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  1. George C. S. Benson (1989). Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):305 - 319.
    Partly as a result of much recent evidence of business and government crime, a large proportion of major corporations have adopted codes of ethics; government service is also making more use of them. The electrical manufacturing anti-trust conspiracy and 1973–1976 investigation of foreign and domestic bribery were immediate prods. There are also government codes of which the ASPA code is most widely distributed. Corporate codes discuss relations to employees, interemployee relationships, whistle blowing, effect on environment, commercial bribery, insider information, other (...)
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  2. Mark S. Blodgett & Patricia J. Carlson (1997). Corporate Ethics Codes: A Practical Application of Liability Prevention. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1363-1369.
    With the great increase in litigation, insurance costs, and consumer prices, both managers and businesses should take a proactive position in avoiding liability. Legal liability may attach when a duty has been breached; many actions falling into this category are also considered unethical. Since much of business liability is caused by a breach of a duty by a business to either an individual, another business, or to society, this article asserts that the practice of liability prevention is a practical business (...)
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  3. Aat Brakel (2007). The Moral Standard of a Company: Performing the Norms of Corporate Codes. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 3 (1):95-103.
    Bottom lines and codes provide a corporation with guidelines for dealing with the inside and outside world. Bottom lines have the oldest papers through Frederic Taylor's Scientific Management, dated beginning 20th century. Codes came into existence in its midst with the emerging sustainability agenda, referring both to technical detail and human judgement. Corporate codes present themselves as a policy document with collective rules handed down by way of a top-down approach. Since an effective code is dependent on the motivation of (...)
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  4. Johannes Brinkmann & Knut Ims (2003). Good Intentions Aside: Drafting a Functionalist Look at Codes of Ethics. Business Ethics 12 (3):265–274.
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  5. Heather E. Canary & Marianne M. Jennings (2008). Principles and Influence in Codes of Ethics: A Centering Resonance Analysis Comparing Pre- and Post-Sarbanes-Oxley Codes of Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):263 - 278.
    This study examines the similarities and differences in pre- and post-Sarbanes-Oxley corporate ethics codes and codes of conduct using the framework of structuration theory. Following the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) legislation in 2002 in the United States, publicly traded companies there undertook development and revision of their codes of ethics in response to new regulatory requirements as well as incentives under the U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines, which were also revised as part of the SOX mandates. Questions that remain are (...)
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  6. Margaret Anne Cleek & Sherry Lynn Leonard (1998). Can Corporate Codes of Ethics Influence Behavior? Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):619 - 630.
    There is increasing public interest in understanding the nature of corporate ethics due to the knowledge that unethical decisions and activities frequently undermine the performance and abilities of many organizations. Of the current literature found on the topic of ways organizations can influence ethical behavior, a majority is found on the issue of corporate codes of ethics.Most discussions on codes of ethics evaluate the contents of the codes and offer opinions on their wording, content, and/or value. Unfortunately, very little research (...)
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  7. Han Donker, Deborah Poff & Saif Zahir (2008). Corporate Values, Codes of Ethics, and Firm Performance: A Look at the Canadian Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):527 - 537.
    In this empirical study, we present two new models that are corporate ethics based. The first model numerically quantifies the corporate value index (CV-Index) based on a set of predefined parameters and the second model estimates the market-to-book values of equity in relation to the CV-Index as well as other parameters. These models were applied to Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). Through our analysis, we found statistically significant evidence that corporate values (CV-Index) positively correlated with firm (...)
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  8. William C. Frederick (1991). The Moral Authority of Transnational Corporate Codes. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (3):165 - 177.
    Ethical guidelines for multinational corporations are included in several international accords adopted during the past four decades. These guidelines attempt to influence the practices of multinational enterprises in such areas as employment relations, consumer protection, environmental pollution, political participation, and basic human rights. Their moral authority rests upon the competing principles of national sovereignty, social equity, market integrity, and human rights. Both deontological principles and experience-based value systems undergird and justify the primacy of human rights as the fundamental moral authority (...)
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  9. Claus Strue Frederiksen (2010). The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) and Philosophical Moral Theories – an Empirical Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics 93 (3):357 - 371.
    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some (...)
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  10. Eyun-Jung Ki, Hong-Lim Choi & Junghyuk Lee (2012). Does Ethics Statement of a Public Relations Firm Make a Difference? Yes It Does!! Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):267-276.
