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  1. E. ?Kesson (1956). The Analysis of Deontic Experience in H?Gerstr?M's Philosophy. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57:161 - 176.
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  2. Azizah Al-Hibri (1980). Conditionality and Ross's Deontic Distinction. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):79-87.
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  3. Carlos Alarcon-Cabrera (1998). Von Wright's Deontic Logics and "Contrary-to-Duty Imperatives". Ratio Juris 11 (1):67-79.
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  4. C. E. Alchourrón & D. Makinson (1981). New Studies in Deontic Logic. In Risto Hilpinen (ed.), New Studies in Deontic Logic. 125--148.
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  5. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1996). Detachment and Defeasibility in Deontic Logic. Studia Logica 57 (1):5 - 18.
    The purpose of the paper is to present a logical framework that allow to formalize a kind of prima facie duties, defeasible conditional duties, indefeasible conditional duties and actual (indefeasible) duties, as well as to show their logical interconnections.
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  6. Carlos E. Alchourrón (1972). The Intuitive Background of Normative Legal Discourse and its Formalization. Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (3/4):447 - 463.
  7. Carlos E. Alchourron & Antonio A. Martino (1990). Logic Without Truth. Ratio Juris 3 (1):46-67.
  8. Michael J. Almeida (1990). Deontic Logic and the Possibility of Moral Conflict. Erkenntnis 33 (1):57 - 71.
    Standard dyadic deontic logic (as well as standard deontic logic) has recently come under attack by moral philosophers who maintain that the axioms of standard dyadic deontic logic are biased against moral theories which generate moral conflicts. Since moral theories which generate conflicts are at least logically tenable, it is argued, standard dyadic deontic logic should be modified so that the set of logically possible moral theories includes those which generate such conflicts. I argue that (1) there are only certain (...)
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  9. Alan Ross Anderson (1958). A Reduction of Deontic Logic to Alethic Modal Logic. Mind 67 (265):100-103.
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  10. Albert J. J. Anglberger (2008). Dynamic Deontic Logic and its Paradoxes. Studia Logica 89 (3):427 - 435.
    In Meyer’s promising account [7] deontic logic is reduced to a dynamic logic. Meyer claims that with his account “we get rid of most (if not all) of the nasty paradoxes that have plagued traditional deontic logic.” But as was shown by van der Meyden in [4], Meyer’s logic also contains a paradoxical formula. In this paper we will show that another paradox can be proven, one which also effects Meyer’s “solution” to contrary to duty obligations and his logic in (...)
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  11. Albert Jj Anglberger (2009). Alternative Reductions for Dynamic Deontic Logics. In Hieke Alexander & Leitgeb Hannes (eds.), Reduction, Abstraction, Analysis. Ontos Verlag. 179.
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  12. Leo Apostel (1960). Game Theory and the Interpretation of Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 3 (2):70-90.
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  13. L. Åqvist (1966). Next and Ought. Alternative Foundations for von Wright's Tense Logic, with an Application to Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 9:231-251.
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  14. L. Aqvist (1964). On Dawson-Models for Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 7:14-21.
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  15. L. Åqvist (1962). A Binary Primitive in Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 19 (3):90-97.
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  16. Lennart Åqvist (2000). Three Characterizability Problems in Deontic Logic. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 5 (2):65-82.
    We consider an infinite hierarchy of systems of Alethic Modal Logic with so-called Levels of Perfection, and add to them suitable definitions of such interesting deontic categories as those of supererogation, offence, conditional obligation and conditional permission. We then state three problems concerning the proper characterization of the resulting logic(s) for our defined notions, and discuss two of these problems in some detail.
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  17. Lennart Åqvist (2000). Three Characterizability Problems in Deontic Logic. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 5 (2):65-82.
    We consider an infinite hierarchy of systems of Alethic Modal Logic with so-called Levels of Perfection, and add to them suitable definitions of such interesting deontic categories as those of supererogation, offence, conditional obligation and conditional permission. We then state three problems concerning the proper characterization of the resulting logic(s) for our defined notions, and discuss two of these problems in some detail.
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  18. Lennart Åqvist (2000). Three Characterizability Problems in Deontic Logic. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 5 (2):65-82.
    We consider an infinite hierarchy of systems of Alethic Modal Logic with so-called Levels of Perfection, and add to them suitable definitions of such interesting deontic categories as those of supererogation, offence, conditional obligation and conditional permission. We then state three problems concerning the proper characterization of the resulting logic(s) for our defined notions, and discuss two of these problems in some detail.
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  19. Lennart Aqvist (1998). Prima Facie Obligations in Deontic Logic: A Chisholmian Analysis Based on Normative. In Christoph Fehige & Ulla Wessels (eds.), Preferences. De Gruyter. 135.
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  20. Lennart Åqvist (1986). Some Results on Dyadic Deontic Logic and the Logic of Preference. Synthese 66 (1):95 - 110.
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  21. Lennart Åqvist (1969). Improved Formulations of Act-Utilitarianism. Noûs 3 (3):299-323.
