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  1. Hicham-Stéphane Afeissa (ed.) (2009). Ecosophies, la Philosophie à l'Épreuve de L'Écologie. Mf.
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  2. Joseph Agassi, The Brundtland Report, P.
    Why are the efforts at coordination so feeble? Unless we face this question, we may never see progress. The answer is not hard to find. Decisions on matters of life and death are awesome; decisions on some awesome questions are guided by accepted laws, rules or customs; other awesome questions are open. Obviously, having to decide on an open, awesome question is a hardship in every possible manner: intellectually and practically, legally and morally, socially and psychologically. People are reluctant to (...)
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  3. William Aiken (1994). Is Deep Ecology Too Radical? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (4):1-5.
    The theory of Deep Ecology is characterized as having two essential features: the belief that nature is inherently valuable, and the belief that one’s self is truly realized by identification with nature. Four common but different meanings of the term “radical” are presented. Whether the theory of Deep Ecology is “too radical” depends upon which of these meanings one is using.
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  4. Robin Attfield (1999). Depth, Trusteeship, and Redistribution. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:159-168.
    I review some themes of Naess’s “The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements” article and Routley’s “Is there a Need for a New, An Environmental Ethic?” presentation at the 1973 World Congress. Naess’s affiliation to the Deep Ecology Movement deserves acclaim, theoretic entanglements notwithstanding. Routley advocated a new ethic because no Judaeo-Christian ethical tradition could cope with widespread environmental intuitions. However, the ethical tradition of stewardship can satisfy such concerns. It is compatible with environmental values, need not be managerial, (...)
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  5. Robin Attfield (1993). Sylvan, Fox and Deep Ecology: A View From the Continental Shelf. Environmental Values 2 (1):21 - 32.
    Both Richard Sylvan’s trenchant critique of Deep Ecology and Warwick Fox’s illuminating reinterpretation and defence are presented and appraised. Besides throwing light on the nature and the prospects of the defence of Deep Ecology and of its diverse axiological, epistemological and metaphysical strands, the appraisal discloses the range of normative positions open to those who reject anthropocentrism, of which Deep Ecology is no more than one (and, if Fox’s account of its nature is right, may not be one at all). (...)
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  6. Robin Attfield (1990). Deep Ecology and Intrinsic Value. Cogito 4 (1):61-66.
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  7. Stephen Avery (2004). The Misbegotten Child of Deep Ecology. Environmental Values 13 (1):31 - 50.
    This paper offers a critical examination of efforts to use Heidegger's thought to illuminate deep ecology. It argues that deep ecology does not entail a non-anthropocentric or ecocentric environmental ethic; rather, it is best understood as offering an ontological critique of the current environmental crisis, from a perspective of deep anthropocentrism.
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  8. Frederic L. Bender (2003). The Culture of Extinction: Toward a Philosophy of Deep Ecology. Humanity Books.
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  9. Donald N. Blakeley (2004). The Mysticism of Plotinus and Deep Ecology. Journal of Philosophical Research 29:1-28.
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  10. K. I. Booth (2013). Deep Ecology, Hybrid Geographies, and Environmental Management's Relational Premise. Environmental Values 22 (4):523-543.
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  11. S. Bratton (1999). Luc Ferry's Critique of Deep Ecology, Nazi Nature Protection Laws, and Environmental Anti-Semitism. Ethics and the Environment 4 (1):3-22.
    Neo-Humanist Luc Ferry (1995) has compared deep ecology's declarations of intrinsic value in nature to the Third Reich's nature protection laws, which prohibit maltreatment of animals having "worth in themselves." Ferry's questionable approach fails to document the relationship between Nazi environmentalism and Nazi racism. German high art and mass media historically presented nature as dualistic, and portrayed Untermenschen as unnatural or inorganic. Nazi propaganda excluded Jews from nature, and identified traditional Jews as cruel to animals. Ferry's idealization of Humanism under (...)
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  12. Alicia Irene Bugallo (2008). Relaciones recíprocas entre el Movimiento Ecología Profunda y las ciencias naturales. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:175-182.
    We highlight the deep ecology movement, inspired on ecological knowledge but mainly on the life-style of the ecological and biological field-worker. Its creator, the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess, stresses that human and no human beings have, at least, one kind of right in common: namely the ‘right’ to express its own nature, to live and blossom. This idea shows the inspiration from perseverare in suo esse, from Baruch Spinoza’s Ethics. But beyond this Spinozan influence, the striving for expression of one’s (...)
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  13. Alan Carter (1995). Deep Ecology or Social Ecology? Heythrop Journal 36 (3):328–350.
