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  1. Russell L. Ackoff (1955). Book Review:Cybernetics (Transactions of the Ninth Conference, March 20-21, 1952) H. Von Foerster. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 22 (1):68-.
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  2. Russell L. Ackoff (1949). Book Review:Cybernetics Norbert Wiener. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 16 (2):159-.
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  3. R. J. B. (1968). Philosophy and Cybernetics. Review of Metaphysics 22 (2):393-393.
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  4. E. B. Babskii & E. S. Gelle (1970). Cybernetics and Life. Russian Studies in Philosophy 8 (4):354-370.
    The ideas and methods of cybernetics are increasingly penetrating the biological and medical sciences, and today we are justified in speaking of a new branch of science: biological and medical cybernetics. This branch already has a number of important and encouraging subfields.
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  5. Simon Bacon (2013). “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  6. D. Baecker (2010). The Culture of Cybernetics. Review of “The Black Boox. Volume III: 39 Steps' by Ranulph Glanville. Edition Echoraum, Vienna, 2009. [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):102--103.
    Upshot: Ranulph Glanville’s musings about cybernetics are statements of wonder as much as careful reconstructions of the core ideas of cybernetics. In Vol. III of his Black Boox all 39 of them are collected, which appeared between 1994 and 2009 in the Journal, Cybernetics and Human Knowing. If Heinz von Foerster said that the ideas of second-order cybernetics are nowadays to be found just about?everywhere in everyday life, Glanville is not that sure about this.
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  7. William Sims Bainbridge (2012). Whole-Personality Emulation. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):159-175.
  8. Jere W. Clark (1974). Eco-Cybernetics: The Nucleus of Unified Knowledge And. In Donald E. Washburn & Dennis R. Smith (eds.), Coping with Increasing Complexity: Implications of General Semantics and General Systems Theory. Gordon and Breach 348.
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  9. David Cole (2010). Anthony Chemero: Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):475-479.
  10. Roberto Cordeschi (2008). Cybernetics. In L. Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell
    The term cybernetics was first used in 1947 by Norbert Wiener with reference to the centrifugal governor that James Watt had fitted to his steam engine, and above all to Clerk Maxwell, who had subjected governors to a general mathematical treatment in 1868. Wiener used the word “governor” in the sense of the Latin corruption of the Greek term kubernetes, or “steersman.” Wiener defined cybernetics as the study of “control and communication in the animal and the machine” (Wiener 1948). This (...)
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  11. Roberto Cordeschi (2008). Steps Toward the Synthetic Method: Symbolic Information Processing and Self-Organizing Systems in Early Artificial Intelligence. In P. Husbands, O. Holland & M. Wheeler (eds.), The Mechanichal Mind in History. MIT Press
    The year 1943 is customarily considered as the birth of cybernetics. Artificial Intelligence (AI) was officially born thirteen years later, in 1956. This chapter is about two theories on human cognitive processes developed in the context of cybernetics and early AI. The first theory is that of the cyberneticist Donald MacKay, in the framework of an original version of self-organizing systems; the second is that of Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (initially with the decisive support of Clifford Shaw) and is (...)
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  12. Roberto Cordeschi (2007). AI Turns Fifty: Revisiting its Origins. Applied Artificial Intelligence 21:259-279.
    The expression ‘‘artificial intelligence’’ (AI) was introduced by John McCarthy, and the official birth of AI is unanimously considered to be the 1956 Dartmouth Conference. Thus, AI turned fifty in 2006. How did AI begin? Several differently motivated analyses have been proposed as to its origins. In this paper a brief look at those that might be considered steps towards Dartmouth is attempted, with the aim of showing how a number of research topics and controversies that marked the short history (...)
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  13. Roberto Cordeschi (2006). Simulation Models of Organism Behavior: Some Lessons From Precybernetic and Cybernetic Approaches. In S. Termini (ed.), Imagination and Rigor: Essays on Eduardo R. Caianiello’s Scientific Heritage. Springer
    The rise and some more recent developments of the machine-simulation methodology of living-organism behavior are discussed in this paper. In putting forward these issue, my aim is that of isolating recurring themes which help understanding the development of such a machine-simulation methodology, from its, so to speak, discovery during the first half of the twentieth century up to the present time. The machine designed by the engineer S. Bent Russell in 1913 seems to share the core of at least some (...)
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  14. Roberto Cordeschi (2002). The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. Kluwer.
    Since the second half of the XXth century, researchers in cybernetics and AI, neural nets and connectionism, Artificial Life and new robotics have endeavoured to build different machines that could simulate functions of living organisms, such as adaptation and development, problem solving and learning. In this book these research programs are discussed, particularly as regard the epistemological issues of the behaviour modelling. One of the main novelty of this book consists of the fact that certain projects involving the building of (...)
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  15. Roberto Cordeschi (2002). The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. Kluwer.
