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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2011). Green Anarchy: Deep Ecology and Primitivism. In Benjamin Franks & Matthew Wilson (eds.), Anarchism and Moral Philosophy. Palgrave MacMillan
    Radical environmental discourse often contains anarchic elements. These elements include criticism of authoritarian politics and capitalism, and an emphasis on collectivism, individual freedom and self-fulfilment. These anarchic tendencies have increasingly led to the use of the term ‘green anarchism’. This chapter investigates two versions of radical environmental discourse, which have included, or have been used to support, ideas familiar to green anarchism: deep ecology and primitivism. The aim is to bring forward their main premises, explore the similarities between the two, (...)
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  2. Hicham-Stéphane Afeissa (ed.) (2009). Ecosophies, la Philosophie à l'Épreuve de L'Écologie. Mf.
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  3. Joseph Agassi, The Brundtland Report, P.
    Why are the efforts at coordination so feeble? Unless we face this question, we may never see progress. The answer is not hard to find. Decisions on matters of life and death are awesome; decisions on some awesome questions are guided by accepted laws, rules or customs; other awesome questions are open. Obviously, having to decide on an open, awesome question is a hardship in every possible manner: intellectually and practically, legally and morally, socially and psychologically. People are reluctant to (...)
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  4. William Aiken (1994). Is Deep Ecology Too Radical? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (4):1-5.
    The theory of Deep Ecology is characterized as having two essential features: the belief that nature is inherently valuable, and the belief that one’s self is truly realized by identification with nature. Four common but different meanings of the term “radical” are presented. Whether the theory of Deep Ecology is “too radical” depends upon which of these meanings one is using.
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  5. Matthew Antolick, Deep Ecology and Heideggerian Phenomenology.
    This thesis examines the connections between Arne Naess's Deep Ecology and Martin Heidegger's Phenomenology. The latter provides a philosophical basis for the former. Martin Heidegger's critique of traditional metaphysics and his call for an "event" ontology that is deeper than the traditional substance ontology opens a philosophical space in which a different conception of what it is to be emerges. Heidegger's view of humans also provides a basis for the wider and deeper conception of self Arne Naess seeks: one that (...)
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  6. Ralph Joseph Argen (1994). Deep Technology Environmental Ethics: An Alternative to Deep Ecology. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo
    There is no need for objective values to create an environmental ethic. The case against objective values is not new, but its force is generally ignored by advocates of environmentalism. These arguments in conjunction with an error theory that explains how the false belief in objective value is built into moral language form the case against objective values. The error theory also shows that deep ecology environmentalism is a regressive, repressive, religious dogma rather than philosophy or ethics. The intuitions of (...)
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  7. Robin Attfield (1999). Depth, Trusteeship, and Redistribution. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:159-168.
    I review some themes of Naess’s “The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements” article and Routley’s “Is there a Need for a New, An Environmental Ethic?” presentation at the 1973 World Congress. Naess’s affiliation to the Deep Ecology Movement deserves acclaim, theoretic entanglements notwithstanding. Routley advocated a new ethic because no Judaeo-Christian ethical tradition could cope with widespread environmental intuitions. However, the ethical tradition of stewardship can satisfy such concerns. It is compatible with environmental values, need not be managerial, (...)
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  8. Robin Attfield (1993). Sylvan, Fox and Deep Ecology: A View From the Continental Shelf. Environmental Values 2 (1):21 - 32.
    Both Richard Sylvan’s trenchant critique of Deep Ecology and Warwick Fox’s illuminating reinterpretation and defence are presented and appraised. Besides throwing light on the nature and the prospects of the defence of Deep Ecology and of its diverse axiological, epistemological and metaphysical strands, the appraisal discloses the range of normative positions open to those who reject anthropocentrism, of which Deep Ecology is no more than one (and, if Fox’s account of its nature is right, may not be one at all). (...)
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  9. Robin Attfield (1990). Deep Ecology and Intrinsic Value. Cogito 4 (1):61-66.
