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Summary

Continental feminist philosophy refers to feminist thought emerging from various continental philosophical and intellectual traditions. In France in particular, movements such as existentialism, psychoanalysis, phenomenology, and deconstruction have been taken up by feminist thinkers, making central questions of gender, sexual difference, women’s sexuality, women’s language, and the presence, or more accurately the absence, of women in the dominant Western philosophical tradition. In the Anglophone context, new areas of continental feminism have emerged including gender theory, feminist race theory, feminist phenomenology, postcolonial feminist theory, and queer theory.  Continental feminism includes all these, plus continentally informed critical-feminist approaches to knowledge and science, economic and political structures, cultural practices (arts, popular culture, practices of everyday life), and approaches to and engagements with contemporary and historical figures in the continental philosophical tradition.

Key works Simone de Beauvoir’s insight that “one is not born, but becomes a woman” in De Beauvoir 1952 arguably marks the inception of contemporary continental feminism. Other foundational texts for French feminist philosophy include Cixous 1976Irigaray 1985, and Kristeva 1984. Other key figures are Michèle Le Doeuff, Sarah Kofman, and Monique Wittig. For a key text in Italian feminist philosophy, see Cavarero 2002. In the Anglophone context, Butler 1990 has been vastly influential. Butler synthesizes insights from thinkers as diverse as Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, J.L. Austin, de Beauvoir, and Wittig among others; this text more or less gave birth to the fields of gender theory and queer theory. Spivak 1981 provides a postcolonial and deconstructive context for French feminism. Cornell 1991 melds deconstruction and Lacanian psychoanalysis into a feminist critique of law. Grosz 1994, takes up the thought of Irigaray and Deleuze along with phenomenology to forge work on the body that became foundational to the confluence of feminism and “new materialisms,” while Young 2005 stands as a key example of feminist phenomenology in the lineage of Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
Introductions

Cahill & Hansen 2003: A fine introductory reader in continental feminism. Davidson et al 2010: Excellent introduction to black feminist continental philosophy. Irigaray 1985: Irigaray's foundational collection of essays and interviews explains her philosophical methodology and early positions on a variety of issues. Olkowski 2000: Offers a slew of recent feminist engagements with French philosophy. Le Dœuff 1991: Essays on being a woman in philosophy in France, rereading the history of Western philosophy as a feminist.

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Simone de Beauvoir
  1. Anna Alexander (2003). Outside The Second Sex. Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 13 (1):94-127.
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  2. Meryl Altman (2007). Beauvoir, Hegel, War. Hypatia 22 (3):66-91.
    : The importance of Hegel to the philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir, both to her early philosophical texts and to The Second Sex, is usually discussed in terms of the master-slave dialectic and a Kojève–influenced reading, which some see her as sharing with Sartre, others persuasively describe as divergent from and corrective to Sartre's. Altman shows that Hegel's influence on Beauvoir's work is also wider, both in terms of what she takes on board and what she works through and rejects, (...)
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  3. Barbara S. Andrew (2005). Simone de Beauvoir's Philosophy of Lived Experience. Teaching Philosophy 28 (3):300-302.
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  4. Barbara S. Andrew (2001). Identity Without Selfhood: Bisexuality and Simone de Beauvoir (Review). Hypatia 16 (3):161-163.
  5. Barbara S. Andrew (2001). Book Review: Mariam Fraser. Identity Without Selfhood: Bisexuality and Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [REVIEW] Hypatia 16 (3):161-163.
  6. Barbara S. Andrew (2000). Beauvoir and The Second Sex: Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 14 (2):156-160.
  7. Katherine Arens (1995). Between Hypatia and Beauvoir: Philosophy as Discourse. Hypatia 10 (4):46 - 75.
    Two studies of women in philosophy, Michéle Le Doeuff's biography of Simone de Beauvoir Hipparchia's Choice (1991) and Fritz Mauthner's historical novel Hypatia (1892), question what kind of power and authority are available to philosophers. Mauthner's philosophy of language expands on Le Doeuff to outline how philosophy acts parallel to other sociohistorical discourses, relying on public consensus and on the negotiation of stereotypes to create a viable speaking subject for the female philosopher.
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  8. Kristana Arp (2005). Simone de Beauvoir: A Critical Reader (Review). Hypatia 14 (4):186-191.
