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Subcategories:History/traditions: Deontological Moral Theories
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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2007). The Moral Value of Animals. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is based on (...)
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  2. Larry Alexander (2008). Scalar Properties, Binary Judgments. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):85–104.
    In the moral realm, our deontic judgments are usually (always?) binary. An act (or omission) is either morally forbidden or morally permissible. 1 Yet the determination of an act's deontic status frequently turns on the existence of properties that are matters of degree. In what follows I shall give several examples of binary moral judgments that turn on scalar properties, and I shall claim that these examples should puzzle us. How can the existence of a property to a specific degree (...)
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  3. Larry Alexander & Kimberly Kessler Ferzan (2012). Ferzander’s Surrebuttal. Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (3):463-465.
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  4. Robin Attfield (2012). Synthetic Biology, Deontology and Synthetic Bioethics. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):29 - 32.
    Paul Thompson argues that current synthetic biology amounts to synthetic genomics, comprising a ?platform? technology, and that Christopher Preston's deontological objections based on its supposed rejection of the historical process of evolution miscarry. This makes it surprising that Thompson's normative ethic consists in a deontological appeal to Kantian duties of imperfect obligation. Construed as obligations subject to choice, such constraints risk being excessively malleable where the ethical objections to deployment of this technology concern land rights and/or exploitation. Thompson's advocacy of (...)
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  5. Samuel Freeman (1994). Utilitarianism, Deontology, and the Priority of Right. Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (4):313–349.
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  6. Phillip Goggans (2000). A Minimalist Ethic of Duty. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:431-436.
    It is proposed that an act is morally wrong just in case it is a violation of a duty not to perform that particular act. This is equivalent to the claim that acts have their moral status essentially. This theory preserves some main deontological intuitions without making problematic claims about kinds of acts.
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  7. Joseph Heath (2011). Following the Rules: Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint. Oxford University Press Usa.
    For centuries, philosophers have been puzzled by the fact that people often respect moral obligations as a matter of principle, setting aside considerations of self-interest. In more recent years, social scientists have been puzzled by the more general phenomenon of rule-following, the fact that people often abide by social norms even when doing so produces undesirable consequences. Experimental game theorists have demonstrated conclusively that the old-fashioned picture of "economic man," constantly reoptimizing in order to maximize utility in all circumstances, cannot (...)
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  8. Nien-Hê Hsieh, Alan Strudler & David Wasserman (2006). The Numbers Problem. Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (4):352 - 372.
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  9. Guy Kahane (2012). On the Wrong Track: Process and Content in Moral Psychology. Mind and Language 27 (5):519-545.
    According to Joshua Greene’s influential dual process model of moral judgment, different modes of processing are associated with distinct moral outputs: automatic processing with deontological judgment, and controlled processing with utilitarian judgment. This paper aims to clarify and assess Greene’s model. I argue that the proposed tie between process and content is based on a misinterpretation of the evidence, and that the supposed evidence for controlled processing in utilitarian judgment is actually likely to reflect generic deliberation which, ironically, is incompatible (...)
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  10. F. M. Kamm (2000). Collaboration and Responsibility. Philosophy and Public Affairs 28 (3):169-204.
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  11. F. M. Kamm (1992). Review: Non-Consequentialism, the Person as an End-in-Itself, and the Significance of Status. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Public Affairs 21 (4):354 - 389.
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  12. Will Kymlicka (1988). Rawls on Teleology and Deontology. Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (3):173-190.
  13. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). A Relational Moral Theory: Africa's Contribution to Global Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  14. Thaddeus Metz (2015). Auf Dem Weg Zu Einer Afrikanischen Moraltheorie. In Franziska Dübgen & Stefan Skupien (eds.), Afrikanische politische Philosophie - Postkoloniale Positionen. Suhrkamp 295-329.
    Revised version of 'Toward an African Moral Theory' (Journal of Political Philosophy 2007) appearing in German.