    The book provides a valuable text for undergraduate and graduate courses on the historical and theoretical issues of Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, Neuroscience, and the Philosophy of Mind. The book should also be of interest for researchers in these fields, who will find in it analyses of certain crucial issues in both the earlier and more recent history of their disciplines, as well as interesting overall insights into the current debate on the nature of mind.
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  16. Roberto Cordeschi (1991). Brain, Mind and Computers. In P. Corsi (ed.), The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press
    In this chapter the early history of Computer Science, Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence is sketched. More recent developments of AI and the philosophy of Cognitive Science are also discussed.
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  17. Roberto Cordeschi (1991). The Discovery of the Artificial: Some Protocybernetic Developments 1930-1940. Artificial Intelligence and Society 5 (3):218-238.
    In this paper I start from a definition of “culture of the artificial” which might be stated by referring to the background of philosophical, methodological, pragmatical assumptions which characterizes the development of the information processing analysis of mental processes and of some trends in contemporary cognitive science: in a word, the development of AI as a candidate science of mind. The aim of this paper is to show how (with which plausibility and limitations) the discovery of the mentioned background might (...)
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  18. Roberto Cordeschi (1987). Purpose, Feedback and Homeostasis: Dimension of a Controversy in Psychological Theory. In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden
    In this paper several reformulations of William Ross Ashby and Norbert Wiener’s classical claims on purposive behavior are examined. Next restatements of this issue are then discussed, particularly as regards the following question: is it possible to extend the concepts and methods of mechanical (physical) explanation to psychological explanation, in order to explain human (and animal) purposive behavior? This question was restated in the 1950s as follows: are negative feedback and homeostatic mechanisms really explanatory of adaptive and purposive behavior, or (...)
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  19. Roberto Cordeschi (1985). Mechanical Models in Psychology in the 1950s. In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden
    In this paper some applications and methodological developments of mechanical models in psychology in the 1950s are examined. During that period, a new conception of the theory-model relationship in psychology become evident, which had been proposed earlier by the mechanistic trend in psychology in the 1930s. Such a conception allowed psychologists a new approach to many problems in theoretical psychology, such as the role of hypotheses and neurophysiology in psychological explanation and the positions of psychologists concerning neobehavioristic theories of behaviour (...)
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  20. Roberto Cordeschi & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2005). Intelligent Machines and Warfare: Historical Debates and Epistemologically Motivated Concerns. In L. Magnani (ed.), European Computing and Philosophy Conference (ECAP 2004). College Publications
    The early examples of self-directing robots attracted the interest of both scientific and military communities. Biologists regarded these devices as material models of animal tropisms. Engineers envisaged the possibility of turning self-directing robots into new “intelligent” torpedoes during World War I. Starting from World War II, more extensive interactions developed between theoretical inquiry and applied military research on the subject of adaptive and intelligent machinery. Pioneers of Cybernetics were involved in the development of goal-seeking warfare devices. But collaboration occasionally turned (...)
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  21. F. Erpicum (2008). Sowing Seeds: Heinz von Foerster's Second Order Cybernetics and Complexity. Review Of: Evelyne Andreewsky & Robert Delorme (Eds.) (2006) Seconde Cybernétique Et Complexité: Rencontres Avec Heinz von Foerster. L'Harmattan: Paris. [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 3 (2):115-116.
    Summary: Because this book has something of the storytelling of cheerful meetings, von Foerster is made more accessible to the novice; however, it does not lose any of its intellectual sharpness. Henri Atlan and Edgar Morin, in particular, greatly influenced by von Foerster and quite famous in French-speaking countries, give a helping hand to those who wish to explore their work further from the perspective of von Foerster's vision and thoughts. And Atlan and Morin take also the credit for the (...)
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  22. S. Franchi (2007). Blunting the Edge of Second-Order Cybernetics: The Heritage of Heinz von Foerster. Review Of: Albert Müller & Karl H. Müller (Eds.) (2007) An Unfinished Revolution? [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 3 (1):53-54.
    Summary: The aim of this collection is to provide a two-fold access to von Foerster's legacy and his work at the Biological Computer Laboratory, the institution he founded and directed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1958 to 1976. It represents a precious contribution for the understanding of BCL, a crucial but still not properly understood chapter in the history of cybernetics and, more generally, of cognitive science. It is greatly recommended.
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  23. T. Froese (2010). From Cybernetics to Second-Order Cybernetics: A Comparative Analysis of Their Central Ideas. Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):75--85.
    Context: The enactive paradigm in the cognitive sciences is establishing itself as a strong and comprehensive alternative to the computationalist mainstream. However, its own particular historical roots have so far been largely ignored in the historical analyses of the cognitive sciences. Problem: In order to properly assess the enactive paradigm’s theoretical foundations in terms of their validity, novelty and potential future directions of development, it is essential for us to know more about the history of ideas that has led to (...)
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  24. Gordon G. Globus (1996). Quantum Consciousness is Cybernetic. Psyche 2 (21).
