist philosophy, see Cavarero 2002. In the Anglophone context, Butler 1990 has been vastly influential. Butler synthesizes insights from thinkers as diverse as Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, J.L. Austin, de Beauvoir, and Wittig among others; this text more or less gave birth to the fields of gender theory and queer theory. Spivak 1981 provides a postcolonial and deconstructive context for French feminism. Cornell 1991 melds deconstruction and Lacanian psychoanalysis into a feminist critique of law. Grosz 1994, takes up the thought of Irigaray and Deleuze along with phenomenology to forge work on the body that became foundational to the confluence of feminism and “new materialisms,” while Young 2005 stands as a key example of feminist phenomenology in the lineage of Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
Introductions

Cahill & Hansen 2003: A fine introductory reader in continental feminism. Davidson et al 2010: Excellent introduction to black feminist continental philosophy. Irigaray 1985: Irigaray's foundational collection of essays and interviews explains her philosophical methodology and early positions on a variety of issues. Olkowski 2000: Offers a slew of recent feminist engagements with French philosophy. Le Dœuff 1991: Essays on being a woman in philosophy in France, rereading the history of Western philosophy as a feminist.

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Simone de Beauvoir
  1. Anna Alexander (2003). Outside The Second Sex. Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 13 (1):94-127.
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  2. Meryl Altman (2007). Beauvoir, Hegel, War. Hypatia 22 (3):66-91.
    : The importance of Hegel to the philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir, both to her early philosophical texts and to The Second Sex, is usually discussed in terms of the master-slave dialectic and a Kojève–influenced reading, which some see her as sharing with Sartre, others persuasively describe as divergent from and corrective to Sartre's. Altman shows that Hegel's influence on Beauvoir's work is also wider, both in terms of what she takes on board and what she works through and rejects, (...)
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  3. Meryl Altman (2007). Simone de Beauvoir and Lesbian Lived Experience. Feminist Studies 33 (1):207-232.
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  4. Barbara S. Andrew (2005). Simone de Beauvoir's Philosophy of Lived Experience. Teaching Philosophy 28 (3):300-302.
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  5. Barbara S. Andrew (2001). Identity Without Selfhood: Bisexuality and Simone de Beauvoir (Review). Hypatia 16 (3):161-163.
  6. Barbara S. Andrew (2001). Book Review: Mariam Fraser. Identity Without Selfhood: Bisexuality and Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [REVIEW] Hypatia 16 (3):161-163.
  7. Barbara S. Andrew (2000). Beauvoir and The Second Sex: Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 14 (2):156-160.
  8. Barbara S. Andrew (1998). Care, Freedom, and Reciprocity in the Ethics of Simone de Beauvoir. Philosophy Today 42 (3):290-300.
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  9. Christina Angelfors (1989). La Double Conscience la Prise de Conscience Féminine Chez Colette, Simone de Beauvoir Et Marie Cardinal.
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  10. Emily Anne Parker (2011). Book: The Second Sex (New Translation)-by Simone de Beauvoir. Philosophy Now 82:42.
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  11. Katherine Arens (1995). Between Hypatia and Beauvoir: Philosophy as Discourse. Hypatia 10 (4):46 - 75.
    Two studies of women in philosophy, Michéle Le Doeuff's biography of Simone de Beauvoir Hipparchia's Choice (1991) and Fritz Mauthner's historical novel Hypatia (1892), question what kind of power and authority are available to philosophers. Mauthner's philosophy of language expands on Le Doeuff to outline how philosophy acts parallel to other sociohistorical discourses, relying on public consensus and on the negotiation of stereotypes to create a viable speaking subject for the female philosopher.
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  12. Kristana Arp (2005). Simone de Beauvoir: A Critical Reader (Review). Hypatia 14 (4):186-191.
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  13. Kristana Arp (2000). A Different Voice in the Phenomenological Tradition: Simone de Beauvoir and the Ethic of Care. In Linda Fisher & Lester E. Embree (eds.), Feminist Phenomenology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, C 71--81.
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  14. Kristana Arp (1999). Conceptions of Freedom in Beauvoir's The Ethics of Ambiguity. International Studies in Philosophy 31 (2):25-34.
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  15. Kristana Arp (1999). Simone de Beauvoir's Existentialist Ontology. Philosophy Today 43 (3):266-271.
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  16. Kristana Arp (1999). Book Review: Elizabeth Fallaize. Simone de Beauvoir: A Critical Reader. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 14 (4):186-191.