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  10. Robin Attfield (1990). Deep Ecology and Intrinsic Value: A Reply to Andrew Dobson. Cogito 4 (1):61-6.
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  11. Stephen Avery (2004). The Misbegotten Child of Deep Ecology. Environmental Values 13 (1):31-50.
    This paper offers a critical examination of efforts to use Heidegger's thought to illuminate deep ecology. It argues that deep ecology does not entail a non-anthropocentric or ecocentric environmental ethic; rather, it is best understood as offering an ontological critique of the current environmental crisis, from a perspective of deep anthropocentrism.
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  12. Brian H. Baxter (1996). Ecocentrism and Persons. Environmental Values 5 (3):205 - 219.
    Ecocentrism has to establish an intrinsic connection between its basic value postulate of the non-instrumental value of the nonhuman world and a conception of human flourishing, on pain of failure to motivate acceptance of its social and political prescriptions. This paper explores some ideas recently canvassed by ecocentrists such as Robyn Eckersley, designed to establish this connection – transpersonal ecology, autopoietic value theory and ecofeminism – and finds them open to objection. An alternative approach is developed which concentrates on the (...)
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  13. Frederic L. Bender (2003). The Culture of Extinction: Toward a Philosophy of Deep Ecology. Humanity Books.
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  14. Donato Bergandi (2013). Epilogue: The Epistemic and Practical Circle in an Evolutionary, Ecologically Sustainable Society. In The Structural Links between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Springer 151-158.
    Abstract In a context of human demographic, technological and economic pressure on natural systems, we face some demanding challenges. We must decide 1) whether to “preserve” nature for its own sake or to “conserve” nature because nature is essentially a reservoir of goods that are functional to humanity’s wellbeing; 2) to choose ways of life that respect the biodiversity and evolutionary potential of the planet; and, to allow all this to come to fruition, 3) to clearly define the role of (...)
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  15. Thomas Mary Berry (1999). The Great Work Our Way Into the Future. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  16. Donald N. Blakeley (2004). The Mysticism of Plotinus and Deep Ecology. Journal of Philosophical Research 29:1-28.
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  17. K. I. Booth (2013). Deep Ecology, Hybrid Geographies, and Environmental Management's Relational Premise. Environmental Values 22 (4):523-543.
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  18. George Bradford (forthcoming). Toward a Deep Social Ecology. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology.
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  19. George Bradford (1989). How Deep is Deep Ecology? With an Essay-Review on Woman's Freedom.
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  20. S. Bratton (1999). Luc Ferry's Critique of Deep Ecology, Nazi Nature Protection Laws, and Environmental Anti-Semitism. Ethics and the Environment 4 (1):3-22.
    Neo-Humanist Luc Ferry (1995) has compared deep ecology's declarations of intrinsic value in nature to the Third Reich's nature protection laws, which prohibit maltreatment of animals having "worth in themselves." Ferry's questionable approach fails to document the relationship between Nazi environmentalism and Nazi racism. German high art and mass media historically presented nature as dualistic, and portrayed Untermenschen as unnatural or inorganic. Nazi propaganda excluded Jews from nature, and identified traditional Jews as cruel to animals. Ferry's idealization of Humanism under (...)
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  21. Andrew Brennan (2013). Deep Ecology. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
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  22. Alicia Irene Bugallo (2008). Relaciones recíprocas entre el Movimiento Ecología Profunda y las ciencias naturales. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:175-182.
    We highlight the deep ecology movement, inspired on ecological knowledge but mainly on the life-style of the ecological and biological field-worker. Its creator, the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess, stresses that human and no human beings have, at least, one kind of right in common: namely the ‘right’ to express its own nature, to live and blossom. This idea shows the inspiration from perseverare in suo esse, from Baruch Spinoza’s Ethics. But beyond this Spinozan influence, the striving for expression of one’s (...)
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  23. Alan Carter (1995). Deep Ecology or Social Ecology? Heythrop Journal 36 (3):328–350.
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  24. Jim Cheney (1991). Arne Naess: Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. Environmental Ethics 13 (3):263-273.
