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Summary Toleration's first defense is by Saint Augustine (who later recanted it), but it does not become a major force until the beginning of liberal thought, particularly with thinkers like Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.  These thinkers and those following them sought to defend toleration as a general value, though typically a dependent value.  The pieces in this category relate to such defenses.
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  1. Alexander Agnello (2015). The Power of Tolerance: A Debate Wendy Brown and Rainer Forst Columbia University Press, 2014; 112 Pp.; $15.00. [REVIEW] Dialogue 54 (3):557-559.
  2. Sayed Hassan Akhlaq (2012). The Theoretical Foundations of Tolerance in Rumi. Philosophy, Culture, and Traditions 8:165-187.
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  3. D. Archard (forthcoming). Michael Walzer, On Toleration. Radical Philosophy.
  4. Amy Danielle Ash (1996). Tolerance: The Scope and Limits of its Justifications. Dissertation, Cornell University
    This work examines some of the grounds that are commonly used to justify tolerance, evaluating them in terms of both their scope and limits. The grounds of justification fall within three major categories: epistemological arguments, arguments about the proper role of the state and varieties of pluralism. Throughout the work, the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie's novel, The Satanic Verses, is used to evaluate the scope of those justifications and the limits they place upon tolerance. Discussion of the Satanic Verses controversy (...)
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  5. Fernando Bahr (2004). John Locke y Pierre Bayle: sobre la libertad de conciencia. Tópicos 12:43-64.
    This paper intends a comparative analysis of freedom of thought and toleration,as these concepts appear by the end of the 17th century in Locke's Epistola de Tolerantia and Bayle's Commentaire Philosophique. Nowadays we think that an open society implies freedom of thought as one of its pillars, and so an unlimited toleration, except in case others were injured. For Locke, things were different: freedom of thought was, for him, obedience to natural law, the basis of human society, and this purported (...)
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  6. Peter Balint (2014). Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  7. Peter Balint (2014). Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  8. Giuseppe Ballacci (2004). Cary J. Nederman: Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, C. 1100-C. 1550. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. [REVIEW] Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política 4:192-194.
  9. Barnes Barry (2001). Tolerance as a Primary Virtue. Res Publica 7 (3).
  10. Charles Bastide (1907). John Locke Ses Théories Politiques Et Leur Influence En Angleterre. Les Libertés Politiques - L'église Et l'État - la Tolérance. E. Leroux.
  11. Diderik Batens (2000). On the Epistemological Justification of Pluralism and Tolerance. Philosophica 65.
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  12. Pierre Bayle (2005). A Philosophical Commentary on These Words of the Gospel, Luke 14:23, “Compel Them to Come In, That My House May Be Full”. Liberty Fund.
    (From Liberty Fund:) The topics of church and state, religious toleration, the legal enforcement of religious practices, and religiously motivated violence on the part of individuals have once again become burning issues. Pierre Bayle’s Philosophical Commentary was a major attempt to deal with very similar problems three centuries ago. His argument is that if the orthodox have the right and duty to persecute, then every sect will persecute, since every sect considers itself orthodox. The result will be mutual slaughter, something (...)
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  13. Waldo Beach (1947). The Basis of Tolerance in a Democratic Society. Ethics 57 (3):157-169.
  14. James Beebe (2010). Moral Relativism in Context. Noûs 44 (4):691-724.
    Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist denies the existence of “absolute moral truths.” (1.2) The average moral relativist often expresses her commitment to moral relativism with slogans like ‘What’s true (or right) for you may not be what’s true (or right) for me’ or ‘What’s true (or right) for your culture may not be what’s true (or right) for my culture.’ (1.3) The average moral relativist endorses relativistic views of morality (...)
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  15. Teresa M. Bejan (2011). 'The Bond of Civility': Roger Williams on Toleration and its Limits. History of European Ideas 37 (4):409-420.
    In this article, I examine the meaning of the concept of ?civility? for Roger Williams and the role it played in his arguments for religious toleration. I place his concern with civility in the broader context of his life and works and show how it differed from the missionary and civilizing efforts of his fellow New English among the American Indians. For Williams, civility represented a standard of inclusion in the civil community that was ?essentially distinct? from Christianity, which properly (...)
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  16. Christopher David Belshaw (1989). Scepticism and Causal Reasoning. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    I argue that one standard account of the problem of induction, that which is commonly attributed to Hume, is misguided, in that it places unwarranted emphasis on the denial of necessary connexions between events. Once this emphasis is removed, then a way open to a solution, or dissolution, of the problem is revealed. ;I attempt to show first, some recent scholarship notwithstanding, that Hume can fairly be read as propounding scepticism about induction, and that this scepticism in large measure depends (...)
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  17. M. Beltran (1994). Tolerance and Freedom of Conscience in the Works of Spinoza-Remarks on Mignini, Filippo Hypothesis. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (4):738-746.