    Attempting to determine solutions for unethical practices in the field, this research was designed to assess the effectiveness of public relations firms’ ethics statements in decreasing the incidence of malpractice. This study revealed an encouraging finding that practitioners working in firms with ethical parameters were significantly more likely to engage in ethical practices. Moreover, educating public relations practitioners about the content of ethics statement could positively influence their ethical practices. At the same time, this study’s findings suggest further questions for (...)
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  11. Einar Marnburg (2000). The Behavioural Effects of Corporate Ethical Codes: Empirical Findings and Discussion. Business Ethics 9 (3):200–210.
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  12. Patrick E. Murphy (2005). Developing, Communicating and Promoting Corporate Ethics Statements: A Longitudinal Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 62 (2):183 - 189.
    This paper reports on the findings of the third in a series of surveys of large U.S.-based and multinational corporations on their ethics statements. Focusing on four types – values statement, corporate credo, code of ethics and Internet privacy policy – we find growth in the use of these statements over the last decade. We discuss the external communication of these statements, including the avenues that are now used for promotion and their intended audiences. The paper concludes with a number (...)
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  13. Patrick E. Murphy (1995). Corporate Ethics Statements: Current Status and Future Prospects. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 14 (9):727 - 740.
    This paper reports on a study of large U.S. based corporations concerning the status of formal ethics statements. Almost all responding firms (91%) have promulgated a formal code of ethics while one-half have published values statements and about one-third have a corporate credo. Analysis of these statements concentrated on to whom they are communicated; whether codes of ethics contain information pertinent to the industry, include sanctions for violations and provide specific guidance regarding gifts. Conclusions and implications for managers and researchers (...)
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  14. Peter Norberg (2009). “I Don't Care That People Don't Like What I Do” – Business Codes Viewed as Invisible or Visible Restrictions. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):211 - 225.
    Research about codes of corporate ethics has hitherto taken a hypothetical, correct meaning of codes for granted. The article problematises the dichotomous categories intrinsic and subjective meanings of codes. I address the question if professionals in finance accept codes of business. The particular mentality of stockbrokers and traders constructs the way they judge restrictions such as company codes of ethics. While neglecting dimensions of ethics beyond known rules, brokers and traders distrust good ethics as a possible end in itself. Many (...)
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  15. Cecily A. Raiborn & Dinah Payne (1990). Corporate Codes of Conduct: A Collective Conscience and Continuum. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 9 (11):879 - 889.
    This paper discusses the vast continuum between the letter of the law (legality) and the spirit of the law (ethics or morality). Further, the authors review the fiduciary duties owed by the firm to its various publics. These aspects must be considered in developing a corporate code of ethics. The underlying qualitative characteristics of a code include clarity, comprehensiveness and enforceability. While ethics is indigenous to a society, every code of ethics will necessarily reflect the corporate culture from which that (...)
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  16. M. Schwartz (2001). The Nature of the Relationship Between Corporate Codes of Ethics and Behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3):247 - 262.
    A study was conducted in order to examine the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behaviour. Fifty-seven interviews of employees, managers, and ethics officers were conducted at four large Canadian companies. The study found that codes of ethics are a potential factor influencing the behaviour of corporate agents. Reasons are provided why codes are violated as well as complied with. A set of eight metaphors are developed which help to explain how codes of ethics influence behaviour.
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  17. Mark S. Schwartz (2004). Effective Corporate Codes of Ethics: Perceptions of Code Users. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):323 - 343.
    The study examines employee, managerial, and ethics officer perceptions regarding their companies codes of ethics. The study moves beyond examining the mere existence of a code of ethics to consider the role that code content and code process (i.e. creation, implementation, and administration) might play with respect to the effectiveness of codes in influencing behavior. Fifty-seven in-depth, semi-structured interviews of employees, managers, and ethics officers were conducted at four large Canadian companies. The factors viewed by respondents to be important with (...)
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  18. Robin S. Snell, Almaz M.-K. Chak & Jess W.-H. Chu (1999). Codes of Ethics in Hong Kong: Their Adoption and Impact in the Run Up to the 1997 Transition of Sovereignty to China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 22 (4):281 - 309.