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  25. Jim Cheney (1987). Eco-Feminism and Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 9 (2):115-145.
    l examine the degree to which the so-called “deep ecology” movement embodies a feminist sensibility. In part one I take a brief look at the ambivalent attitude of “eco-feminism” toward deep ecology. In part two I show that this ambivalence sterns largely from the fact that deep ecology assimilates feminist insights to a basically masculine ethical orientation. In part three I discuss some of the ways in which deepecology theory might change if it adopted a fundamentally feminist ethical orientation.
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  26. John Clark (1996). How Wide is Deep Ecology? Inquiry 39 (2):189 – 201.
    Arne Naess's ?rules of Gandhian nonviolence? might usefully be applied to recent debates in ecophilosophy. The ?radical ecologies? have increasingly been depicted as mutually exclusive alternatives lacking any common ground, and many of the hostile and antagonistic attitudes that Naess cautions against have become prevalent. Naess suggests, however, that fundamental differences concerning theory and practice can coexist with a respect for one's opponents, an openness to the views of others, and a commitment to cooperation in the pursuit of mutually held (...)
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  27. John B. Cobb Jr (2001). Deep Ecology and Process Thought. Process Studies 30 (1):112-131.
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  28. David E. Cooper (1994). Is Daoism 'Green'? Asian Philosophy 4 (2):119 – 125.
    Abstract Contemporary advocates of ?deep ecology? often appeal to daoist ideals as an early expression of ?respect? for nature. This appeal is inspired, presumably, by daoist attacks on ?convention? or ?artifice? which, as Zhuang Zi puts it, ?has been the ruin of primordial nature ... the ruin of the world?. But there are problems with this appeal. Daoists are extremely selective in the aspects of nature which they admire, and it is as much the skilled artisan as the person ?at (...)
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  29. Deane Curtin (1996). A State of Mind Like Water: Ecosophy T and the Buddhist Traditions. Inquiry 39 (2):239 – 253.
    Arne Naess has come under many influences, most notably Gandhi and Spinoza. The Buddhist influence on his work, though less pervasive, provides the most direct account of key deep ecological concepts such as Self?realization and intrinsic value. I read Ecosophy T as a rigorously phenomenological branch of Deep Ecology. like early Buddhism, Naess responds to the human suffering that causes environmental destruction by challenging us to return to the reality of lived experience. This Buddhist reading clarifies, but it also complicates. (...)
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  30. Deane Curtin (1994). Dōgen, Deep Ecology, and the Ecological Self. Environmental Ethics 16 (2):195-213.
    A core project for deep ecologists is the reformulation of the concept of self. In searching for a more inclusive understanding of self, deep ecologists often look to Buddhist philosophy, and to the Japanese Buddhist philosopher Dōgen in particular, for inspiration. I argue that, while Dōgen does share a nondualist, nonanthropocentric framework with deep ecology, his phenomenology of the self is fundamentally at odds with the expanded Self found in the deep ecology literature. I suggest, though I do not fully (...)
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  31. Arthur C. Danto (1981). Deep Interpretation. Journal of Philosophy 78 (11):691-706.
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  32. Stewart Davidson (2007). The Troubled Marriage of Deep Ecology and Bioregionalism. Environmental Values 16 (3):313-332.
    Bioregionalism is often presented as the politics of deep ecology, or deep ecology 's social philosophy. That the ties uniting these doctrines are rarely explored can be put down to a perception amongst commentators that such links are self-evident and therefore unworthy of closer examination. By arguing that the bonds between deep ecology and bioregionalism are more tenuous than has often been assumed, this paper addresses this theoretical lacuna. There is nothing exclusive to the central tenets of deep ecology which (...)
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  33. Avner de-Shalit & Ethics &. Society Oxford Centre for the Environment (1997). Where Philosophy Meets Politics the Concept of the Environment. Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics & Society.
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  34. Bill Devall (2001). The Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: 1960-2000--A Review. Ethics and the Environment 6 (1):18-41.
