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  1. Matthew Allen (2004). Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing. Oxford University Press.
    Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing 2E is a practical step-by-step guide to improving skills in analysis, critical thinking, and the effective communication of arguments and explanations. The book combines an accessible and straightforward style, with a strong foundation of knowledge. The text treats reasoning as an aspect of communication, not an abstract exercise in logic. The book not only provides detailed advice on how to practise analytical skills, but also demonstrates how these skills can be used in (...)
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  2. David B. Annis (1974). Techniques of Critical Reasoning. Columbus, Ohio,Merrill.
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  3. Jack Arbuthnot (1984). Moral Reasoning Development Programmes in Prison: Cognitive‐Developmental and Critical Reasoning Approaches. Journal of Moral Education 13 (2):112-123.
    Two intensive ll-week moral education programmes were designed to develop the maturity of moral reasoning stages of medium-security prison inmates. One programme was based on the cognitive disequilibrium induction techniques of the Kohlberg orientation; the other was based on the adequacy of moral reasoning competencies approach advocated by the Association for Values Education and Research . Both programmes resulted in significant and non-differential advances in moral reasoning abilities, while inmates in a comparison group showed no advance. Results are discussed in (...)
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  4. Dan Ariely (2010). Perfectly Irrational: The Unexpected Ways We Defy Logic at Work and at Home. Harper.
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  5. Karl Aschenbrenner (1960). Critical Reasoning. Journal of Philosophy 57 (20/21):654-665.
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  6. Guillaume Beaulac & Serge Robert (2011). Théories à processus duaux et théories de l’éducation : Le cas de l’enseignement de la pensée critique et de la logique. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 6 (1):63-77.
    Many theories about the teaching of logic and critical thinking take for granted that theoretical learning, the learning of formal rules for example, and its practical application are sufficient to master the tools taught and to take the habit of using them. However, this way of teaching is not efficient, a conclusion supported by much work in cognitive science. Approaching cognition evolutionarily with dual-process theories allows for an explanation of these insufficiencies and offers clues on how we could teach critical (...)
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  7. Nathaniel Bluedorn (2003). The Fallacy Detective: Thirty-Six Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning. Christian Logic.
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  8. Luciano Boschiero (2012). Galileo's Lessons on Critical Reasoning. Metascience 21 (1):219-221.
    Galileo’s lessons on critical reasoning Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9541-5 Authors Luciano Boschiero, Campion College, PO Box 3052, Toongabbie East, NSW 2146, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  9. J. Brown (2000). Critical Reasoning, Understanding and Self-Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (3):659-676.
    Following Burge, many anti-individualists suppose that a subject can possess a concept even if she incompletely understands it. While agreeing that this is possible, I argue that there is a limit on the extent to which a subject can incompletely understand the set of concepts she thinks with. This limit derives from our conception of our ability to reflectively evaluate our own thoughts or, as Burge puts it, our ability to engage in critical reasoning. The paper extends Burge’s own work (...)
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  10. Laurie Calhoun (1999). Critical Reasoning Regarding War. The Acorn 10 (1):5-26.
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  11. John M. Capps (2009). You've Got to Be Kidding!: How Jokes Can Help You Think. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Preface -- The importance of critical thinking -- Fallacies of relevance -- Fallacies of evidence -- Fallacies of assumption -- Thinking together.
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  12. Rory J. Conces (1995). A Participatory Approach to the Teaching of Critical Reasoning. APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 94 (2):114-116.
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  13. John J. Conley (1994). Critical Reasoning in Contemporary Culture. International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):132-134.
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  14. G. D. (1973). Utopian and Critical Thinking. Review of Metaphysics 26 (4):763-764.
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  15. Stephen de Wijze (1996). Helping to Undo the Past: Teaching Critical Reasoning in South Africa. Informal Logic 18 (1):57-82.
    In this paper I discuss the opportunities and difficulties of teaching critical reasoning in a rapidly transforming society such as South Africa. I argue that the real benefits for students of such courses outweigh the pessimism of John McPeck and Richard Paul that they do little, if any, good. This paper is based on my experience of having taught critical reasoning at school and university level in South Africa during the early 90's.
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  16. Christina Hendricks, Commitment and Suspicion in Critical Thinking as Transcendence. Philosophy of Education Yearbook.
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  17. Mark Holowchak (2007). Critical Reasoning and Science : Looking at Science with an Investigative Eye. University Press of America.
    Module 1 What Is Science? "The size of a man's mind ... is to be measured, in so far as it can be measured, by the size and complexity of the universe that ...
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  18. Robert Hopkins, Critical Reasoning and Critical Perception.