  17. Tomiko Asabuki, Claude Péronny & Chiharu Tanaka (1996). Vingt-Huit Jours au Japon Avec Jean-Paul Sartre Et Simone de Beauvoir.
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  18. S. Andrew Barbara (2003). I Beauvoir's Place in Philosophical Thought. In Claudia Card (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge University Press 24.
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  19. Hazel Barnes (1998). Response to Margaret Simons. Philosophy Today 42 (9999):29-34.
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  20. N. Bauer (2011). Beauvoir on the Allure of Self-Objectification. In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer Verlag 117--129.
  21. Nancy Bauer (2012). Essai Sur Beauvoir, Cavell, Etc. [An Essay Concerning Beauvoir, Cavell, Etc.]. In Eliane Lecarme-Tabone & Jean-Louis Jeannelle (eds.), Cahiers de L'Herne: Beauvoir. L'Herne
    The link is to an expanded, English version of this essay.
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  22. Nancy Bauer (2011). Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  23. Nancy Bauer (2007). The Second Feminism. Symposia on Gender, Race, and Philosophy.
  24. Nancy Bauer (2006). Beauvoir's Heideggerian Ontology. In Margaret A. Simons (ed.), The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Critical Essays. Indiana University Press
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  25. Nancy Bauer (2004). Must We Read Simone de Beauvoir? In Emily Grosholz (ed.), The Legacy of Simone de Beauvoir. Clarendon Press
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  26. Nancy Bauer (2001). Being-with as Being-Against: Heidegger Meets Hegel in the Second Sex. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):129-149.
    In this paper I attempt to further the case, made in recent years by Eva Gothlin, that readers interested in a philosophical return to Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex have good reason to heed Beauvoir's appropriation of central concepts from Heidegger's Being and Time. I speculate about why readers have been hesitant to acknowledge Heidegger's influence on Beauvoir and show that her infrequent though, I argue, important use of the Heideggarian neologism Mitsein in The Second Sex makes inadequate sense (...)
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  27. Nancy Bauer (2001). Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy, and Feminism. Columbia University Press.
    " Nancy Bauer begins her book by asking: "Then what kind of a problem does being a woman pose?
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  28. Nancy Bauer (1999; rpt 2004). First Philosophy, The Second Sex, and the Third Wave. In Raynova Yvanka & Moser Susanne (eds.), Simone de Beauvoir: 50 Jahre nach dem Anderen Geschlecht. Peter Lang
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  29. Nancy Bauer (1999). Simone de Beauvoir. Die Philosophin 10 (20):41-61.
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  30. Nancy Bauer (1999). Sum Femina, Inde Cogito. Das Andere Geschlecht Und Die Meditationen. Die Philosophin 10 (20):41-61.
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  31. Nancy Bauer (1999). The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Gendered Phenomenologies, Erotic Generosities, And: Sex and Existence: Simone de Beauvoir's 'The Second Sex', And: Beauvoir and The Second Sex : Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism, And: Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (4):688-691.
  32. Nancy Bauer (1996). Book Review: Margaret A. Simons. Feminist Interpretations of Simone de Beauvoir. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. [REVIEW] Hypatia 11 (3):161-164.
  33. Nancy Fay Bauer (1997). Recounting Woman: Simone de Beauvoir and Feminist Philosophy. Dissertation, Harvard University
    This dissertation is meant as a call for philosophers to turn, and feminists to return, to Simone de Beauvoir's landmark tome The Second Sex. My central claim is that in this book Beauvoir establishes her own genuinely original kink in the history of philosophy by discovering a way to appropriate the tradition that is grounded in questions about her being a woman. I argue that Beauvoir's discovery provides a model for a way to think philosophically about sex difference that dispels (...)
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  34. De Beauvoir (2006). Michele Le Doeuff. In Margaret A. Simons (ed.), The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Critical Essays. Indiana University Press 11.
  35. Simone de Beauvoir, Barbara Klaw & Margaret A. Simons (eds.) (2006). Diary of a Philosophy Student, Volume 1: 1926-27. University of Illinois Press.
    Revelatory insights into the early life and thought of the preeminent French feminist philosopher Dating from her years as a philosophy student at the Sorbonne, this is the 1926-27 diary of the teenager who would become the famous French philosopher, author, and feminist, Simone de Beauvoir. Written years before her first meeting with Jean-Paul Sartre, these diaries reveal previously unknown details about her life and offer critical insights into her early philosophy and literary works. Presented here for the first time (...)
