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  1. Natalie Abrams (1981). Book Review:On Defining Death. Douglas N. Walton. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (1):148-.
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  2. Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis (2010). Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death. Foundations of Science 15 (3):245-262.
    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper suggests improving this situation by basing definitions on a theory of a generalized particle hierarchy. This theory uses the common denominator of the “operator” for a unified ranking of both particles and organisms, from elementary particles to animals (...)
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  3. J. M. Appel (2005). Defining Death: When Physicians and Families Differ. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):641-642.
    Whether the law should permit individuals to opt out of accepted death standards is a question that must be faced and clarifiedWhile media coverage of the Terri Schiavo case in Florida has recently refocused public attention on end of life decision making, another end of life tragedy in Utah has raised equally challenging—and possibly more fundamental—questions about the roles of physicians and families in matters of death. The patient at the centre of this case was Jesse Koochin, a six year (...)
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  4. Rosangela Barcaro (2015). Alla fine della vita: bioetica e medicina alla ricerca di un confine [At the end of life: bioethics and medicine looking for a boundary]. Laboratorio Dell’ISPF [Online First] 1824-9817.
    Bioethics, neuroscience, medicine are contributing to a debate on the definition and criteria of death. This topic is very controversial, and it demonstrates clashing views on the meaning of human life and death. Official medical and legal positions agree upon a biological definition of death as irreversible cessation of integrated functioning of the organism as a whole, and whole-brain criterion to ascertain death. These positions have to face many criticisms: some scholars speak of logical and practical inconsistency, some others of (...)
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  5. Rosangela Barcaro (2014). Il dibattito bioetico italiano. Laici vs. cattolici [Italian bioethical debate on brain death: lay vs religious attitudes]. In Francesco Paolo de Ceglia (ed.), Storia della definizione di morte. FrancoAngeli 415-431.
    La cosiddetta “morte cerebrale totale”, o più correttamente “morte encefalica” (whole brain death), è un criterio fisiologico riferito alla cessazione irreversibile e permanente di tutte le funzioni dell’encefalo (emisferi e tronco encefalico), ed è correlato alla cessazione del funzionamento integrato dell’organismo. L’applicazione del criterio neurologico, e degli esami che lo accompagnano, è finalizzato ad una diagnosi clinica e strumentale per individuare una condizione causata da lesioni neurologiche diffuse e responsabili di coma, assenza di coscienza, di respirazione spontanea, di risposte agli (...)
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  6. Rosangela Barcaro (2010). La morte dell’essere umano. Scienza o filosofia nell’accertamento del decesso? In Lorenzo Chieffi & Pasquale Giustiniani (eds.), Percorsi tra bioetica e diritto. Alla ricerca di un bilanciamento. Giappichelli 111-129.
    Nel quarantesimo anniversario della pubblicazione del rapporto di Harvard, ricordato da un editoriale di Lucetta Scaraffia sull’ “Osservatore Romano” il 3 settembre 2008, la riflessione sui criteri neurologici per accertare il decesso è sembrata giungere finalmente all’attenzione del pubblico italiano, dopo i dibattiti avviati nello scorso decennio in Gran Bretagna, Germania, Giappone e negli Stati Uniti. Per alcuni giorni sulle pagine dei quotidiani nazionali si sono alternate repliche, più o meno indignate, a quell’articolo e prese di posizione; poi, come è (...)
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  7. Rosangela Barcaro (2007). Ai confini della vita. Riflessione critica sulla nozione di morte cerebrale [Life borders. A critical appraisal of brain death]. Humana.Mente 3:19-37.
    Sintesi delle tappe attraverso cui si è giunti alla formulazione di una teoria a sostegno dei criteri neurologici e alla loro introduzione nella prassi medico-legale per individuare le cause di un ripensamento critico dei fondamenti teorico-scientifici addotti per giustificare i criteri neurologici utilizzati per dichiarare la morte di pazienti con lesioni cerebrali collegati alle apparecchiature per la ventilazione artificiale.