    The outcome of criticism is a perception. Does this mean that criticism cannot count as a rational process? For it to do so, it seems it would have to be possible for there to be an argument for a perception. Yet perceptions do not seem to be the right sort of item to serve as the conclusions of arguments. Is this appearance borne out? I examine why perceptions might not be able to play that role, and explore what would have (...)
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  19. A. E. J. (1965). The Art of Critical Thinking. Review of Metaphysics 19 (2):381-381.
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  20. Tim Kenyon & Guillaume Beaulac (2014). Critical Thinking Education and Debiasing. Informal Logic 34 (4):341-363.
    There are empirical grounds to doubt the effectiveness of a common and intuitive approach to teaching debiasing strategies in critical thinking courses. We summarize some of the grounds before suggesting a broader taxonomy of debiasing strategies. This four-level taxonomy enables a useful diagnosis of biasing factors and situations, and illuminates more strategies for more effective bias mitigation located in the shaping of situational factors and reasoning infrastructure—sometimes called “nudges” in the literature. The question, we contend, then becomes how best to (...)
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  21. Uri D. Leibowitz (forthcoming). Moral Deliberation and Ad Hominem Fallacies. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    Many of us read Peter Singer’s work on our obligations to those in desperate need with our students. Famously, Singer argues that we have a moral obligation to give a significant portion of our assets to famine relief. If my own experience is not atypical, it is quite common for students, upon grasping the implications of Singer’s argument, to ask whether Singer gives to famine relief. In response it might be tempting to remind students of the (so called) ad hominem (...)
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  22. F. Macagno & D. Walton (2005). Common Knowledge and Argumentation Schemes . Studies in Communication Sciences 5 (2):1-22.
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  23. Moti Mizrahi (2013). Why Arguments From Expert Opinion Are Weak Arguments. Informal Logic 33 (1):57-79.
    In this paper, I argue that arguments from expert opinion, i.e., inferences from “Expert E says that p” to “p,” where the truth value of p is unknown, are weak arguments. A weak argument is an argument in which the premises, even if true, provide weak support—or no support at all—for the conclusion. Such arguments from expert opinion are weak arguments unless the fact that an expert says that p makes p significantly more likely to be true. However, research on (...)
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  24. Moti Mizrahi (2013). On Proving Too Much. Acta Analytica 28 (3):353-358.
    It is quite common to object to an argument by saying that it “proves too much.” In this paper, I argue that the “proving too much” charge can be understood in at least three different ways. I explain these three interpretations of the “proving too much” charge. I urge anyone who is inclined to level the “proving too much” charge against an argument to think about which interpretation of that charge one has in mind.
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  25. Moti Mizrahi (2012). A Decision Procedure for Evaluating Natural Language Arguments. APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 12 (1):11-12.
    In this paper, I present a decision procedure for evaluating arguments expressed in natural language. I think that other instructors of informal logic and critical thinking might find this decision procedure to be a useful addition to their teaching resources.
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  26. Moti Mizrahi (2010). Take My Advice—I Am Not Following It: Ad Hominem Arguments as Legitimate Rebuttals to Appeals to Authority. Informal Logic 30 (4):435-456.
    In this paper, I argue that ad hominem arguments are not always fallacious. More explicitly, in certain cases of practical reasoning, the circumstances of a person are relevant to whether or not the conclusion should be accepted. This occurs, I suggest, when a person gives advice to others or prescribes certain courses of action but fails to follow her own advice or act in accordance with her own prescriptions. This is not an instance of a fallacious tu quoque provided that (...)
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  27. Norman Mooradian (2002). Critical Reasoning In Ethics. Teaching Philosophy 25 (1):91-95.
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  28. Thomas Nagel (1997). The Last Word. Oup Usa.
    In this important new book Nagel, one of the most distinguished philosophers writing in English today, presents a sustained defence of reason against the attacks of subjectivism. He offers systematic rebuttals of relativistic claims with respect to language, logic, science, and ethics.
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  29. María G. Navarro (forthcoming). El lugar de la controversia en la argumentación. In Fernando Leal Carretero (ed.), Seamos razonables: Estudios en honor a Frans H. van Eemeren. Siglo XXI.
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  30. Dennis J. Packard (1988). Using Critical Reasoning to Teach Writing. Teaching Philosophy 11 (3):229-244.
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  31. Katherine Ramsland (1986). Teaching Critical Reasoning Through Group Competition. Teaching Philosophy 9 (4):319-326.
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  32. Robin Roth (2010). Critical Reasoning. Cognella.
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  33. Theodore Schick (2010). How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age. Mcgraw-Hill.
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  34. Richard Shusterman (1986). Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 47 (1):91-110.
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  35. Jan-R. Sieckmann (2003). Why Non-Monotonic Logic is Inadequate to Represent Balancing Arguments. Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (2-3):211-219.
