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Summary Toleration's first defense is by Saint Augustine (who later recanted it), but it does not become a major force until the beginning of liberal thought, particularly with thinkers like Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.  These thinkers and those following them sought to defend toleration as a general value, though typically a dependent value.  The pieces in this category relate to such defenses.
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  1. Diderik Batens (2000). On the Epistemological Justification of Pluralism and Tolerance. Philosophica 65.
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  2. Waldo Beach (1947). The Basis of Tolerance in a Democratic Society. Ethics 57 (3):157-169.
  3. James Beebe (2010). Moral Relativism in Context. Noûs 44 (4):691-724.
    Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist denies the existence of “absolute moral truths.” (1.2) The average moral relativist often expresses her commitment to moral relativism with slogans like ‘What’s true (or right) for you may not be what’s true (or right) for me’ or ‘What’s true (or right) for your culture may not be what’s true (or right) for my culture.’ (1.3) The average moral relativist endorses relativistic views of morality (...)
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  4. Sam Black (2007). Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  5. Girard Brenneman (2006). A Pragmatic Defense of Religious Exclusivism. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 8:13-18.
    Religious pluralism (the view that all the great world religions are equally true) is largely motivated by the fear that religious exclusivism ( the view that there is just one correct religion) leads to intolerance and oppression of those holding differing religious views. I claim that this suggests a false dichotomy: either be a tolerant pluralist or an intolerant exclusivist. I argue, first, that the seventeenth-century doctrine of toleration supports the claim that exclusivists of differing sects can peacefully coexist and, (...)
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  6. Walker Brian (1995). John Rawls, Mikhail Bakhtin, and the Praxis of Toleration. Political Theory 23 (1).
  7. Raphael Cohen-Almagor (1997). Why Tolerate? Reflections on the Millian Truth Principle. Philosophia 25 (1-4):131-152.
    The aim of this essay is to reflect on the Millian, utilitarian argument from truth that is held as one of the most conspicuous answers to the question Why tolerate? This argument postulates that only in a free market of ideas may the truth be discovered. Even the most unpopular idea may contain some truth in it and may contribute to the advancement of knowledge. It further commands us to contest those opinions which are believed to be true vigorously and (...)
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  8. Ingrid Creppell (2001). Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration. Res Publica 7 (3):247-271.
    One of the most important issues today is the conflict between identity groups. Can the concept of toleration provide resources for thinking about this? The standard definition of toleration – rejection or disapproval of a practice or belief followed by a constraint of oneself from repressing it –has limits. If we seek to make political and social conditions of toleration among diverse people a stable reality, we need to flesh out more deeply and widely what that depends upon. The essence (...)
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  9. Ingrid Creppell (1996). Locke on Toleration: The Transformation of Constraint. Political Theory 24 (2):200-240.
  10. Michael Davis (1979). The Budget of Tolerance. Ethics 89 (2):165-178.
  11. Richard Dees (2002). Review of Anna Elisabetta Galeotti, Toleration As Recognition. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (11).
  12. Richard H. Dees (1999). Establishing Toleration. Political Theory 27 (5):667-693.
  13. Richard H. Dees (1998). Trust and the Rationality of Toleration. Noûs 32 (1):82-98.
  14. Harold A. Durfee (1970). Karl Jaspers as the Metaphysician of Tolerance. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (4):201 - 210.
  15. Adam Etinson (2014). On Shareable Reasons: A Comment on Forst. Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):76-88.
  16. Jean Ferrari (2000). Remarques Sur la Tolérance. Philosophica 65.
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  17. Andrew Fiala, Toleration. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  18. Andrew Fiala (2003). Toleration and the Limits of the Moral Imagination. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):33-40.
    This essay discusses one source of toleration: a modest recognition of the limits of our ability to imagine the situation of the other. It further connects this with both respect for the autonomy of the other and the moral need to engage the other in dialogue. The conclusion is that toleration is important in light of the ubiquity of failures of the moral imagination. It considers several examples of the failure of the moral imagination, including a discussion of the Hindu (...)
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  19. Andrew G. Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103-116.
  20. Andrew Gordon Fiala (2002). Toleration and Pragmatism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (2):103 - 116.
  21. George P. Fletcher (1996). The Case for Tolerance. Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (01):229-.
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  22. Rainer Forst, Toleration. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  23. R. G. Frey (1977). TOLERATION by Preston King. Philosophical Books 18 (2):87-87.
  24. Paul Gilbert (2000). Toleration or Autonomy? Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (3):299–302.
  25. H. Gomperz (1936). "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea. International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
  26. Jonathan Gorman (1995). For Tolerance. Philosophy Now 12:22-23.
  27. Gary F. Greif (1974). Tolerance and Individuality. Journal of Value Inquiry 8 (1):30-36.
  28. Alastair Hamilton (2007). Histories of Heresy in Early Modern Europe: For, Against, and Beyond Persecution and Toleration. Edited by John Christian Laursen. Heythrop Journal 48 (1):134–135.
  29. Russel Hardin, Ingrid Crepell & Stephen Macedo (eds.) (2008). Toleration on Trial. Lexington Books.
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  30. John Horton & Susan Mendus (1985). Introduction. In John Horton & Susan Mendus (eds.), Aspects of Toleration: Philosophical Studies. Methuen.
  31. Duncan Ivison (2006). Review of Catriona McKinnon, Toleration: A Critical Introduction. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (8).
  32. Roy A. Jackson (2010). Islam, the West and Tolerance. By Aaaron Tyler. Heythrop Journal 51 (4):716-718.
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  33. R. Jahanbegloo (2010). Is a Muslim Gandhi Possible?: Integrating Cultural and Religious Plurality in Islamic Traditions. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (3-4):309-323.