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  14. Jim Cheney (1991). Arne Naess: Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. Environmental Ethics 13 (3):263-273.
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  15. Jim Cheney (1987). Eco-Feminism and Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 9 (2):115-145.
    l examine the degree to which the so-called “deep ecology” movement embodies a feminist sensibility. In part one I take a brief look at the ambivalent attitude of “eco-feminism” toward deep ecology. In part two I show that this ambivalence sterns largely from the fact that deep ecology assimilates feminist insights to a basically masculine ethical orientation. In part three I discuss some of the ways in which deepecology theory might change if it adopted a fundamentally feminist ethical orientation.
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  16. John Clark (1996). How Wide is Deep Ecology? Inquiry 39 (2):189 – 201.
    Arne Naess's ?rules of Gandhian nonviolence? might usefully be applied to recent debates in ecophilosophy. The ?radical ecologies? have increasingly been depicted as mutually exclusive alternatives lacking any common ground, and many of the hostile and antagonistic attitudes that Naess cautions against have become prevalent. Naess suggests, however, that fundamental differences concerning theory and practice can coexist with a respect for one's opponents, an openness to the views of others, and a commitment to cooperation in the pursuit of mutually held (...)
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  17. John B. Cobb Jr (2001). Deep Ecology and Process Thought. Process Studies 30 (1):112-131.
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  18. David E. Cooper (1994). Is Daoism 'Green'? Asian Philosophy 4 (2):119 – 125.
    Abstract Contemporary advocates of ?deep ecology? often appeal to daoist ideals as an early expression of ?respect? for nature. This appeal is inspired, presumably, by daoist attacks on ?convention? or ?artifice? which, as Zhuang Zi puts it, ?has been the ruin of primordial nature ... the ruin of the world?. But there are problems with this appeal. Daoists are extremely selective in the aspects of nature which they admire, and it is as much the skilled artisan as the person ?at (...)
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  19. Deane Curtin (1996). A State of Mind Like Water: Ecosophy T and the Buddhist Traditions. Inquiry 39 (2):239 – 253.
    Arne Naess has come under many influences, most notably Gandhi and Spinoza. The Buddhist influence on his work, though less pervasive, provides the most direct account of key deep ecological concepts such as Self?realization and intrinsic value. I read Ecosophy T as a rigorously phenomenological branch of Deep Ecology. like early Buddhism, Naess responds to the human suffering that causes environmental destruction by challenging us to return to the reality of lived experience. This Buddhist reading clarifies, but it also complicates. (...)
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  20. Deane Curtin (1994). Dōgen, Deep Ecology, and the Ecological Self. Environmental Ethics 16 (2):195-213.
    A core project for deep ecologists is the reformulation of the concept of self. In searching for a more inclusive understanding of self, deep ecologists often look to Buddhist philosophy, and to the Japanese Buddhist philosopher Dōgen in particular, for inspiration. I argue that, while Dōgen does share a nondualist, nonanthropocentric framework with deep ecology, his phenomenology of the self is fundamentally at odds with the expanded Self found in the deep ecology literature. I suggest, though I do not fully (...)
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  21. Bill Devall (2001). The Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: 1960-2000--A Review. Ethics and the Environment 6 (1):18-41.
    : Aarne Naess, in a seminal paper on environmental philosophy, distinguished between two streams of environmental philosophy and activism--shallow and deep. The deep, long-range ecology movement has developed over the past four decades on a variety of fronts. However, in the context of global conferences on development, population, and environment held during the 1990s, even shallow environmentalism seems to have less priority than demands for worldwide economic growth based on trade liberalization and a free market global economy.
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  22. Bill Devall & George Sessions (2010). Deep Ecology. In Craig Hanks (ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  23. Christian Diehm (2007). Identification with Nature: What It is and Why It Matters. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):1-22.
    : This essay examines the content and significance of the notion of "identification" as it appears in the works of theorists of deep ecology. It starts with the most frequently expressed conception of identification—termed "identification-as-belonging"—and distinguishes several different variants of it. After reviewing two criticisms of deep ecology that appear to target this notion, it is argued that there is a second, less frequently noticed type of identification that appears primarily in the work of Arne Naess—"identification-as-kinship." Following this analysis, it (...)
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  24. Christian Diehm (2004). Deep Ecology and Phenomenology. Environmental Philosophy 1 (2):20-27.
    This essay is written as a companion to the interview “Here I Stand,” and it examines the place of phenomenology in the environmental thought of deep ecologist Arne Naess. Tracing a line through Naess’s somewhat sporadic references to phenomenology, and his comments in the interview, the article argues that Naess’s interest in phenomenology is tied to his attempts to develop an ontology, and tries to show how this project situates Naess in relation to several phenomenologists. The essay concludes with some (...)