    This paper analyses the logical structure of the balancing of conflicting normative arguments, and asks whether non-monotonic logic is adequate to represent this type of legal or practical reasoning. Norm conflicts are often regarded as a field of application for non-monotonic logics. This paper argues, however, that the balancing of normative arguments consists of an act of judgement, not a logical inference, and that models of deductive as well as of defeasible reasoning do not give an adequate account of its (...)
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  36. Peter Slezak (2011). Review of Maurice A. Finocchiaro: Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs. [REVIEW] Science and Education 20 (1):71-81.
    In reviewing Finocchiaro's book, I argue that Galileo deserved to be found guilty for the charges against him. A measure of Finocchiaro's scrupulously fair-minded presentation of the issues surrounding the Galileo Affair is the fact that a contrary case against his own exculpatory evaluation may be inferred from his meticulous scholarship. Specifically, to acknowledge that the standards of evaluation and judgment have changed since 1633 is not in any way to diminish Galileo's greatness but, on the contrary, to recognize his (...)
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  37. Declan Smithies (forthcoming). Reflection On: On Reflection. Analysis.
    In his book, On Reflection, Hilary Kornblith criticizes what he regards as a chronic tendency in philosophy towards inflating the significance of reflection in ways that manifest a combination of philosophical naiveté and scientific ignorance about how reflection actually works. In these comments, I respond to Kornblith's challenge by sketching an account of the philosophical significance of reflection in the theory of epistemic justification.
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  38. Declan Smithies (forthcoming). Why Justification Matters. In David Henderson & John Greco (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation: Point and Purpose in Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter is guided by the hypothesis that the point and purpose of using the concept of justification in epistemic evaluation is tied to its role in the practice of critical reflection. In section one, I propose an analysis of justification as the epistemic property in virtue of which a belief has the potential to survive ideal critical reflection. In section two, I use this analysis in arguing for a form of access internalism on which one has justification to believe (...)
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  39. Anne Thomson (2002). Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction. Routledge.
    Do other people's arguments tie you in knots? Do you lack the confidence in your ability to reason? Do you assume that everything written in newspapers must be true? We all engage in the process of reasoning, but we don't always pay attention to whether we are doing it well. This book offers the opportunity to practice reasoning in a clear-headed and critical way, with the aims of developing an awareness of the importance of reasoning well, and of improving the (...)
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  40. Anne Thomson (1999). Critical Reasoning in Ethics: A Practical Introduction. Routledge.
    This book is an accessible introduction that will enable students, through practical exercises, to develop their own skills in reasoning about ethical issues, including analyzing and evaluating arguments used in discussions of ethical issues; analyzing and evaluating ethical concepts, such as utilitarianism; making decisions on ethical issues; and learning how to approach ethical issues in a fair minded way. The issues discussed in the book include abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, animal rights, the environment and war. The book will be essential (...)
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  41. Peg Tittle (2011/2010). Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason. Routledge.
    This book covers all the material typically addressed in first or second-year college courses in Critical Thinking: Chapter 1: Critical Thinking 1.1 What is critical thinking? 1.2 What is critical thinking not? Chapter 2: The Nature of Argument 2.1 Recognizing an Argument 2.2 Circular Arguments 2.3 Counterarguments 2.4 The Burden of Proof 2.5 Facts and Opinions 2.6 Deductive and Inductive Argument Chapter 3: The Structure of Argument 3.1 Convergent, Single 3.2 Convergent, Multiple 3.3 Divergent Chapter 4: Relevance 4.1 Relevance 4.2 (...)
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  42. David Turnbull (2005). Multiplicity, Criticism and Knowing What to Do Next: Way-Finding in a Transmodern World. Response to Meera Nanda's Prophets Facing Backwards. Social Epistemology 19 (1):19 – 32.
    The paper addresses the question of whether, as Nanda claims, treating all knowledge traditions including science as local, denies the possibility of criticism. It accepts the necessity for criticism but denies that science can be the sole arbiter of truth and argues that we have to live with holding differing knowledges in tension with one another.
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  43. Lewis Vaughn (2008). The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims. Oxford Univeristy Press.
    Enhanced by many innovative exercises, examples, and pedagogical features, The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims, Second Edition, explores the essentials of critical reasoning, argumentation, logic, and argumentative essay writing while also incorporating material on important topics that most other texts leave out. Author Lewis Vaughn offers comprehensive treatments of core topics, including an introduction to claims and arguments, discussions of propositional and categorical logic, and full coverage of the basics of inductive reasoning. Building on (...)
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  44. Jean Wagemans (2011). Review of M. A. Finocchiaro, Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (2):271-274.
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