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  18. François Bessire, Sylvain Menant, Marie-hélène Cotoni & Voltaire (2000). "Traité Sur la Tolérance" de Voltaire.
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  19. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  20. J. Boler (1968). A Critique of Pure Tolerance. By R. P. Wolff, B. Moore, Jr., and H. Marcuse. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965. Pp. 117. $2.45. [REVIEW] American Journal of Jurisprudence 13 (1):163-170.
  21. Paul Bou-Habib (2015). Locke’s Tracts and the Anarchy of the Religious Conscience. European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):3-18.
    This article reconstructs the main arguments in John Locke’s first political writings, the highly rhetorical, and often obscure, Two Tracts on Government . The Tracts support the government’s right to impose religious ceremonies on its people, an astonishing fact given Locke’s famous defense of toleration in his later works. The reconstruction of the Tracts developed here allows us to see that rather than a pessimistic view of the prospects for peace under religious diversity, what mainly animates the young Locke is (...)
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  22. François Boucher & Cécile Laborde (forthcoming). Why Tolerate Conscience? Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-21.
    In Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter argues against the special legal status of religion, claiming that religion should not be the only ground for exemptions to the law and that this form of protection should be, in principle, available for the claims of secular conscience as well. However, in the last chapter of his book, he objects to a universal regime of exemptions for both religious and secular claims of conscience, highlighting the practical and moral flaws associated with it. We (...)
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  23. Jonathan Bowman (2006). The European Union Democratic Deficit Federalists, Skeptics, and Revisionists. European Journal of Political Theory 5 (2):191-212.
    I outline the current debate over the European Union democratic deficit in terms of differing methodological approaches towards the realization of freedom and basic rights to political participation. Federalists opt for a model of freedom as noninterference and autonomous self-determination by proposing to tie basic rights in the EU to a univocal form of European-wide popular sovereignty. Although skeptics argue that the EU lacks the fundamental basis for such European-wide democratic self-determination, they ultimately defend a similar view of freedom as (...)
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  24. Girard Brenneman (2006). A Pragmatic Defense of Religious Exclusivism. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 8:13-18.
    Religious pluralism (the view that all the great world religions are equally true) is largely motivated by the fear that religious exclusivism ( the view that there is just one correct religion) leads to intolerance and oppression of those holding differing religious views. I claim that this suggests a false dichotomy: either be a tolerant pluralist or an intolerant exclusivist. I argue, first, that the seventeenth-century doctrine of toleration supports the claim that exclusivists of differing sects can peacefully coexist and, (...)
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  25. Walker Brian (1995). John Rawls, Mikhail Bakhtin, and the Praxis of Toleration. Political Theory 23 (1).
  26. Wendy Brown (2008). Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire. Princeton University Press.
    Tolerance is generally regarded as an unqualified achievement of the modern West. Emerging in early modern Europe to defuse violent religious conflict and reduce persecution, tolerance today is hailed as a key to decreasing conflict across a wide range of other dividing lines-- cultural, racial, ethnic, and sexual. But, as political theorist Wendy Brown argues in Regulating Aversion, tolerance also has dark and troubling undercurrents. Dislike, disapproval, and regulation lurk at the heart of tolerance. To tolerate is not to affirm (...)
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  27. Wendy Brown & Rainer Forst (2014). The Power of Tolerance: A Debate. Columbia University Press.
    Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization?
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  28. Timothy Brownlee (2013). Hegel's Defense of Toleration. In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press 79.
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  29. Tg Bucher (1985). Between Atheism and Tolerance-on the Historical Effects of Bayle, Pierre (1647-1706). Philosophisches Jahrbuch 92 (2):353-379.
  30. Tom D. Campbell (1990). Justifying Toleration: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives. Philosophical Books 31 (2):114-115.
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  31. Brunella Casalini (forthcoming). John Locke, Lettera sulla tolleranza: Una nuova traduzione della "Letter Concerning Toleration" di John Locke, accompagnata da un testo introduttivo. Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
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  32. J. F. Catherwood (2000). An Argument for Intolerance. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (6):427-431.
    “Multiculturalism”, “pluralism” and “tolerance” have become buzz words in applied ethics. While serious and well thought out work is going on in these areas, a misunderstanding of the importance of tolerance, and the difficulties raised by multicultural moral conflict seems common. In this paper I argue that intolerance of some cultural traditions is morally required, and suggest that the forging of a moral mono-culture is preferable to pluralism.
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  33. Pierre Caye (2003). Y. Ch. Zarka, Fr. Lessay & J. Rogers , Les Fondements Philosophiques de la Tolérance. [REVIEW] Archives de Philosophie du Droit 47.
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  34. Emanuela Ceva, Toleration. Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The idea of toleration (or tolerance—the terms are mostly used interchangeably) plays a paramount role in liberal theorizing with regard to the normative characterization of the relations between the state and citizens and between majority and minority groups in society. Toleration occurs when an agent A refrains from interfering negatively with an agent B’s practice x or belief y despite A’s opposition to B’s x-ing or y-ing, although A thinks herself to be in the position of interfering. So, the notion (...)
