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Summary Toleration's first defense is by Saint Augustine (who later recanted it), but it does not become a major force until the beginning of liberal thought, particularly with thinkers like Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.  These thinkers and those following them sought to defend toleration as a general value, though typically a dependent value.  The pieces in this category relate to such defenses.
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  1. D. Archard (forthcoming). Michael Walzer, On Toleration. Radical Philosophy.
  2. Diderik Batens (2000). On the Epistemological Justification of Pluralism and Tolerance. Philosophica 65.
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  3. Waldo Beach (1947). The Basis of Tolerance in a Democratic Society. Ethics 57 (3):157-169.
  4. James Beebe (2010). Moral Relativism in Context. Noûs 44 (4):691-724.
    Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist denies the existence of “absolute moral truths.” (1.2) The average moral relativist often expresses her commitment to moral relativism with slogans like ‘What’s true (or right) for you may not be what’s true (or right) for me’ or ‘What’s true (or right) for your culture may not be what’s true (or right) for my culture.’ (1.3) The average moral relativist endorses relativistic views of morality (...)
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  5. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  6. Girard Brenneman (2006). A Pragmatic Defense of Religious Exclusivism. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 8:13-18.
    Religious pluralism (the view that all the great world religions are equally true) is largely motivated by the fear that religious exclusivism ( the view that there is just one correct religion) leads to intolerance and oppression of those holding differing religious views. I claim that this suggests a false dichotomy: either be a tolerant pluralist or an intolerant exclusivist. I argue, first, that the seventeenth-century doctrine of toleration supports the claim that exclusivists of differing sects can peacefully coexist and, (...)
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  7. Walker Brian (1995). John Rawls, Mikhail Bakhtin, and the Praxis of Toleration. Political Theory 23 (1).
  8. Tom D. Campbell (1990). Justifying Toleration: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives. Philosophical Books 31 (2):114-115.
  9. S. Chen (1998). Locke's Political Arguments for Toleration. History of Political Thought 19 (2):167-185.
    This paper argues for a new perspective on Locke's account of toleration by looking at a set of important but neglected arguments for toleration. Standard accounts which view Lockean toleration as justified solely on considerations of conscience fail to explain Locke's preferred form of toleration, the process by which he overcame his earlier objections to toleration, and the importance of considerations regarding the practicability of religious toleration. The paper argues that attention to Locke's political arguments provides a more complete account (...)
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  10. Andrew Jason Cohen (2014). Toleration. Polity.
  11. Raphael Cohen-Almagor (1997). Why Tolerate? Reflections on the Millian Truth Principle. Philosophia 25 (1-4):131-152.
    The aim of this essay is to reflect on the Millian, utilitarian argument from truth that is held as one of the most conspicuous answers to the question Why tolerate? This argument postulates that only in a free market of ideas may the truth be discovered. Even the most unpopular idea may contain some truth in it and may contribute to the advancement of knowledge. It further commands us to contest those opinions which are believed to be true vigorously and (...)
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  12. Greg Conti (forthcoming). Lockean Toleration and the Victim's Perspective. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885114523940.
    According to Jeremy Waldron, John Locke's argument for the instrumental irrationality of persecution is fatally flawed. In this paper, I offer evidence that Waldron has misread Locke, and that Locke's views about why persecution generally proves inefficacious have greater plausibility than Waldron allowed. Locke's argument for the irrationality of intolerance does not, as has been thought, rest on a tendentious ontological distinction between ‘the will’ and ‘the understanding’, but on an account of the adverse psychological reaction of victims of persecution (...)
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  13. M. Cranston (1988). Locke on Toleration. Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Del Diritto 65 (2):213-219.
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  14. Maurice Cranston (1987). John Locke and the Case for Toleration. In Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.), On Toleration. Oxford University Press. 101--121.
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  15. Maurice Cranston (1967). Toleration. In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan. 8--143.
  16. Ingrid Creppell (2001). Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration. Res Publica 7 (3):247-271.
    One of the most important issues today is the conflict between identity groups. Can the concept of toleration provide resources for thinking about this? The standard definition of toleration – rejection or disapproval of a practice or belief followed by a constraint of oneself from repressing it –has limits. If we seek to make political and social conditions of toleration among diverse people a stable reality, we need to flesh out more deeply and widely what that depends upon. The essence (...)
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  17. Ingrid Creppell (1996). Locke on Toleration: The Transformation of Constraint. Political Theory 24 (2):200-240.
  18. E. M. Curley (2005). Scepticism and Toleration: The Case of Montaigne. In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 2. Oup Oxford.
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  19. Michael Davis (1979). The Budget of Tolerance. Ethics 89 (2):165-178.
  20. Jakob De Roover & S. N. Balagangadhara (2008). John Locke, Christian Liberty, and the Predicament of Liberal Toleration. Political Theory 36 (4):523-549.