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  25. Christian Diehm (2002). Arne Naess, Val Plumwood, and Deep Ecological Subjectivity: A Contribution to the "Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate". Ethics and the Environment 7 (1):24-38.
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  26. Andrew Dobson (1989). Deep Ecology. Cogito 3 (1):41-46.
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  27. Alan R. Drengson (1988). Bill Devall and George Sessions: Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 10 (1):83-89.
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  28. Alan R. Drengson (1987). A Critique of Deep Ecology? Response to William Grey. Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):223-227.
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  29. Warwick Fox (2000). Deep Ecology and Virtue Ethics. Philosophy Now 26:21-23.
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  30. Warwick Fox (1989). The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels. Environmental Ethics 11 (1):5-25.
    There has recently been considerable discussion of the relative merits of deep ecology and ecofeminism, primarily from an ecofeminist perspective. I argue that the essential ecofeminist charge against deep ecology is that deep ecology focuses on the issue of anthropocentrism (i.e., human-centeredness) rather than androcentrism (i.e., malecenteredness). I point out that this charge is not directed at deep ecology’s positive or constructive task of encouraging an attitude of ecocentric egalitarianism, but rather at deep ecology's negative or critical task of dismantling (...)
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  31. Greta Gaard (1993). Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach. Environmental Ethics 15 (2):185-190.
  32. Harold Glasser (2011). Naess's Deep Ecology: Implications for the Human Prospect and Challenges for the Future. Inquiry 54 (1):52-77.
    What sets Naess's deep ecology apart from most inquiries into environmental philosophy is that it does not seek a radical shift in fundamental values. Naess offered a utopian, life-affirming grand narrative, a new Weltanschauung that shifted the focus of inquiry to coupling values, knowledge, understanding, and wisdom to behavior. The core of Naess's approach is that sustainability hinges on developing more thoroughly reasoned and consistent views, policies, and actions, which are tied back to wide-identifying ultimate norms and a rich, well-informed (...)
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  33. Harold Glasser (1997). On Warwick Fox's Assessment of Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):69-85.
    I examine Fox’s tripartite characterization of deep ecology. His assessment abandons Naess’s emphasis upon the pluralism of ultimate norms by distilling what I refer to as the deep ecology approach to “Self-realization!” Contrary to Fox, I argue that his popular sense is distinctive and his formal sense is tenable. Fox’s philosophical sense, while distinctive, is neither necessary nor sufficient to adequately characterize the deep ecology approach. I contend that the deep ecology approach, as a formal approach to environmental philosophy, is (...)
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  34. Harold Glasser (1996). Naess's Deep Ecology Approach and Environmental Policy. Inquiry 39 (2):157 – 187.
    A clarification of Naess's ?depth metaphor? is offered. The relationship between Naess's empirical semantics and communication theory and his deep ecology approach to ecophilosophy (DEA) is developed. Naess's efforts to highlight significant conflicts by eliminating misunderstandings and promoting deep problematizing are focused upon. These insights are used to develop the implications of the DEA for environmental policy. Naess's efforts to promote the integration of science, ethics, and politics are related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The action?oriented aspect of (...)
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  35. Sally Goerner (1994). The Physics of Evolution: From Chaos to Evolution and Deep Ecology. World Futures 42 (3):193-214.
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  36. Frank B. Golley (1987). Deep Ecology From the Perspective of Environmental Science. Environmental Ethics 9 (1):45-55.
    Deep ecology is examined from the perspective of scientific ecology. Two norms, self-realization and biocentric equality, are considered central to deep ecology, and are explored in brief. Concepts of scientific ecology that seem to form a bridge to these norms are ecological hierarchical organization, the exchange of energy, material and information, and the development of species within ecosystems and the biosphere. While semantic problems exist, conceptually it appears that deep ecology norms can be interpreted through scientific ecology.
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  37. Kingsley Goodwin (2007). Postmodernism, Deep Ecology and the Idea of Wildness. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):501-512.
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  38. William Grey (1993). Anthropocentrism and Deep Ecology. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (4):463 – 475.
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  39. William Grey (1986). A Critique of Deep Ecology. Journal of Applied Philosophy 3 (2):211-216.
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  40. Benjamin Hale (2005). Experience and the Environment: Phenomenology Returns to Earth. [REVIEW] Human Studies 28 (1):101 - 106.
