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  1. Yohanna Barth-Rogers & Alan Jotkowitz (2009). Executive Autonomy, Multiculturalism and Traditional Medical Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):39 – 40.
  2. Yitzhak Benbaji & Menachem Fisch (2004). Through Thick and Thin: A New Defense of Cultural Relativism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (1):1-24.
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  3. Jan Bryant, John Cash, John Hewitt, Danielle Petherbridge & John Rundell (2002). Editorial: Others as Strangers. Critical Horizons 3 (1):1-5.
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  4. J. Adam Carter & Emma C. Gordon (2013). A New Maneuver Against the Epistemic Relativist. Synthese (8):1-13.
    Epistemic relativists often appeal to an epistemic incommensurability thesis. One notable example is the position advanced by Wittgenstein in On certainty (1969). However, Ian Hacking’s radical denial of the possibility of objective epistemic reasons for belief poses, we suggest, an even more forceful challenge to mainstream meta-epistemology. Our central objective will be to develop a novel strategy for defusing Hacking’s line of argument. Specifically, we show that the epistemic incommensurability thesis can be resisted even if we grant the very insights (...)
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  5. Alan Costall & Arthur Still (1989). Gibson's Theory of Direct Perception and the Problem of Cultural Relativism. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (4):433–441.
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  6. Daniel J. Crowley (1958). Aesthetic Judgment and Cultural Relativism. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 17 (2):187-193.
  7. Marcelo Dascal (ed.) (1991). Cultural Relativism and Philosophy: North and Latin American Perspectives. E.J. Brill.
    To what extent does cultural diversity affect the activity and the products of philosophizing?
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  8. Helen De Cruz & Pierre Pica (2008). Knowledge of Number and Knowledge of Language: Number as a Test Case for the Role of Language in Cognition. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):437 – 441.
    The relationship between language and conceptual thought is an unresolved problem in both philosophy and psychology. It remains unclear whether linguistic structure plays a role in our cognitive processes. This special issue brings together cognitive scientists and philosophers to focus on the role of language in numerical cognition: because of their universality and variability across languages, number words can serve as a fruitful test case to investigate claims of linguistic relativism.
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  9. Grace A. de Laguna (1942). Cultural Relativism and Science. Philosophical Review 51 (2):141-166.
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  10. Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Cathy Lemer & Pierre Pica (2007). Quels Sont les Liens Entre Arithmétique Et Langage ? Une Étude En Amazonie. In Jean Bricmont & Julie Franck (eds.), Cahier Chomsky. L'Herne.
  11. Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke (2009). Response to Comment on "Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions on the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures&Quot;. Science 323 (5910):38.
    The performance of the Mundurucu on the number-space task may exemplify a general competence for drawing analogies between space and other linear dimensions, but Mundurucu participants spontaneously chose number when other dimensions were available. Response placement may not reflect the subjective scale for numbers, but Cantlon et al.'s proposal of a linear scale with scalar variability requires additional hypotheses that are problematic.
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  12. Brian Epstein (2010). The Diviner and the Scientist: Revisiting the Question of Alternative Standards of Rationality. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 78 (4):1048-1086.
    Are the standards of reasoning and rationality in divination, religious practice, and textual exegesis different from those in the sciences? Can there be different standards of reasoning and rationality at all? The intense “rationality debate” of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s focused on these questions and the related problems of relativism across cultures and systems of practice. Although philosophers were at the center of these debates at the time, they may appear to have abandoned the question in recent years. On (...)
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  13. Adam Etinson & Joshua Keton (2014). Introduction. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):3-6.
  14. Richard Evanoff (2007). Bioregionalism and Cross-Cultural Dialogue on a Land Ethic. Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (2):141 – 156.
    This paper argues against the view that a single environmental ethic can be formulated that could be universally applied in all geographic settings and across cultures. The paper specifically criticizes Callicott's proposal that Leopold's land ethic be adopted as a global environment ethic, and develops an alternative bioregional perspective which suggests that while there can be a great deal of variety in how different cultures think about and interact with their local environments, there is nonetheless the need for cross-cultural dialogue (...)
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  15. Rodney Fopp (1984). Cultural Relativism Re-Examined:A Response to F.C. White. Educational Philosophy and Theory 16 (1):37–42.
  16. Jeffrey Friedman (2008). Pluralism or Relativism? Critical Review 11 (4):469-479.
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  17. Martin Gardner (1950). Beyond Cultural Relativism. Ethics 61 (1):38-45.
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  18. Meredith Garmon (1995). Neither Absolutism nor Relativism. Metaphilosophy 26 (4):347-359.