    Recently, scholars have disputed whether Locke's political theory should be read as the groundwork of secular liberalism or as a Protestant political theology. Focusing on Locke's mature theory of toleration, the article raises a central question: What if these two readings are compatible? That is, what would be the consequences if Locke's political philosophy has theological foundations, but has also given shape to secular liberalism? Examining Locke's theory in the Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), the article argues that this is indeed (...)
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  21. Jakob De Roover & S. N. Balagangadhara (2008). John Locke, Christian Liberty, and the Predicament of Liberal Toleration. Political Theory 36 (4):523-549.
  22. Richard Dees (2002). Review of Anna Elisabetta Galeotti, Toleration As Recognition. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (11).
  23. Richard H. Dees (1999). Establishing Toleration. Political Theory 27 (5):667-693.
  24. Richard H. Dees (1998). Trust and the Rationality of Toleration. Noûs 32 (1):82-98.
  25. Mircea Dumitru (2010). Despre tolerantã, pluralism si recunoasterea celorlalti/ On Tolerance, Pluralism and the Recognition of Others. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 4 (10):12-18.
    The paper examines some presuppositions of toleration and pluralism and explores two models, a deontological and a consequentialist model, that could support the view that rational agents should act in a tolerant way. Within the first model two arguments are given in favor of the view that people are better off and more rational if they are tolerant. The first argument draws upon a principle of charity that one usually makes use of in philosophy of mind and philosophy of language, (...)
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  26. Harold A. Durfee (1970). Karl Jaspers as the Metaphysician of Tolerance. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (4):201 - 210.
  27. Adam Etinson (2014). On Shareable Reasons: A Comment on Forst. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):76-88.
  28. Jean Ferrari (2000). Remarques Sur la Tolérance. Philosophica 65.
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  29. Andrew Fiala, Toleration. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  30. Andrew Fiala (2003). Toleration and the Limits of the Moral Imagination. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):33-40.
    This essay discusses one source of toleration: a modest recognition of the limits of our ability to imagine the situation of the other. It further connects this with both respect for the autonomy of the other and the moral need to engage the other in dialogue. The conclusion is that toleration is important in light of the ubiquity of failures of the moral imagination. It considers several examples of the failure of the moral imagination, including a discussion of the Hindu (...)
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  31. Andrew G. Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103-116.
  32. Andrew Gordon Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103 - 116.
  33. George P. Fletcher (1996). The Case for Tolerance. Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (01):229-.
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  34. Rainer Forst, Toleration. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  35. Danny Frederick, The Philosophical Case For Pornography.
  36. R. G. Frey (1977). TOLERATION by Preston King. Philosophical Books 18 (2):87-87.
  37. Rainer Frost (2007). Toleration. In Thaddeus Metz (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. Richard Fumerton (2013). Epistemic Toleration and the New Atheism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 37 (1):97-108.
  39. Paul Gilbert (2000). Toleration or Autonomy? Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (3):299–302.
  40. H. Gomperz (1936). "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea. International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
  41. Jonathan Gorman (1995). For Tolerance. Philosophy Now 12:22-23.
  42. Jonathan L. Gorman (1997). Truth and Toleration. In Sirkku Hellsten, Marjaana Kopperi & Olli Loukola (eds.), Taking the Liberal Challenge Seriously: Essays on Contemporary Liberalism at the Turn of the 21st Century. Ashgate. 221.
  43. Gary F. Greif (1974). Tolerance and Individuality. Journal of Value Inquiry 8 (1):30-36.
  44. Alastair Hamilton (2007). Histories of Heresy in Early Modern Europe: For, Against, and Beyond Persecution and Toleration. Edited by John Christian Laursen. Heythrop Journal 48 (1):134–135.
  45. Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.) (2008). Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books.
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  46. John Horton & Susan Mendus (1985). Introduction. In John Horton & Susan Mendus (eds.), Aspects of Toleration: Philosophical Studies. Methuen.
  47. Duncan Ivison (2006). Review of Catriona McKinnon, Toleration: A Critical Introduction. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (8).
  48. Roy A. Jackson (2010). Islam, the West and Tolerance. By Aaaron Tyler. Heythrop Journal 51 (4):716-718.
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  49. R. Jahanbegloo (2010). Is a Muslim Gandhi Possible?: Integrating Cultural and Religious Plurality in Islamic Traditions. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (3-4):309-323.
    In the past decade, Islam has come to be associated more than ever with images of extremism and violence. Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein are stock characters in this association, in the aftermath of 11 September and the ‘war on terror’. Lost in all this is a long record of Muslim experience of non-violent change and peace-making. Yet Islam hardly glorifies violence — and does quite explicitly glorify its opposite. History offers much evidence of Muslim tolerance and civil engagement (...)
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  50. R. Jahanbegloo (1996). Mahatma Gandhi: The Prophet of Tolerance. Diogenes 44 (176):115-119.
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