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  8. Rosangela Barcaro (2007). Il dogma che non c'è [An imaginary dogma]. Liberal 7 (40):104-113.
    I criteri neurologici per accertare il decesso, da impiegare in alternativa a quelli cardiorespiratori se il paziente ha subìto lesioni cerebrali e si trova collegato alle apparecchiature per la ventilazione artificiale, sono entrati nell’uso comune della pratica medica occidentale da circa quarant’anni ed il consenso di cui essi godono nella comunità scientifica sembra, a prima vista, essere ancora oggi molto solido. Si diceva a prima vista, perché se si esamina con attenzione la letteratura dal 1992 ad oggi, si possono scoprire (...)
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  9. Rosangela Barcaro (2005). La morte cerebrale totale è la morte dell'organismo? Appunti per una riflessione critica. Materiali Per Una Storia Della Cultura Giuridica 35 (2):479-500.
    Sono discusse le principali argomentazioni medico-biologiche che costituiscono il nucleo della teoria secondo la quale la morte cerebrale totale corrisponde alla morte dell'essere umano. Speciale attenzione è riservata alla normativa che disciplina l’applicazione dei criteri per l'accertamento di morte e alle critiche che hanno mostrato come attualmente la teoria che fa da sostegno a quella normativa sia stata radicalmente messa in discussione.
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  10. Kurt Bayertz (1992). Techno-Thanatology: Moral Consequences of Introducing Brain Criteria for Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):407-417.
    This paper is based on the hypothesis that the effort to establish new criteria for diagnosing human death, which has been taking place over the past twenty years or more, can be viewed as a paradigm case for the impact of scientific and technological progress on morality. This impact takes the form of three tendencies within the change in morality, which may be characterized as ‘denaturalization’, ‘functionalization’ and ‘homogenization’. The paper concludes with the view that these tendencies do not indicate (...)
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  11. Ben Bradley (2009). Well-Being and Death. Oxford University Press.
  12. Ben Bradley, Fred Feldman & Jens Johansson (eds.) (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. OUP USA.
    This Handbook consists of 21 new essays on the nature and value of death, the relevance of the metaphysics of time and personal identity for questions about death, the desirability of immortality, and the wrongness of killing.
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  13. Alister Browne (1987). Defining Death. Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):155-164.
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  14. E. C. Brugger (2013). D. Alan Shewmon and the PCBE's White Paper on Brain Death: Are Brain-Dead Patients Dead? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (2):205-218.
    The December 2008 White Paper (WP) on “Brain Death” published by the President’s Council on Bioethics (PCBE) reaffirmed its support for the traditional neurological criteria for human death. It spends considerable time explaining and critiquing what it takes to be the most challenging recent argument opposing the neurological criteria formulated by D. Alan Shewmon, a leading critic of the “whole brain death” standard. The purpose of this essay is to evaluate and critique the PCBE’s argument. The essay begins with a (...)
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  15. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  16. Mike Collins (2009). Consent for Organ Retrieval Cannot Be Presumed. HEC Forum 21 (1):71-106.
  17. Niall Connolly (2011). How the Dead Live. Philosophia 39 (1):83-103.
    This paper maintains (following Yougrau 1987; 2000 and Hinchliff 1996) that the dead and other former existents count as examples of non-existent objects. If the dead number among the things there are, a further question arises: what is it to be dead—how should the state of being dead be characterised? It is argued that this state should be characterised negatively: the dead are not persons, philosophers etc. They lack any of the (intrinsic) qualities they had while they lived. The only (...)
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  18. Megan Crowley-Matoka & Robert M. Arnold (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care ... And How Much Should. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):319-332.
    : In this brief commentary, we reflect on the recent study by Siminoff, Burant, and Youngner of public attitudes toward "brain death" and organ donation, focusing on the implications of their findings for the rules governing from whom organs can be obtained. Although the data suggest that many seem to view "brain death" as "as good as dead" rather than "dead" (calling the dead donor rule into question), we find that the study most clearly demonstrates that understanding an individual's definition (...)