  19. Melville J. Herskovits (1972). Cultural Relativism; Perspectives in Cultural Pluralism. New York,Random House.
  20. J. Israel (1981). Cultural Relativism and the Logic of Language. Diogenes 29 (113-114):107-126.
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  21. Véronique Izard, Stanislas Dehaene, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke (2008). Response to Nunez. Science 312 (5803):1310.
    We agree with Nuñez that the Mundurucu do not master the formal propreties of number lines and logarithms, but as the term "intuition" implies, they spontaneously experience a logarithmic mapping of number to space as natural and "feeling right.".
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  22. Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Danièle Hinchey, Stanislas Dehane & Elizabeth Spelke (2011). Geometry as a Universal Mental Construction. In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press.
  23. Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2008). Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
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  24. Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2008). The Mapping of Numbers on Space : Evidence for a Logarithmic Intuition. Médecine/Science 24 (12):1014-1016.
  25. St Ephen A. James (1994). Reconciling International Human Rights and Cultural Relativism: The Case of Female Circumcision. Bioethics 8 (1):1–26.
  26. Araminta Stone Johnston (1993). Theory, Rationality, and Relativism. Tradition and Discovery 20 (3):16-28.
    This essay returns to the Azande tribe of Africa, discussed by Polanyi (in Personal Knowledge) and others, in order to rethink the issues of rationality and irrationality and of essentialism and relativism, and to consider what these issues mean in our actual lives as daily we make epistemological and moral judgements.
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  27. Sue Knight (1984). Three Varieties of Cultural Relativism. Educational Philosophy and Theory 16 (1):23–36.
  28. William Max Knorpp Jr (1998). What Relativism Isn't. Philosophy 73 (284):277 - 300.
    Introduction There is an enormous amount of confusion about what relativism is. In this paper I aim to take a step toward clarifying what it is by discussing some things that it is not — that is, by distinguishing it from some other views with which it is often confused or conflated, such as nihilism and scepticism. I do this primarily because I think that the question of the character of relativism is interesting in itself. A clearer characterization of relativism (...)
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  29. Ija Lazari-Pawłowska (1970). On Cultural Relativism. Journal of Philosophy 67 (17):577-584.
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  30. Richard Mullender (2003). Human Rights: UniversalismandCultural Relativism. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 6 (3):70-103.
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  31. Christopher Norris (1996). Reclaiming Truth: Contribution to a Critique of Cultural Relativism. Duke University Press.
    "Reclaiming Truth "will be welcomed by readers concerned with the uses and abuses of theory at a time when such questions are in urgent need of sustained and serious debate. "These are brilliant and stimulating essays.
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  32. P. H. Nowell-Smith (1971). Cultural Relativism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 (1):1-17.
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  33. Paul O'Grady (2002). Relativism. Acumen.
    This book offers a systematic discussion of a variety of different relativist positions that are often grouped together under a single label.
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  34. Seungbae Park (2014). Cultural Relativism and the Theory of Relativity. Filosofija. Sociologija 25 (1):44-51.
    Cornea (2012) argues that I (2011) was wrong to use the analogy between morality and motion to defend cultural relativism. I reply that the analogy can be used to clarify what cultural relativism asserts and how a cultural relativist can reply to the criticisms against it. Ockham’s Razor favours the relativist view that there are no moral truths, and hence no culture is better than another. Contrary to what Cornea claims, cultural relativism does not entail that we cannot protect ourselves (...)
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  35. Seungbae Park (2011). Defence of Cultural Relativism. Cultura. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology 8 (1):159-170.
    I attempt to rebut the following standard objections against cultural relativism: 1. It is self-defeating for a cultural relativist to take the principle of tolerance as absolute; 2. There are universal moral rules, contrary to what cultural relativism claims; 3. If cultural relativism were true, Hitler’s genocidal actions would be right, social reformers would be wrong to go against their own culture, moral progress would be impossible, and an atrocious crime could be made moral by forming a culture which approves (...)
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  36. Lorenzo Peña, Cultural Relativism and Philosophy : North and Latin American Perspectives.
    Introductory Remarks Why Paradigm Variation is Ensuant upon Contradiction How Externalistic Warrant Parries the Threat of [Truth] Relativism Why Not to Ward Relativism off by Means of Foundationalistic Justification Defending a relativistic View of Warrant A Transcendental Argument against [Truth] Relativism Towards [Partial] convergence A Gradualistic Paraconsistent Way to Convergence 7.1. - Perspectivism and Non Copulative Paraconsistent Logics 7.2. - The Strength and Weakness of Two Copulative Approaches to Paraconsistent Logic 7.3. - The Logic of Contradictorial Gradualism 7.4. - Implementing (...)
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  37. Pierre Pica, Stanislas Dehaene, Elizabeth Spelke & Véronique Izard (2008). Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions of the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures. Science 320 (5880):1217-1220.