    : Aarne Naess, in a seminal paper on environmental philosophy, distinguished between two streams of environmental philosophy and activism--shallow and deep. The deep, long-range ecology movement has developed over the past four decades on a variety of fronts. However, in the context of global conferences on development, population, and environment held during the 1990s, even shallow environmentalism seems to have less priority than demands for worldwide economic growth based on trade liberalization and a free market global economy.
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  35. Bill Devall (1988). Simple in Means, Rich in Ends Practicing Deep Ecology.
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  36. Bill Devall & George Sessions (2010). Deep Ecology. In Craig Hanks (ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings. Wiley-Blackwell
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  37. Christian Diehm (2007). Identification with Nature: What It is and Why It Matters. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):1-22.
    : This essay examines the content and significance of the notion of "identification" as it appears in the works of theorists of deep ecology. It starts with the most frequently expressed conception of identification—termed "identification-as-belonging"—and distinguishes several different variants of it. After reviewing two criticisms of deep ecology that appear to target this notion, it is argued that there is a second, less frequently noticed type of identification that appears primarily in the work of Arne Naess—"identification-as-kinship." Following this analysis, it (...)
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  38. Christian Diehm (2004). Deep Ecology and Phenomenology. Environmental Philosophy 1 (2):20-27.
    This essay is written as a companion to the interview “Here I Stand,” and it examines the place of phenomenology in the environmental thought of deep ecologist Arne Naess. Tracing a line through Naess’s somewhat sporadic references to phenomenology, and his comments in the interview, the article argues that Naess’s interest in phenomenology is tied to his attempts to develop an ontology, and tries to show how this project situates Naess in relation to several phenomenologists. The essay concludes with some (...)
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  39. Christian Diehm (2002). Arne Naess, Val Plumwood, and Deep Ecological Subjectivity: A Contribution to the "Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate". Ethics and the Environment 7 (1):24-38.
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  40. Andrew Dobson (1989). Deep Ecology. Cogito 3 (1):41-46.
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  41. Andy Dobson (1990). Arne Naess, Ecology, Community and Lifestyle. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 54:40.
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  42. Alan R. Drengson (1988). Bill Devall and George Sessions: Deep Ecology. Environmental Ethics 10 (1):83-89.
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  43. Alan R. Drengson (1987). A Critique of Deep Ecology? Response to William Grey. Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):223-227.
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  44. Karánn Durland (2008). The Prospects of a Viable Biocentric Egalitarianism. Environmental Ethics 30 (4):401-416.
    At a minimum, a satisfactory biocentric egalitarianism must satisfy three constraints: (1) it must demand enough to deserve the name biocentric; (2) it must not require so much that it makes a worthwhile or at least a recognizably human life impossible; and (3) it must not be incoherent or internally inconsistent. Neither rule-based forms of biocentric egalitarianism nor virtue theory versions meet all three requirements. The rule-based accounts that Paul Taylor and James Sterba introduce contain serious defects, and many of (...)
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  45. Warwick Fox (forthcoming). Deep Ecology: A New Philosophy of Our Time? Environmental Ethics.
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  46. Warwick Fox (2000). Deep Ecology and Virtue Ethics. Philosophy Now 26:21-23.
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  47. Warwick Fox (1989). The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels. Environmental Ethics 11 (1):5-25.
    There has recently been considerable discussion of the relative merits of deep ecology and ecofeminism, primarily from an ecofeminist perspective. I argue that the essential ecofeminist charge against deep ecology is that deep ecology focuses on the issue of anthropocentrism (i.e., human-centeredness) rather than androcentrism (i.e., malecenteredness). I point out that this charge is not directed at deep ecology’s positive or constructive task of encouraging an attitude of ecocentric egalitarianism, but rather at deep ecology's negative or critical task of dismantling (...)
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  48. Greta Gaard (1993). Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach. Environmental Ethics 15 (2):185-190.
  49. Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan Newman (2016). Is It Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):170-182.
    Conservationists have two types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems: instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more useful than (...)
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  50. Harold Glasser (forthcoming). Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Upper Saddle River, Nj: Prentice Hall.
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