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  19. Françoise Dastur (2012). How Are We to Confront Death?: An Introduction to Philosophy. Fordham University Press.
    Overcoming death -- Neutralizing death -- Accepting death.
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  20. Leonardo D. de Castro & Peter A. Sy (1998). Critical Care in the Philippines: The "Robin Hood Principle" Vs. Kagandahang Loob. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (6):563 – 580.
    Practical medical decisions are closely integrated with ethical and religious beliefs in the Philippines. This is shown in a survey of Filipino physicians' attitudes towards severely compromised neonates. This is also the reason why the ethical analysis of critical care practices must be situated within the context of local culture. Kagandahang loob and kusang loob are indigenous Filipino ethical concepts that provide a framework for the analysis of several critical care practices. The practice of taking-from-the-rich-to-give-to-the-poor in public hospitals is not (...)
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  21. John Donnelly (ed.) (1994). Language, Metaphysics, and Death. Fordham University Press.
    This standard work in thanatology is updated with ten essays new to the second edition, and features a new introduction by Donnelly. The collection addresses certain basic issues inherent in a philosophy of death.
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  22. Gerald Dworkin (2007). Pt. IV. The End of Life. The Definition of Death / Stuart Youngner ; The Aging Society and the Expansion of Senility: Biotechnological and Treatment Goals / Stephen Post ; Death is a Punch in the Jaw: Life-Extension and its Discontents / Felicia Nimue Ackerman ; Precedent Autonomy, Advance Directives, and End-of-Life Care / John K. Davis ; Physician-Assisted Death: The State of the Debate. [REVIEW] In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press
  23. H. M. Evans (2005). Reply To: Defining Death: When Physicians and Families Differ. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):642-644.
    While there may be a place in some contexts for high handed, “blanket” legislative prohibitions on dissenting views of what constitutes death, the paper under consideration does not describe such a contextThis stimulating and provocative paper by Professor Appel, Defining death: when physicians and families differ, asks us to consider “whether patients’ families should be permitted to opt out of widely accepted definitions of death in favour of their own standards”. This is a striking question in many ways. It reminds (...)
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  24. James W. Evra (1984). Death. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (2).
    There is a classic problem which confronts any attempt to assign death a value. On the assumption that death is personal annihilation, death deprives evil of a requisite subject, for no misfortune can befall something which does not exist. Recent efforts to provide a reasonable basis for counting death as a bad thing have centered on an analysis of the loss of life's goods which it brings. So long as the analysis assumes that death is a simple state, loss can (...)
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  25. Fred Feldman, “Death”.
    Reflection on death gives rise to a variety of philosophical questions. One of the deepest of these is a question about the nature of death. Typically, philosophers interpret this question as a call for an analysis, or definition, of the concept of death. Plato proposed to define death as the separation of soul from body. This definition is not acceptable to materialists, who think that there are no souls. It is also unacceptable to anyone who thinks that plants and lower (...)
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  26. Fred Feldman (2000). The Termination Thesis. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 24 (1):98–115.
    The Termination Thesis (or “TT”) is the view that people go out of existence when they die. Lots of philosophers seem to believe it. Epicurus, for example, apparently makes use of TT in his efforts to show that it is irrational to fear death. He says, “as long as we exist, death is not with us; but when death comes, then we do not exist.”1 Lucretius says pretty much the same thing, but in many more words and more poetically: “Death (...)
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  27. Fred Feldman (1992). The Enigma of Death. Philosophia 21 (3-4):163-181.
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  28. Antony Flew (1964). Body, Mind, and Death. New York, Macmillan.
  29. Kurt O. Fosso (1993). "The Living and the Dead": Death and Community in William Wordsworth's Early Poems, 1787-1797. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    This study examines the genealogy of Wordsworth's conception of a "spiritual community binding together the living and the dead." His early poems explore the limits and foundations of this "community," often envisioning its structure as triadic, articulated between mourners and the dead. One can schematize and temporalize this "binding" as involving first a loss that, when subsequently expressed in memorializing acts, leads to mournful bonds of connection. It is this socially constitutive relationship between these dead and living that each of (...)