    The article deals with two problems that arise within moorean style act-utilitarianism (a.u.): (i) how is the notion of 'the alternatives to' a particular action to be explicated? (ii) how should a.u. be formulated in order for it to validate the laws of standard deontic logic? it is argued that these intertwined problems can be solved only if the traditional formulations a a.u. are rejected in favor of some new and more viable ones. in the literature the two problems seem (...)
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  22. Lennart Åqvist (1964). Interpretations of Deontic Logic. Mind 73 (290):246-253.
    The author is concerned with a minimal system dl of deontic logic, His main purpose being to draw attention to the existence of interpretations of dl that give rise to various systems of what may be called "atheoretical logic." by this we understand logical systems dealing with expressions that are--Very probably at least--Neither true nor false, Such as sentences expressing promises, Intentions, Wishes, Commands, And similar things. As it is well known, The status of atheoretical logic in this sense is (...)
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  23. Lennart åQvist (1963). Postulate Sets and Decision Procedures for Some Systems of Deontic Logic. Theoria 29 (2):154-175.
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  24. Lennart Åqvist & Jaap Hoepelman (1981). Some Theorems About a “Tree” System of Deontic Tense Logic. In Risto Hilpinen (ed.), New Studies in Deontic Logic. 187--221.
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  25. Nicholas Asher & Daniel Bonevac (1996). Prima Facie Obligation. Studia Logica 57 (1):19-45.
    This paper presents a nonmonotonic deontic logic based on commonsense entailment. It establishes criteria a successful account of obligation should satisfy, and develops a theory that satisfies them. The theory includes two conditional notions of prima facie obligation. One is constitutive; the other is epistemic, and follows nonmonotonically from the constitutive notion. The paper defines unconditional notions of prima facie obligation in terms of the conditional notions.
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  26. John Bacon (1973). Kripke's Deontic Semantics Again. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 14 (4):581-582.
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  27. Patrice Bailhache (2002). Review: Sven Ove Hansson, The Structure of Values and Norms. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):531-533.
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  28. Patrice Bailhache (1998). How to Mix Alethic, Deontic, Temporal, Individual Modalities. Logica Trianguli 2:3-16.
    Deontic logic handles not only deontic modalities, but also alethic and temporal ones. In addition, individuals like authorities and addressees play an important role. R5-D5 is a system handling alethic, deontic and temporal modalities, whose adequacy has been proved in an earlier paper. Similarly for KD*UXY with sets of individuals . The present article is an attempt to construct a general system mixing R5-D5 and KD*UXY.
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  29. Patrice Bailhache (1995). Canonical Models for Temporal Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 149:3-21.
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  30. Patrice Bailhache (1980). Several Possible Systems of Deontic Weak and Strong Norms. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (1):89-100.
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  31. P. Balbiani & P. Seban (2011). Reasoning About Permitted Announcements. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (4):445-472.
    We formalize what it means to have permission to say something. We adapt the dynamic logic of permission by van der Meyden (J Log Comput 6(3):465–479, 1996 ) to the case where atomic actions are public truthful announcements. We also add a notion of obligation. Our logic is an extension of the logic of public announcements introduced by Plaza ( 1989 ) with dynamic modal operators for permission and for obligation. We axiomatize the logic and show that it is decidable.
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  32. Paul Bartha (2002). Review of John F. Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (2).
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  33. Jc Beall (2012). A Neglected Reply to Prior’s Dilemma. In James Maclaurin (ed.), Rationis Defensor.
    This paper offers a novel reply to Prior’s dilemma (for the Is/Ought principle), advocating a so-called Weak Kleene framework motivated by two not uncommon thoughts in the debate, namely, that ought statements are identified as those that use ‘ought’, and that ought statements are ‘funny’ in ways that is statements aren’t (e.g., perhaps sometimes being ‘gappy’ with respect to truth and falsity).
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  34. Harry beatty (1972). On Evaluating Deontic Logics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (3/4):439 - 444.
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  35. Matthew S. Bedke (2009). The Iffiest Oughts: A Guise of Reasons Account of End‐Given Conditionals. Ethics 119 (4):672-698.
    It often seems that what one ought to do depends on what contingent ends one has adopted and the means to pursuing them. Imagine, for example, that you are applying for jobs, and a particularly attractive one comes your way. It offers excellent colleagues in a desirable location, the pay is good, and acquiring a job like this is one of your ends. If practicing your job talk is a means to getting the job, the following seems true: (1) If (...)
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  36. Mathieu Beirlaen & Christian Straßer (2013). Two Adaptive Logics of Norm-Propositions. Journal of Applied Logic 11 (2):147-168.
    We present two defeasible logics of norm-propositions (statements about norms) that (i) consistently allow for the possibility of normative gaps and normative conflicts, and (ii) map each premise set to a sufficiently rich consequence set. In order to meet (i), we define the logic LNP, a conflict- and gap-tolerant logic of norm-propositions capable of formalizing both normative conflicts and normative gaps within the object language. Next, we strengthen LNP within the adaptive logic framework for non-monotonic reasoning in order to meet (...)
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  37. Mathieu Beirlaen & Christian Straßer (2013). Two Adaptive Logics of Norm-Propositions. Journal of Applied Logic 11 (2):147-168.