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  36. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons, Mary Beth Mader & Marybeth Timmermann (eds.) (2004). Simone de Beauvoir: Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press.
    Contents: "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," "Two Unpublished Chapters from She Came to Stay," "Pyrrhus and Cineas," "A Review of The Phenomenology of Perception by Maurice Merleau-Ponty," "Moral Idealism and Political Realism," "Existentialism and Popular Wisdom," "Jean-Paul Sartre," "An Eye for an Eye," "Literature and Metaphysics," "Introduction to an Ethics of Ambiguity," "An Existentialist Looks at Americans," and "What is Existentialism?".
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  37. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons & Marybeth Timmermann (eds.) (2012). Political Writings. University of Illinois Press.
    New translations tracing decades of Beauvoir's leftist political engagement during the turbulent era of decolonization, from articles exposing conditions in fascist Spain and Portugal in 1945 and hard hitting attacks on right-wing intellectuals in the 1950s, to a 1962 defense of an Algerian freedom fighter, Djamila Boupacha, and a 1975 article calling for the 'two state solution' in Israel. The texts range from a surprising 1952 defense of the misogynistic 18th c. pornographer, the Marquis de Sade, to the transcription of (...)
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  38. Simone De Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons & Jane Marie Todd (1989). Two Interviews with Simone de Beauvoir. Hypatia 3 (3):11 - 27.
    In these interviews from 1982 and 1985, I ask Beauvoir about her philosophical differences with Jean-Paul Sartre on the issues of voluntarism vs social conditioning and embodiment, individualism vs reciprocity, and ontology vs ethics. We also discuss her influence on Sartre's work, the problems with the current English translation of The Second Sex, her analyses of motherhood and feminist concepts of woman-identity, and her own experience of sexism.
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  39. Linda A. Bell (1991). Simone de Beauvoir. Radical Philosophy Review of Books 4 (4):58-61.
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  40. Debra Berghoffen (2001). Menage À Trois: Freud, Beauvoir, and the Marquis de Sade. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):151-163.
    Without rejecting Simone de Beauvoir's often cited feminist agenda, this paper takes up her less frequently noted insight – that woman's existence as the inessential other is more than a consequence of material dependency, and political inequality. This insight traces women's subordinated status to the effect of a patriarchal desire that produces and is sustained by a political imaginary that is not economically grounded and is not undermined by women's economic or political progress. Taking up this insight, this paper reads (...)
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  41. D. Bergoffen (2000). Simone de Beauvoir: Disrupting the Metonomy of Gender. In Dorothea Olkowski (ed.), Resistance, Flight, Creation: Feminist Enactments of French Philosophy. Cornell University Press 97--110.
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  42. Debra Bergoffen (2012). Simone de Beauvoir and the Marquis de Sade. In Shannon M. Mussett & William S. Wilkerson (eds.), Beauvoir and Western Thought From Plato to Butler. 75.
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  43. Debra Bergoffen (2011). The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Ambiguity, Conversion, Resistance (Review). Philosophia 1 (2):251-256.
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  44. Debra Bergoffen (2009). 1 Getting the Beauvoir We Deserve. In Christine Daigle & Jacob Golomb (eds.), Beauvoir and Sartre: The Riddle of Influence. Indiana University Press 13.
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  45. Debra Bergoffen (2003). Beauvoir and the Second Sex. International Studies in Philosophy 35 (2):184-185.
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  46. Debra Bergoffen (2003). 12 Simone de Beauvoir:(Re) Counting the Sexual Difference. In Claudia Card (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge University Press 248.
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  47. Debra Bergoffen (2001). Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 33 (1):152-153.
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  48. Debra Bergoffen (1996). The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Gendered Phenomenologies, Erotic Generosities. State University of New York Press.
    Challenges Beauvoir's self-portrait and argues that she was a philosopher in her own right.
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  49. Debra B. Bergoffen (2002). Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: Woman, Man, and the Desire to Be God. Constellations 9 (3):409-418.
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  50. Debra B. Bergoffen (1996). From Husserl to de Beauvoir: Gendering the Perceiving Subject. Metaphilosophy 27 (1-2):53-62.
    This paper breaks ranks with those philosophers and feminists who either ignore de Beauvoir or find her passé. It argues that de Beauvoir is fundamentally a philosopher; that one of her crucial contributions to philosophy was to identify the erotic as a philosophical category; and that we best understand de Beauvoir's place in the feminist and philosophical fields if we read her as a phenomenologist who reworks Husserl's theory of intentionality and who, in this reworking, steps out of Sartre's shadow (...)
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