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  30. Norman Fost (2004). Reconsidering the Dead Donor Rule: Is It Important That Organ Donors Be Dead? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):249-260.
    : The "dead donor rule" is increasingly under attack for several reasons. First, there has long been disagreement about whether there is a correct or coherent definition of "death." Second, it has long been clear that the concept and ascertainment of "brain death" is medically flawed. Third, the requirement stands in the way of improving organ supply by prohibiting organ removal from patients who have little to lose—e.g., infants with anencephaly—and from patients who ardently want to donate while still alive—e.g., (...)
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  31. Cody Gilmore (forthcoming). The Metaphysics of Mortals: Death, Immortality, and Personal Time. Philosophical Studies:1-29.
    Personal time, as opposed to external time, has a certain role to play in the correct account of death and immortality. But saying exactly what that role is, and what role remains for external time, is not straightforward. I formulate and defend accounts of death and immortality that specify these roles precisely.
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  32. Cody Gilmore (2013). When Do Things Die? In Ben Bradley, Jens Johansson & Fred Feldman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. Oxford University Press
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  33. Cody Gilmore (2007). Defining 'Dead' in Terms of 'Lives' and 'Dies'. Philosophia 35 (2):219-231.
    What is it for a thing to be dead? Fred Feldman holds, correctly in my view, that a definition of ‘dead’ should leave open both (1) the possibility of things that go directly from being dead to being alive, and (2) the possibility of things that go directly from being alive to being neither alive nor dead, but merely in suspended animation. But if this is right, then surely such a definition should also leave open the possibility of things that (...)
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  34. David B. Hershenov (2006). The Death of a Person. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (2):107 – 120.
    Drawing upon Lynne Baker's idea of the person derivatively possessing the properties of a constituting organism, I argue that even if persons aren't identical to living organisms, they can each literally die a biological death. Thus we can accept that we're not essentially organisms and can still die without having to admit that there are two concepts and criteria of death as Jeff McMahan and Robert Veatch do. Furthermore, we can accept James Bernat's definition of "death" without having to insist, (...)
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  35. Stephen Holland (2010). On the Ordinary Concept of Death. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (2):109-122.
    What is death? The question is of wide-ranging practical importance because we need to be able to distinguish the living from the dead in order to treat both appropriately; specifically, the permissibility of retrieving vital organs for transplantation depends upon the potential donor's ontological status. There is a well-established and influential biological definition of death as irreversible breakdown in the functioning of the organism as a whole, but it continues to elicit disquiet and rejoinders. The central claims of this paper (...)
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  36. Peter Hucklenbroich (1981). On Defining Death. An Analytic Study of the Concept of Death in Philosophy and Medical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (3):361-365.
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  37. Kiraly V. Istvan (2007). Halandoan lakozik szabadsagaban az ember... Kalligram.
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  38. Kiraly V. Istvan (2003). A halal es a meghalas tapasztalata... Kozdok.
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  39. Kiraly V. Istvan (2002). Moartea si experienta muririi. Casa Cartii de Stiinta.
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  40. A. Ya Ivanyushkin (1989). Trends in the Development of Medical Ethics in the Ussr. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (3):301-314.
    The study of professional ethics has a long tradition in the Soviet Union; medical ethics is a code of conduct as well as an academic discipline. The paper discusses the ethical issues in intensive care, the definition of death, abortion, euthanasia, and the moral aspects of medical mistakes. Keywords: abortion, euthanasia, intensive care, medical mistakes, medical deontology, professional ethics, Marxism, socialism, USSR, bioethics CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
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  41. L. Syd M. Johnson (2014). A Legal Fiction with Real Consequences. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):34-36.
  42. Royce P. Jones (1985). The Logical Status of Brain Death Criteria. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (4):387-396.