    In the past decade, Islam has come to be associated more than ever with images of extremism and violence. Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein are stock characters in this association, in the aftermath of 11 September and the ‘war on terror’. Lost in all this is a long record of Muslim experience of non-violent change and peace-making. Yet Islam hardly glorifies violence — and does quite explicitly glorify its opposite. History offers much evidence of Muslim tolerance and civil engagement (...)
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  34. R. Jahanbegloo (1996). Mahatma Gandhi: The Prophet of Tolerance. Diogenes 44 (176):115-119.
  35. Peter Jones (2012). Toleration, Religion and Accommodation. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Issues of religious toleration might be thought dead and advocacy of religious toleration a pointless exercise in preaching to the converted, at least in most contemporary European societies. This paper challenges that view. It does so principally by focusing on issues of religious accommodation as these arise in contemporary multi-faith societies. Drawing on the cases of exemption, Article 9 of the ECHR, and law governing indirect religious discrimination, it argues that issues and instances of accommodation are issues and instances of (...)
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  36. Peter Jones (2006). Toleration, Recognition and Identity. Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (2):123–143.
  37. John Kilcullen, Essay III. Reciprocity Arguments for Toleration.
    From now on I intend to put aside history and exegesis of texts to take up as philosophical questions some matters which arise from Bayle's argument for toleration . In fact I believe that the main conclusions I argue for in the remaining essays are substantially Bayle's, but I am not concerned to show that they are, and have not adopted them out of any loyalty to him. This third essay is an analysis of the reciprocity argument as a type. (...)
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  38. John Kilcullen, Conclusion: Sincerity and Being Right.
    The case for toleration as Bayle presents it seems closely tied to the proposition that if we do what we sincerely think right then we do a morally good act, even if that act is actually wrong. The prominence of this proposition in his book would have made it seem unpersuasive to some of the people most important to convince, namely those who followed "the principles of St Augustine". Arnauld, for example, rejects the Jesuits' thesis that an act cannot be (...)
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  39. John Kilcullen (1988). Sincerity and Truth: Essays on Arnauld, Bayle, and Toleration. Oxford University Press.
    Philosophical Commentary on the Words of the Gospel 'Compel Them to Come In', written by the Protestant philosopher Pierre Bayle in 1686-88, was a classic statement of the case for toleration at a time of extreme persecution. This collection of Kilcullen's writings on Bayle's work examines a wide range of 17th-century religious and philosophical issues, including Bayle's arguments, Arnauld's attack on Jesuit moral theories similar to Bayle's, the uses and limitations of "reciprocity" arguments, the "ethics of belief," and questions of (...)
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  40. Hye-Kyung Kim & Michael Wreen (2003). Relativism, Absolutism, and Tolerance. Metaphilosophy 34 (4):447-459.
  41. Peter King, For Intolerance.
    In his response to my article `Against Tolerance', Jonathan Gorman misses my main point by an astonishingly wide margin, and throws in a number of herrings of a most vivid redness. I'll look briefly at the first of these flushed fish before going on to tackle his main misunderstanding.
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  42. Menachem Lorberbaum (1995). Learning From Mistakes: Resources of Tolerance in the Jewish Tradition. Journal of Philosophy of Education 29 (2):273–284.
  43. Andrew Mason (2001). Glen Newey, Virtue, Reason and Toleration: The Place of Toleration in Ethical and Political Philosophy, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1999, Pp. Ix + 208. Utilitas 13 (01):132-.
  44. Sorin-Tudor Maxim & Elena Maxim (2008). La Critique de la tolérance. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:495-506.
    A critical approach on tolerance can be done as an endeavor to asset its rational arguments brought in its support or/and as a justification of its moral value within the process of human being completion. The commitment to such critical task is more necessary as it is unyieldingness summon in contemporary debates in political religious and, especially moral contexts, it has been equally valorized and contested. The most remarkable analyses of this rather summary rubric for many and often contradictory connotations, (...)
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  45. Catriona Mckinnon (2002). Review: Virtue, Reason and Toleration. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (441):156-158.
  46. Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.) (1987). On Toleration. Oxford University Press.
    Is toleration a requirement of morality or a dictate of prudence? What limits are there to toleration? What is required of us if we are to promote a truly tolerant society? These themes--the grounds, limits, and requirements of toleration--are central to this book, which presents the W.B. Morrell Memorial Lectures on Toleration, given in 1986 at the University of York. Covering a wide range of practical and theoretical issues, the contributors--including F.A. Hayek, Maurice Cranston, and Karl Popper--consider the philosophical difficulties (...)
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  47. Mark Mercer (1999). Grounds of Liberal Tolerance. Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (3):319-334.
  48. Denise Meyerson (2012). Three Versions of Liberal Tolerance: Dworkin, Rawls, Raz. Jurisprudence 3 (1):37-70.
    The idea that the exercise of state power should be limited so as to permit free choice in matters of personal conduct has been central to liberalism ever since John Stuart Mill defended the harm principle. However, this surface agreement conceals deeper disagreements. One disputed matter relates to the nature of the tolerant state: is it a state that refrains from improving our moral character by coercive means is it a state that takes no interest whatsoever in the moral character (...)
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  49. Ryan Muldoon, Michael Borgida & Michael Cuffaro (2012). The Conditions of Tolerance. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (3):322-344.
    The philosophical tradition of liberal political thought has come to see tolerance as a crucial element of a liberal political order. However, while much has been made of the value of toleration, little work has been done on individual-level motivations for tolerant behavior. In this article, we seek to develop an account of the rational motivations for toleration and of where the limits of toleration lie. We first present a very simple model of rational motivations for toleration. Key to this (...)
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  50. G. Newey (1997). Against Thin-Property Reductivism: Toleration as Supererogatory. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 31 (2):231-249.
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