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  9. Kristana Arp (1999). Book Review: Elizabeth Fallaize. Simone de Beauvoir: A Critical Reader. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. [REVIEW] Hypatia 14 (4):186-191.
  10. N. Bauer (2011). Beauvoir on the Allure of Self-Objectification. In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer Verlag. 117--129.
  11. Nancy Bauer (2012). Essai Sur Beauvoir, Cavell, Etc. [An Essay Concerning Beauvoir, Cavell, Etc.]. In Eliane Lecarme-Tabone & Jean-Louis Jeannelle (eds.), Cahiers de L'Herne: Beauvoir. L'Herne.
    The link is to an expanded, English version of this essay.
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  12. Nancy Bauer (2011). Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  13. Nancy Bauer (2007). The Second Feminism. Symposia on Gender, Race, and Philosophy.
  14. Nancy Bauer (2006). Beauvoir's Heideggerian Ontology. In Margaret A. Simons (ed.), The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Critical Essays. Indiana University Press.
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  15. Nancy Bauer (2004). Must We Read Simone de Beauvoir? In Emily Grosholz (ed.), The Legacy of Simone de Beauvoir. Clarendon Press.
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  16. Nancy Bauer (2001). Being-with as Being-Against: Heidegger Meets Hegel in the Second Sex. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):129-149.
    In this paper I attempt to further the case, made in recent years by Eva Gothlin, that readers interested in a philosophical return to Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex have good reason to heed Beauvoir's appropriation of central concepts from Heidegger's Being and Time. I speculate about why readers have been hesitant to acknowledge Heidegger's influence on Beauvoir and show that her infrequent though, I argue, important use of the Heideggarian neologism Mitsein in The Second Sex makes inadequate sense (...)
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  17. Nancy Bauer (2001). Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy, and Feminism. Columbia University Press.
    " Nancy Bauer begins her book by asking: "Then what kind of a problem does being a woman pose?
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  18. Nancy Bauer (1999; rpt 2004). First Philosophy, The Second Sex, and the Third Wave. In Raynova Yvanka & Moser Susanne (eds.), Simone de Beauvoir: 50 Jahre nach dem Anderen Geschlecht. Peter Lang.
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  19. Nancy Bauer (1999). Simone de Beauvoir. Die Philosophin 10 (20):41-61.
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  20. Nancy Bauer (1999). Sum Femina, Inde Cogito. Das Andere Geschlecht Und Die Meditationen. Die Philosophin 10 (20):41-61.
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  21. Nancy Bauer (1999). The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Gendered Phenomenologies, Erotic Generosities, And: Sex and Existence: Simone de Beauvoir's 'The Second Sex', And: Beauvoir and The Second Sex : Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism, And: Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (4):688-691.
  22. Nancy Bauer (1996). Book Review: Margaret A. Simons. Feminist Interpretations of Simone de Beauvoir. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. [REVIEW] Hypatia 11 (3):161-164.
  23. Simone de Beauvoir, Barbara Klaw & Margaret A. Simons (eds.) (2006). Diary of a Philosophy Student, Volume 1: 1926-27. University of Illinois Press.
    Revelatory insights into the early life and thought of the preeminent French feminist philosopher Dating from her years as a philosophy student at the Sorbonne, this is the 1926-27 diary of the teenager who would become the famous French philosopher, author, and feminist, Simone de Beauvoir. Written years before her first meeting with Jean-Paul Sartre, these diaries reveal previously unknown details about her life and offer critical insights into her early philosophy and literary works. Presented here for the first time (...)
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  24. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons, Mary Beth Mader & Marybeth Timmermann (eds.) (2004). Simone de Beauvoir: Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press.
    Contents: "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," "Two Unpublished Chapters from She Came to Stay," "Pyrrhus and Cineas," "A Review of The Phenomenology of Perception by Maurice Merleau-Ponty," "Moral Idealism and Political Realism," "Existentialism and Popular Wisdom," "Jean-Paul Sartre," "An Eye for an Eye," "Literature and Metaphysics," "Introduction to an Ethics of Ambiguity," "An Existentialist Looks at Americans," and "What is Existentialism?".
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  25. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons & Marybeth Timmermann (eds.) (2012). Political Writings. University of Illinois Press.