    This article is an attempt to clarify a confusion in the brain death literature between logical sufficiency/necessity and natural sufficiency/necessity. We focus on arguments that draw conclusions regarding empirical matters of fact from conceptual or ontological definitions. Specifically, we critically analyze arguments by Tom Tomlinson and Michael B. Green and Daniel Wikler. which, respectively, confuse logical and natural sufficiency and logical and natural necessity. Our own conclusion is that it is especially important in discussing the brain death issue to observe (...)
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  43. Susan Frances Jones & Anthony S. Kessel (2001). The 'Redefinition of Death' Debate: Western Concepts and Western Bioethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):63-75.
    Biomedicine is a global enterprise constructed upon the belief in the universality of scientific truths. However, despite huge scientific advances over recent decades it has not been able to formulate a specific and universal definition of death: In fact, in its attempt to redefine death, the concept of death appears to have become immersed in ever increasing vagueness and ambiguity. Even more worrisome is that bioethics, in the form of principlism, is also endeavouring to become a global enterprise by claiming (...)
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  44. Eike-Henner W. Kluge (1981). On Defining Death: An Analytic Study of the Concept of Death in Philosophy and Medical Ethics. By Douglas N. Walton. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. 1979. Pp. Xii, 189. $15.95. [REVIEW] Dialogue 20 (3):616-620.
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  45. Peter Koch (2009). An Alternative to an Alternative to Brain Death. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 83:89-98.
    In this paper I will provide a hylomorphic critique of Jeff McMahan’s “An Alternative to Brain Death.” I will evaluate three puzzles—the dicephalus, the braintransplant, and the split-brain phenomenon—proposed by McMahan which allow him to deny that a human being is identical to an organism. I will contend thatMcMahan’s solution entails counterintuitive consequences that pose problems to organ transplant cases. A Thomistic hylomorphic metaphysics not only avoids these unwelcome consequences and provides solutions to the three puzzles but in doing so (...)
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  46. Rodrigo Laera (2013). The Preoccupation with Death. Problemata: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 4 (1):110-133.
    Against the epicurean position, the rationality about the preoccupation with death is discussed by the present paper. For this purpose two elemental thesis are proposed. The first one supports that it is rational to worry about death before dying because we conceive the idea of a discourse in which the impossibility of interfere in the world to satisfy our pending goals is lamented. The second thesis is that death afflicts any prejudice only to whom wonders about it, because this question (...)
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  47. Arto Laitinen (2007). Personales Leben Und Menschlicher Tod: Personale Identität Als Prinzip der Biomedizinischen Ethik, by Michael Quante. [REVIEW] European Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):306–313.
    Issues of personal identity are relevant in biomedical ethics, but in what way? The mainclaim that structures Quante’s book is that the debates about bioethics and medical ethicshave not been sufficiently clear about the different meanings of ‘personal identity’. Hedistinguishes four questions: 1)conditions of personhood (what properties and capacitiesmust a thing have to be a person: consciousness? self-consciousness? consciousness of timeand one’s persistence in time? rationality? capacity to recognize others and communicate with them?), 2) the question of unity or synchronous (...)
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  48. John P. Lizza (2005). Potentiality, Irreversibility, and Death. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (1):45 – 64.
    There has been growing concern about whether individuals who satisfy neurological criteria for death or who become non-heart-beating organ donors are really dead. This concern has focused on the issue of the potential for recovery that these individuals may still have and whether their conditions are irreversible. In this article I examine the concepts of potentiality and irreversibility that have been invoked in the discussions of the definition of death and non-heart-beating organ donation. I initially focus on the recent challenge (...)
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  49. John P. Lizza (1999). Defining Death for Persons and Human Organisms. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (5):439-453.
    This paper discusses how alternative concepts of personhood affect the definition of death. I argue that parties in the debate over the definition of death have employed different concepts of personhood, and thus have been talking past each other by proposing definitions of death for different kinds of things. In particular, I show how critics of the consciousness-related, neurological formation of death have relied on concepts of personhood that would be rejected by proponents of that formulation. These critics rest on (...)
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  50. Steven Luper, Death. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    First, what constitutes a person's death? It is clear enough that people die when their lives end, but less clear what constitutes the ending of a person's life.
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