    We present two defeasible logics of norm-propositions (statements about norms) that (i) consistently allow for the possibility of normative gaps and normative conflicts, and (ii) map each premise set to a sufficiently rich consequence set. In order to meet (i), we define the logic LNP, a conflict- and gap-tolerant logic of norm-propositions capable of formalizing both normative conflicts and normative gaps within the object language. Next, we strengthen LNP within the adaptive logic framework for non-monotonic reasoning in order to meet (...)
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  38. Mathieu Beirlaen, Christian Straßer & Joke Meheus (2013). An Inconsistency-Adaptive Deontic Logic for Normative Conflicts. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):285-315.
    We present the inconsistency-adaptive deontic logic DP r , a nonmonotonic logic for dealing with conflicts between normative statements. On the one hand, this logic does not lead to explosion in view of normative conflicts such as O A ∧ O ∼A, O A ∧ P ∼A or even O A ∧ ∼O A. On the other hand, DP r still verifies all intuitively reliable inferences valid in Standard Deontic Logic (SDL). DP r interprets a given premise set ‘as normally (...)
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  39. Sieghard Beller (2008). Deontic Norms, Deontic Reasoning, and Deontic Conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):305 – 341.
    Deontic reasoning is thinking about whether actions are forbidden or allowed, obligatory or not obligatory. It is proposed that social norms, imposing constraints on individual actions, constitute the fundamental concept for the system of these four deontic modalities, and that people reason from such norms flexibly according to deontic core principles. Two experiments are presented, one on deontic conditional reasoning, the other on “pure” deontic reasoning. Both experiments demonstrate people's high deontic competence and confirm the proposed representational and inferential principles. (...)
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  40. Johan Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu (2014). Priority Structures in Deontic Logic. Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
    This article proposes a systematic application of recent developments in the logic of preference to a number of topics in deontic logic. The key junction is the well-known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures. The resulting two-level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary-to-duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger-Anderson reduction of deontic logic. Next, the priority framework is applied to model (...)
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  41. Martin Mose Bentzen (2014). Action Type Deontic Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (4):397-414.
    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and (...)
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  42. Jan Berg (1960). A Note on Deontic Logic. Mind 69 (276):566-567.
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  43. Mathijs Boer, Dov M. Gabbay, Xavier Parent & Marija Slavkovic (2012). Two Dimensional Standard Deontic Logic [Including a Detailed Analysis of the 1985 Jones–Pörn Deontic Logic System]. Synthese 187 (2):623-660.
    This paper offers a two dimensional variation of Standard Deontic Logic SDL, which we call 2SDL. Using 2SDL we can show that we can overcome many of the difficulties that SDL has in representing linguistic sets of Contrary-to-Duties (known as paradoxes) including the Chisholm, Ross, Good Samaritan and Forrester paradoxes. We note that many dimensional logics have been around since 1947, and so 2SDL could have been presented already in the 1970s. Better late than never! As a detailed case study (...)
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  44. E. J. Bond (1966). Moral Requirement and the Need for Deontic Language. Philosophy 41 (157):233 - 249.
    In Part I of this paper I attempt to present, in more or less summary fashion, some well-known difficulties in the concept of deontic morality , as shown by certain features of deontic moral discourse. I make no great claims for originality here, although perhaps there may be some virtue in the presentation and ordering. In any case, Part I is a necessary preliminary to Part II, where I attempt to defend the rationality of and the necessity for deontic language (...)
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  45. Daniel Bonevac (1998). Against Conditional Obligation. Noûs 32 (1):37-53.
    The crucial feature of obligation sentences to which the puzzles point is that such sentences, and evaluative sentences more generally, are defeasible. They may be warranted, given some information, only to be defeated by further information. A theory that recognizes this no longer needs to see conditional obligation as anything more than a simple combination of unary obligation and the conditional.
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  46. Daniel Bonevac (1983). Chellas on Conditional Obligation. Philosophical Studies 44 (2):247 - 255.
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  47. Alexander Broadie (1982). The Logical Syntax of Deontic Operators. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (127):116-126.
    The strong and the weak deontic operators, O and p, Have been employed as operators on names of acts (e.G. By g h von wright) and on imperatives (e.G. By m fisher), But most commonly as proposition forming operators on propositions (e.G. By a n prior). But a strong case can be made out for the introduction of two kinds of adverbial deontic operator operating respectively on a proposition and on a predicate. These two operators can be used to symbolize (...)
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  48. Jan Broersen & Leendert van der Torre (2003). John Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic. Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (1):45-61.
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  49. Mark A. Brown (1996). A Logic of Comparative Obligation. Studia Logica 57 (1):117 - 137.
    Normal systems of modal logic, interpreted as deontic logics, are unsuitable for a logic of conflicting obligations. By using modal operators based on a more complex semantics, however, we can provide for conflicting obligations, as in [9], which is formally similar to a fragment of the logic of ability later given in [2], Having gone that far, we may find it desirable to be able to express and consider claims about the comparative strengths, or degrees of urgency, of the conflicting (...)
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  50. Mark Brown & Jose' Carmo (eds.) (1996). Deontic Logic, Agency and Normative Systems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
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