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  35. David Chandler (2012). Frank Furedi, On Tolerance: A Defence of Moral Independence. Radical Philosophy 171:42.
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  36. Chester Chapin (1997). Samuel Johnson, Samuel Clarke and the Toleration of Heresy. Enlightenment and Dissent 16:146-150.
  37. Sébastien Charles (2013). Voltaire pensador da tolerância: do combate ao fanatismo à luta contra o ateísmo. Doispontos 9 (3).
    Voltaire's militancy in favor of religious toleration is well-known. But he seems to be concerned by its practical results, the rehabilitation of those religiously persecuted, rather than by the theorectical reasonings to convince his opponents. That can be seen in the few importance given to argumentation in the Traité sur la tolerance , mostly composed by historical examples of violence caused by religious fanaticism. However, in Voltaire we find real philosophical reflection on tolerance, but the author finds it inneficient to (...)
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  38. Stephen Chavura, The Separation of Religion and State : Context and Meaning.
    This paper seeks to show the analytical limitations of the most popular terms describing the relationship between religion and politics, the two most popular being "separation of church and state" and "separation of religion and politics". Although the latter term is preferred it is still quite vague in its meaning and, strictly speaking, impossible to put into practice. I try to clarify the meaning of "separation of religion and state" by discussing the early writings out of which the tradition arose, (...)
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  39. S. Chen (1998). Locke's Political Arguments for Toleration. History of Political Thought 19 (2):167-185.
    This paper argues for a new perspective on Locke's account of toleration by looking at a set of important but neglected arguments for toleration. Standard accounts which view Lockean toleration as justified solely on considerations of conscience fail to explain Locke's preferred form of toleration, the process by which he overcame his earlier objections to toleration, and the importance of considerations regarding the practicability of religious toleration. The paper argues that attention to Locke's political arguments provides a more complete account (...)
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  40. John Chuang (2005). Theories of Interreligious Dialogue: The Difficulties and its Resolving Approaches From the perspectives of Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy and Culture 32 (4):89-108.
    Prevalent today in the religious philosophy of religious pluralism, Hick, but the most faithful Christian in the Catholic Church, adopted the form of dialogue is pulled behind the theory of religious tolerance on the inside. This study is to examine the Catholic Church as an inclusive theory is based on the best choice? From contemporary research results in the possibility that Hick's religious pluralism and tolerance in the discussion on the existence of problems and their remedy. So, first, this will (...)
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  41. Andrew Jason Cohen (2014). Toleration. Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important?
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  42. Andrew Jason Cohen (2014). Toleration. Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  43. Andrew Jason Cohen (2014). Toleration. Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  44. Andrew Jason Cohen (2014). Toleration. Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  45. Raphael Cohen-Almagor (1997). Why Tolerate? Reflections on the Millian Truth Principle. Philosophia 25 (1-4):131-152.
    The aim of this essay is to reflect on the Millian, utilitarian argument from truth that is held as one of the most conspicuous answers to the question Why tolerate? This argument postulates that only in a free market of ideas may the truth be discovered. Even the most unpopular idea may contain some truth in it and may contribute to the advancement of knowledge. It further commands us to contest those opinions which are believed to be true vigorously and (...)
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  46. Jeffrey R. Collins (2013). Thomas Hobbes, Heresy, and the Theological Project of Leviathan. Hobbes Studies 26 (1):6-33.
  47. Jane Compson (1996). The Dalai Lama and the World Religions: A False Friend?: Jane Compson. Religious Studies 32 (2):271-279.
    The Dalai Lama is well known for his tolerance of other religious traditions, actively encouraging people to celebrate their own faiths rather than convert to Buddhism. However, far from being a pluralist as this attitude suggests, he believes that ultimate liberation is obtained only through the practice of Buddhist teachings. This apparent contradiction is resolved when one examines some of the teachings that he follows, such as the notions of emptiness , skilful means , karma and rebirth. On such examination (...)
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  48. Gregory Conti (2015). Lockean Toleration and the Victim's Perspective. European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):76-97.
    According to Jeremy Waldron, John Locke's argument for the instrumental irrationality of persecution is fatally flawed. In this paper, I offer evidence that Waldron has misread Locke, and that Locke's views about why persecution generally proves inefficacious have greater plausibility than Waldron allowed. Locke's argument for the irrationality of intolerance does not, as has been thought, rest on a tendentious ontological distinction between ‘the will’ and ‘the understanding’, but on an account of the adverse psychological reaction of victims of persecution (...)
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  49. M. Cranston (1988). Locke on Toleration. Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Del Diritto 65 (2):213-219.
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  50. Maurice Cranston (1987). John Locke and the Case for Toleration. In Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.), On Toleration. Oxford University Press 101--121.
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