    Classical mechanics cannot naturally accommodate consciousness, whereas quantum mechanics can, but the Heisenberg/Stapp approach, in which consciousness randomly collapses the neural wave function, leaves the conscious function unrestricted by known physical principles. The Umezawa/Yasue approach, in which consciousness offers superposed possibilities to the match with sensory input, is based in the first physical principles of quantum field theory. Stapp thinks of the brain as a measuring device, like a Geiger counter, and overlooks that the brain upholds second-order quantum fields that (...)
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  25. Hermann Haken & Helena Knyazeva (2000). Synergetik: zwischen Reduktionismus und Holismus. Philosophia Naturalis 37 (1):21-44.
    Die philosophischen Folgerungen der Synergetik, einer interdisziplinären Theorie der Evolution und Selbstorganisation komplexer nichtlinearer Systeme, werden in diesem Artikel zur Diskussion gestellt. Das sind der weltanschauliche Sinn des Begriffs von der „Nichtlinearität“, die konstruktive Rolle des Chaos in der Evolution, eine neue Vorstellung von diskreten Spektren evolutionärer Wege in komplexen Systemen, die Prinzipien des Aufbaus von komplexem evolutionärem Ganzen, der Integration von komplexen Strukturen, die sich mit verschiedenen Geschwindigkeiten entwickeln, die Methoden des nichtlinearen Managements komplexer Systeme. Die Synergetik entdeckt allgemeingültige (...)
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  26. Steve J. Heims (1991). The Cybernetics Group. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  27. V. Kenny (2009). "There's Nothing Like the Real Thing". Revisiting the Need for a Third-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 4 (2):100 - 111.
    Purpose: To argue for the need to generate a third-order cybernetics to deal with the problematics of second-order cybernetics. Problem: The recent exponential increase in the use of the internet and other "media" to influence and shape dominant cultural experiences via "virtual reality" exploits a core facility of human psychology - that of being able to accept "substitutions" for the "Real Thing." In this paper, I want to raise some basic questions and dilemmas for our living in the space of (...)
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  28. Bernard Korzeniewski (2005). Confrontation of the Cybernetic Definition of a Living Individual with the Real World. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):1-28.
    The cybernetic definition of a living individual proposed previously (Korzeniewski, 2001) is very abstract and therefore describes the essence of life in a very formal and general way. In the present article this definition is reformulated in order to determine clearly the relation between life in general and a living individual in particular, and it is further explained and defended. Next, the cybernetic definition of a living individual is confronted with the real world. It is demonstrated that numerous restrictions imposed (...)
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  29. Glen Mazis (2008). Cyborg Life: The In-Between of Humans and Machines. Phaenex 3 (2):14-36.
    Cyborgs are ongoing becomings of a doubly “in-between” temporality of humans and machines. Materially made from components of both sorts of beings, cyborgs gain increasing function through an interweaving in which each alters the other, from the level of “neural plasticity” to software updates to emotional breakthroughs of which both are a part. One sort of temporal in-between is of the progressive unfolding of a deepening becoming as “not-one-not-two” and the other is a “doubling back” of time into itself in (...)
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  30. Titus R. Neumann, Susanne Huber & Heinrich H. Bülthoff (2001). Artificial Systems as Models in Biological Cybernetics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1071-1072.
    From the perspective of biological cybernetics, “real world” robots have no fundamental advantage over computer simulations when used as models for biological behavior. They can even weaken biological relevance. From an engineering point of view, however, robots can benefit from solutions found in biological systems. We emphasize the importance of this distinction and give examples for artificial systems based on insect biology.
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  31. Emma Palese (2012). Robots and Cyborgs: To Be or to Have a Body? Poiesis and Praxis 8 (4):191-196.
    Starting with service robotics and industrial robotics, this paper aims to suggest philosophical reflections about the relationship between body and machine, between man and technology in our contemporary world. From the massive use of the cell phone to the robots which apparently “feel” and show emotions like humans do. From the wearable exoskeleton to the prototype reproducing the artificial sense of touch, technological progress explodes to the extent of embodying itself in our nakedness. Robotics, indeed, is inspired by biology in (...)
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  32. D. S. (1956). Cybernetics. Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):373-373.
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  33. Kristin Shrader (1972). Cybernetics and Materialism. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
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  34. Vittorio Somenzi (1991). La Materia Pensante.
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  35. Arkadii Dmitrievich Ursul, Nina Timofeevna Abramova, Viktor Izrailevich Kremianskii & Akademiia Nauk Sssr (1978). Sintez Znaniia I Problema Upravleniia. Nauka.
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  36. Jenny Wolmark (2003). Cyberculture. In Mary Eagleton (ed.), A Concise Companion to Feminist Theory. Blackwell
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  37. Jirí Zeman (1978). Teorie Odrazu a Kybernetika Význam Pojm U Odrazu a Informace Pro Materialistický Monismus. Academia.
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