    The mapping of numbers onto space is fundamental to measurement and to mathematics. Is this mapping a cultural invention or a universal intuition shared by all humans regardless of culture and education? We probed number-space mappings in the Mundurucu, an Amazonian indigene group with a reduced numerical lexicon and little or no formal education. At all ages, the Mundurucu mapped symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers onto a logarithmic scale, whereas Western adults used linear mapping with small or symbolic numbers and logarithmic (...)
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  38. Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2011). Flexible Intuitions of Euclidean Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group. PNAS 23.
    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that (...)
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  39. Pierre Pica & Alain Lecomte (2008). Theoretical Implications of the Study of Numbers and Numerals in Mundurucu. Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):507 – 522.
    Developing earlier studies of the system of numbers in Mundurucu, this paper argues that the Mundurucu numeral system is far more complex than usually assumed. The Mundurucu numeral system provides indirect but insightful arguments for a modular approach to numbers and numerals. It is argued that distinct components must be distinguished, such as a system of representation of numbers in the format of internal magnitudes, a system of representation for individuals and sets, and one-to-one correspondences between the numerosity expressed by (...)
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  40. Pierre Pica, Cathy Lemer, Véronique Izard & Stanislas Dehaene (2004). Exact and Approximate Arithmetic in an Amazonian Indigene Group. Science 306 (5695):499-503.
    Is calculation possible without language? Or is the human ability for arithmetic dependent on the language faculty? To clarify the relation between language and arithmetic, we studied numerical cognition in speakers of Mundurukú, an Amazonian language with a very small lexicon of number words. Although the Mundurukú lack words for numbers beyond 5, they are able to compare and add large approximate numbers that are far beyond their naming range. However, they fail in exact arithmetic with numbers larger than 4 (...)
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  41. James Rachels (2009). The Challenge of Cultural Relativism. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  42. Richard Rorty (1993). Putnam and the Relativist Menace. Journal of Philosophy 60 (9):443-461.
  43. Hartmut Rosa (1996). Cultural Relativism and Social Criticism From a Taylorian Perspective. Constellations 3 (1):39-60.
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  44. Kevin Schilbrack (2009). Rationality, Relativism, and Religion: A Reinterpretation of Peter Winch. [REVIEW] Sophia 48 (4):399-412.
    Many point to Peter Winch’s discussion of rationality, relativism, and religion as a paradigmatic example of cultural relativism. In this paper, I argue that Winch’s relationship to relativism is widely misinterpreted in that, despite his pluralistic understanding of rationality, Winch does allow for universal features of culture in virtue of which cross-cultural understanding and even critique is possible. Nevertheless, I also argue that given the kind of cultural universals that Winch produces, he fails to avoid relativism. This is because in (...)
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  45. Paul F. Schmidt (1955). Some Criticisms of Cultural Relativism. Journal of Philosophy 52 (25):780-791.
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  46. Markus Seidel (2008). Von Wahrheit über Bedeutung zum Anti-Begriffsrelativismus? Davidsons Argumentation gegen den Begriffsrelativismus. Facta Philosophica 10 (1):39-66.
    Since Davidson's proposal to use a Tarskian theory of truth in order to develop a theory of meaning has been criticised extensively, it is decisive to ask whether Davidson needs such a theory as an assumption and premise in other parts of his work. Especially, many authors have claimed that Davidson's argument in his paper 'On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme' depends on his approach in the theory of meaning. It is argued that this interpretation is wrong and (...)
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  47. Markus Seidel & Arne Weber (2010). Trivial, Platitudinous, Boring? Searle on Conceptual Relativism. In Dirk Franken, Attila Karakus & Jan Michel (eds.), John R. Searle. Thinking About the Real World. Ontos.
    In this paper we explore Searle’s defense of conceptual relativism. It emerges that Searle formulates the thesis in many different ways and that contrary to his contention not all are trivial and platitudinous. Specifically he does not distinguish clearly between an ontological and a linguistic version of conceptual relativism as well as between weak difference and stronger incommensurability of conceptual schemes. This has consequences for Searle’s defense of external realism.
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  48. Marco Solinas (2009). Review of Hauke Brunkhorst, Habermas. [REVIEW] Iride (56):253-254.
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  49. Tamler Sommers (2012). Relative Justice: Cultural Diversity, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility. Princeton University Press.
    [Publisher's description:] When can we be morally responsible for our behavior? Is it fair to blame people for actions that are determined by heredity and environment? Can we be responsible for the actions of relatives or members of our community? In this provocative book, Tamler Sommers concludes that there are no objectively correct answers to these questions. Drawing on research in anthropology, psychology, and a host of other disciplines, Sommers argues that cross-cultural variation raises serious problems for theories that propose (...)
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  50. W. J. Stankiewicz (1972). Relativism: Thoughts and Aphorisms. West Chesterfield, N.H.,Girs Press.
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