    New translations tracing decades of Beauvoir's leftist political engagement during the turbulent era of decolonization, from articles exposing conditions in fascist Spain and Portugal in 1945 and hard hitting attacks on right-wing intellectuals in the 1950s, to a 1962 defense of an Algerian freedom fighter, Djamila Boupacha, and a 1975 article calling for the 'two state solution' in Israel. The texts range from a surprising 1952 defense of the misogynistic 18th c. pornographer, the Marquis de Sade, to the transcription of (...)
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  26. Simone De Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons & Jane Marie Todd (1989). Two Interviews with Simone de Beauvoir. Hypatia 3 (3):11 - 27.
    In these interviews from 1982 and 1985, I ask Beauvoir about her philosophical differences with Jean-Paul Sartre on the issues of voluntarism vs social conditioning and embodiment, individualism vs reciprocity, and ontology vs ethics. We also discuss her influence on Sartre's work, the problems with the current English translation of The Second Sex, her analyses of motherhood and feminist concepts of woman-identity, and her own experience of sexism.
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  27. Linda A. Bell (1991). Simone de Beauvoir. Radical Philosophy Review of Books 4 (4):58-61.
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  28. Debra Berghoffen (2001). Menage à Trois: Freud, Beauvoir, and the Marquis de Sade. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):151-163.
    Without rejecting Simone de Beauvoir's often cited feminist agenda, this paper takes up her less frequently noted insight – that woman's existence as the inessential other is more than a consequence of material dependency, and political inequality. This insight traces women's subordinated status to the effect of a patriarchal desire that produces and is sustained by a political imaginary that is not economically grounded and is not undermined by women's economic or political progress. Taking up this insight, this paper reads (...)
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  29. D. Bergoffen (2000). Simone de Beauvoir: Disrupting the Metonomy of Gender. In Dorothea Olkowski (ed.), Resistance, Flight, Creation: Feminist Enactments of French Philosophy. Cornell University Press. 97--110.
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  30. Debra B. Bergoffen (2002). Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: Woman, Man, and the Desire to Be God. Constellations 9 (3):409-418.
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  31. Debra B. Bergoffen (1996). From Husserl to de Beauvoir: Gendering the Perceiving Subject. Metaphilosophy 27 (1-2):53-62.
    This paper breaks ranks with those philosophers and feminists who either ignore de Beauvoir or find her passé. It argues that de Beauvoir is fundamentally a philosopher; that one of her crucial contributions to philosophy was to identify the erotic as a philosophical category; and that we best understand de Beauvoir's place in the feminist and philosophical fields if we read her as a phenomenologist who reworks Husserl's theory of intentionality and who, in this reworking, steps out of Sartre's shadow (...)
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  32. Eugene F. Bertoldi (1986). Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre S. De Beauvoir Translated by P. O'Brien New York: Pantheon, 1984. Pp. 453. Dialogue 25 (04):777-.
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  33. Ulrika Björk (2010). Paradoxes of Femininity in the Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir. Continental Philosophy Review 43 (1):39-60.
    This article explicates the meaning of the paradox from the perspective of sexual difference, as articulated by Simone de Beauvoir. I claim that the self, the other, and their becoming are sexed in Beauvoir’s early literary writing before the question of sexual difference is posed in The Second Sex (1949). In particular, Beauvoir’s description of Françoise’s subjective becoming in the novel She Came to Stay (1943) anticipates her later systematic description of ‘the woman in love’. In addition, I argue that (...)
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  34. Michelle Boulous Walker (2010). Love, Ethics, and Authenticity: Beauvoir's Lesson in What It Means to Read. Hypatia 25 (2):334-356.
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  35. Matthew Braddock (2007). A Critique of Simone de Beauvoir's Existential Ethics. Philosophy Today 51 (3):303-311.
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  36. F. Brennan (2004). “As Vast as the World”—Reflections on A Very Easy Death by Simone de Beauvoir. Medical Humanities 30 (2):85-90.
    In 1964, Simone de Beauvoir, arguably one of the greatest writers of 20th century Europe, published an account of the final 6 weeks of her mother’s life. It is a beautifully written, raw, honest, and powerful evocation of that period from the viewpoint of a relative. Its themes are universal—love, ambivalence in family ties, loss, and bereavement. Given that the events preceded the modern palliative care movement, reflections are made on differences in medical practice since the book’s publication.
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  37. Robert P. Brenner (forthcoming). Love and Entitlement: Sartre and Beauvoir on the Nature of Jealousy. Hypatia.