  41. K. L. F. Houle (1997). Spinoza and Ecology Revisted. Environmental Ethics 19 (4):417-431.
    Spinoza has been appropriated as a philosophical forefather of deep ecology. I identify what I take to be the relevant components of Spinoza’s metaphysics, which, at face value, appear to be harmonious with deep ecology’s commitments. However, there are central aspects of his moral philosophy which do not appear to be “environmentally friendly,” in particular the sentiments expressed in the Ethics IV35C1 and IV37S1. I describe environmental ethics’ treatment of these passages and then indicate what I take to (...)
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  42. Karen Houle (2005). Review of Eccy de Jonge, Spinoza and Deep Ecology: Challenging Traditional Approaches to Environmentalism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (5).
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  43. Benjamin Howe (2010). Was Arne Naess Recognized as the Founder of Deep Ecology Prematurely? Semantics and Environmental Philosophy. Environmental Ethics 32 (4):369-383.
    According to Arne Naess, his environmental philosophy is influenced by the philosophy of language called empirical semantics, which he first developed in the 1930s as a participant in the seminars of the Vienna Circle. While no one denies his claim, most of his commentators defend views about his environmental philosophy that contradict the tenets of his semantics. In particular, they argue that he holds that deep ecology’s supporters share a world view, and that the movement’s platform articulates shared principles. Naess, (...)
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  44. Terry Hoy (2000). Toward a Naturalistic Political Theory: Aristotle, Hume, Dewey, Evolutionary Biology, and Deep Ecology. Praeger.
    Hoy seeks to establish a basis for a naturalistic political theory as a continuity from Aristotle through the Enlightenment and Post-Enlightenment contributions ...
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  45. Mathew Humphrey (1999). Deep Ecology and the Irrelevance of Morality: A Response. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):75-79.
    In his article “Deep Ecology and the Irrelevance of Morality,” Eric H. Reitan contends that, contrary to the disavowals of Fox and Naess, the “ecosophy T” concept of “Self-realization” constitutes a precondition of morality according to a “robust” Kantian moral framework. I suggest that there is a significant problem involved in rendering Self-realization compatible with a Kantian moral framework. This problem of ontological priority demonstrates that Naess and Fox are in fact correct in their assertion that Self-realization is a nonmoral (...)
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  46. Mathew Humphrey (1999). Deep Ecology and the Irrelevance of Morality. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):75-79.
    In his article “Deep Ecology and the Irrelevance of Morality,” Eric H. Reitan contends that, contrary to the disavowals of Fox and Naess, the “ecosophy T” concept of “Self-realization” constitutes a precondition of morality according to a “robust” Kantian moral framework. I suggest that there is a significant problem involved in rendering Self-realization compatible with a Kantian moral framework. This problem of ontological priority demonstrates that Naess and Fox are in fact correct in their assertion that Self-realization is a nonmoral (...)
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  47. Holmes Rolston Iii (1994). Book Review:Regarding Nature: Industrialism and Deep Ecology. Andrew McLaughlin. [REVIEW] Ethics 105 (1):201-.
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  48. Knut A. Jacobsen (1996). Bhagavadgīt , Ecosophy T, and Deep Ecology. Inquiry 39 (2):219 – 238.
    This article analyses the influence of Hinduism on Ecosophy T. Arne Naess in several of his environmental writings quotes verse 6.29 of the Bhagavadgit?, a Hindu sacred text. The verse is understood to illustrate the close relationship between the ideas of oneness of all living beings, non?injury and self?realization. The article compares the interpretations of the verse of some of the most important Hindu commentators on the Bhagavadgit? with the environmentalist interpretation. There is no agreement in the history of the (...)
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  49. Simon P. James (2000). “Thing-Centered” Holism in Buddhism, Heidegger, and Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 22 (4):359-375.
    I address the problem of reconciling environmental holism with the intrinsic value of individual beings. Drawing upon Madhyamaka (“middle way”) Buddhism, the later philosophy of Martin Heidegger, and deep ecology, I present a distinctly holistic conception of nature that, nevertheless, retains a commitment to the intrinsic worth of individual beings. I conclude with an examination of the practical implications of this “thing-centered holism” for environmental ethics.
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  50. David M. Johns (1990). The Relevance of Deep Ecology to the Third World: Some Preliminary Comments. Environmental Ethics 12 (3):233-252.
    Although Ramachandra Guha has demonstrated the importance of cross-cultural dialogue on environmental issues and has much to tell us about the problems of wildemess preservation in the Third World, I argue that Guha is partly wrong in claiming that deep ecology equates environmental protection with wilderness protection and simply wrong in calling wilderness protection untenable or incorrect as aglobal strategy for environmental protection. Moreover, I argue that the deep ecology distinction between anthropocentrism and biocentrism is useful in dealing with the (...)
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