    Following a government campaign run by the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) in 1994, many Hong Kong companies and trade associations adopted written codes of conduct. The research study reported here examines how and why companies responded, and assesses the impact of code adoption on the moral climate of code adopters. The research involved (a) initial questionnaire surveys to which 184 organisations replied, (b) longitudinal questionnaire-based assessments of moral ethos and conduct in a focal sample of 17 code adopting companies, (...)
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  19. Betsy Stevens (2008). Corporate Ethical Codes: Effective Instruments for Influencing Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):601 - 609.
    This paper reviews studies of corporate ethical codes published since 2000 and concludes that codes be can effective instruments for shaping ethical behavior and guiding employee decision-making. Culture and effective communication are key components to a code’s success. If codes are embedded in the culture and embraced by the leaders, they are likely to be successful. Communicating the code’s precepts in an effective way is crucial to its success. Discussion between employees and management is a key component of successful ethical (...)
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  20. Betsy Stevens (1994). An Analysis of Corporate Ethical Code Studies: “Where Do We Go From Here?”. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (1):63 - 69.
    The dramatic increase in the number of corporate ethical codes over the past 20 years has been attributed to the Watergate scandal and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ethical codes differ somewhat from profesional codes and mission statements; yet the terms are frequently interchanged and often confused in the literature. Ethical code studies are reviewed in terms of how codes are communicated to employees and whether implications for violating codes are discussed. Most studies use content analysis to determine subjects in (...)
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  21. Till Talaulicar (2009). Barriers Against Globalizing Corporate Ethics: An Analysis of Legal Disputes on Implementing U.S. Codes of Ethics in Germany. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):349 - 360.
    Global firms need to decide on the correspondence between their corporate ethics and the globalization of their activities. When firms go global, they face ethical complexities as they operate in different legal and cultural environments that may impact the admissibility and appropriateness of their approach to institutionalize and implement corporate ethics. Global firms may have good reasons to establish global codes of ethics that are to be obeyed by all employees worldwide. However, developing and implementing such codes can be rather (...)
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  22. Sean Valentine & Anthony Johnson (2005). Codes of Ethics, Orientation Programs, and the Perceived Importance of Employee Incorruptibility. Journal of Business Ethics 61 (1):45 - 53.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the review of corporate ethics codes is associated with individuals’ perceptions of the importance of virtue ethics, or more specifically, employee incorruptibility. A convenience sample of individuals working for a university or one of several business organizations located in the Mountain West region of the United States was compiled with a self-report questionnaire. A usable sample of 143 persons representing both the public and private industries was secured for (...)
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  23. Scott J. Vitell & Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo (2006). The Impact of Corporate Ethical Values and Enforcement of Ethical Codes on the Perceived Importance of Ethics in Business: A Comparison of U.S. And Spanish Managers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):31 - 43.
    This two country study examines the effect of corporate ethical values and enforcement of a code of ethics on perceptions of the role of ethics in the overall success of the firm. Additionally, the impact of organizational commitment and of individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism was examined. The rationale for examining the perceived importance of the role of ethics in this manner is to determine the extent to which the organization itself can influence employee perceptions regarding ethics (...)
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  24. Gary R. Weaver (2001). Ethics Programs in Global Businesses: Culture's Role in Managing Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (1):3 - 15.
    Even if there were widespread cross-cultural agreement on the normative issues of business ethics, corporate ethics management initiatives (e.g., codes of conduct, ethics telephone lines, ethics offices) which are appropriate in one cultural setting still could fail to mesh with the management practices and cultural characteristics of a different setting. By uncritically adopting widely promoted American practices for managing corporate ethics, multinational businesses risk failure in pursuing the ostensible goals of corporate ethics initiatives. Pursuing shared ethical goals by means of (...)
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  25. Simon Webley & Andrea Werner (2008). Corporate Codes of Ethics: Necessary but Not Sufficient. Business Ethics 17 (4):405-415.
    While most large companies around the world now have a code of ethics, reported ethical malpractice among some of these does not appear to be abating. The reasons for this are explored, using academic studies, survey reports as well as insights gained from the Institute of Business Ethics' work with large corporations. These indicate that there is a gap between the existence of explicit ethical values and principles, often expressed in the form of a code, and the attitudes and behaviour (...)
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