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  38. Catharine Savage Brosman (1995). Book Review: Simone de Beauvoir: The Making of an Intellectual Woman. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Literature 19 (2):417-418.
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  39. Claudia Card (ed.) (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Simone De Beauvoir. Cambridge University Press.
    Simone de Beauvoir was a philosopher and writer of notable range and influence whose work is central to feminist theory, French existentialism, and contemporary moral and social philosophy. The essays in this volume examine all the major aspects of her thought, including her views on issues such as the role of biology, sexuality and sexual difference, and evil, the influence on her work of Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Husserl, and others, and the philosophical significance of her memoirs and fiction. New readers (...)
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  40. Sue L. Cataldi (1999). Sexuality Situated: Beauvoir on "Frigidity". Hypatia 14 (4):70-82.
    : This essay relates scenes from Beauvoir's novels to her views of female eroticism and frigidity in The Second Sex. Expressions of frigidity signal unjust power relations in Beauvoir's literature. She constructs frigidity as a symbolic means of rejecting dominance in heterosexual relations. Thus frigidity need not be interpreted, as it sometimes is, as a form of bad faith. The essay concludes with some thoughts on the relevance of Beauvoir's view of frigidity to contemporary feminism.
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  41. Nadine Changfoot (2009). Transcendence in Simone de Beauvoir's the Second Sex: Revisiting Masculinist Ontology. Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (4):391-410.
    A large number of feminist philosophers and social critics accept that Simone de Beauvoir's conception of transcendence in The Second Sex relies on masculinist ontology. In contrast with feminist interpretations that see Beauvoir claiming the success of masculinist ontology, this article argues that transcendence as masculinist ontology does not succeed in The Second Sex because it requires a relation of domination, something contrary to its own definition of freedom-producing relations. The Second Sex obliquely reveals this failure, but Beauvoir does not (...)
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  42. Arthur Child (1949). Book Review:The Ethics of Ambiguity. Simone de Beauvoir. [REVIEW] Ethics 59 (4):292-.
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  43. Claire Colebrook (2005). Book Review: Dorothea Olkowski. Resistance, Flight, Creation: Feminist Enactments of French Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. [REVIEW] Hypatia 20 (1):217-220.
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  44. Christine Daigle & Jacob Golomb (eds.) (2009). Beauvoir and Sartre: The Riddle of Influence. Indiana University Press.
    Addresses questions of influence between two of the 20th century's greatest minds.
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  45. Simone De Beauvoir (1952). The Second Sex. Vintage Books.
    Required reading for anyone who believes in the equality of the sexes. A long awaited, highly acclaimed new translation of Simone De Beauvoir's landmark work.
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  46. Simone de Beauvoir (1948/1949). The Ethics of Ambiguity. New York, Philosophical Library.
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  47. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons, Sylvie Le Bon de Beauvoir & Anne Deing Cordero (eds.) (2009). Wartime Diary. University of Illinois Press.
    Written from September 1939 to January 1941, Simone de Beauvoir’s Wartime Diary gives English readers unabridged access to one of the scandalous texts that threaten to overturn traditional views of Beauvoir’s life and work. The account in Beauvoir’s Wartime Diary of her clandestine affair with Jacques Bost and sexual relationships with various young women challenges the conventional picture of Beauvoir as the devoted companion of Jean-Paul Sartre, just as her account of completing her novel She Came to Stay at a (...)
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  48. Simone de Beauvoir, Margaret A. Simons & Marybeth Timmermann (eds.) (2011). The Useless Mouths and Other Literary Writings. University of Illinois Press.
    The Useless Mouths" and Other Literary Writings brings to English-language readers literary writings--several previously unknown--by Simone de Beauvoir. Culled from sources including various American university collections, the works span decades of Beauvoir's career. Ranging from dramatic works and literary theory to radio broadcasts, they collectively reveal fresh insights into Beauvoir's writing process, personal life, and the honing of her philosophy. The volume begins with a new translation of the 1945 play The Useless Mouths, written in Paris during the Nazi occupation. (...)
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  49. Denyse de Saivre (2003). Pourquoi reparier de Simone de Beauvoir. Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 13 (1):157-159.
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  50. Penelope Deutscher (2008). The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Ambiguity, Conversion, Resistance. Cambridge University Press.
    Professor Deutscher studies Beauvoir's philosophy on "otherness" not just through her famous views on gender (in her celebrated 1949 work The...
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