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  15. Sven Nyholm (2014). Ingmar Persson, From Morality to the End of Reason (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), Pp. 336. [REVIEW] Utilitas 26 (3):321-325.
    Persson argues that common sense morality involves various “asymmetries” that don’t stand up to rational scrutiny. (One example is that intentionally harming others is commonly thought to be worse than merely allowing harm to happen, even if the harm involved is equal in both cases.) A wholly rational morality would, Persson argues, be wholly symmetrical. He also argues, however, that when we get down to our most basic attitudes and dispositions, we reach the “end of reason,” at which point we (...)
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  16. Michael Philips (1987). Moralism and the Good. Philosophical Studies 52 (1):131 - 139.
    It is often held that moral considerations take precedence over considerations of other kinds in determining what we ought to do. I contend that this claim is ambiguous and argue that objections to each interpretation of it can be met only by rejecting the other. One surprising consequence of my argument is that no deontic moral theory can effectively guide action unless it is conjoined with a theory of the good. Another interesting consequence is that the deontologists' favorite objection to (...)
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  17. Daniel N. Robinson and Rom Harre (1995). On the Primacy of Duties. Philosophy 70:513-532.
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  18. Luke Robinson (2012). Exploring Alternatives to the Simple Model: Is There an Atomistic Option? In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Vol. 2. Oxford University Press
    The simple model maintains that morally relevant factors combine in a simple, additive way, like weights on a scale. Although intuitive and familiar, this model entails that certain plausible views about particular cases and how morally relevant factors combine and interact therein are false. Shelly Kagan suggests that we could accommodate the relevant views and interactions by rejecting either of two assumptions the simple model makes: that the moral status of an act is determined by the sum of the contributions (...)
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  19. Krzysztof Saja (2015). Etyka normatywna. Między konsekwencjalizmem a deontologią. Universitas.
    The primary goal of this monograph is to justify the possibility of building a hybrid theory of normative ethics which can combine ethical consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics. The aim of the book is to demonstrate the possibility of constructing a synthetic theory from ethical traditions that are generally considered to be contradictory. In addition, I propose an outline of an original theory which tries to carry out such a synthesis. I call it Institutional Function Consequentialism. The justification for a (...)
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  20. Michael Smith (2011). Deontological Moral Obligations and Non-Welfarist Agent-Relative Values. Ratio 24 (4):351-363.
    Many claim that a plausible moral theory would have to include a principle of beneficence, a principle telling us to produce goods that are both welfarist and agent-neutral. But when we think carefully about the necessary connection between moral obligations and reasons for action, we see that agents have two reasons for action, and two moral obligations: they must not interfere with any agent's exercise of his rational capacities and they must do what they can to make sure that agents (...)
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  21. Franz Ungler (1979). Zu Fichtes Theorie des Gewissens. Wiener Jahrbuch für Philosophie 12:212-235.
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  22. Natalie Hormaz Vania (1991). Ignoring the Good and Deontological Rationality. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park
    This project clarifies and strengthens moral deontology and offers a deontological view of rationality. In order to do this, an unquestioned assumption, that the good always provides some reason to wish for or to promote obtaining it, is overturned. This is the pro tanto assumption. It is relied upon explicitly by the moral consequentialist and rational optimizer, and it's relied upon implicitly by the moral deontologist. I argue instead for the non pro tanto thesis, that something's being good may provide (...)
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  23. Henry Veatch (1983). Variations, Good and Bad, on the Theme of Right Reason in Ethics. The Monist 66 (1):49-70.
    Can right reason, Properly understood, Provide a justification for our moral duties? modern deontological or kantian type ethical theories generally argue that moral duties are duties to perform certain actions "without" reference to any end to be achieved. But rational action, I.E., Action dictated by practical reason cannot be other than purposive action, I.E., Action directed toward some end to be achieved. As such, Deontology must fail in its attempt to answer the question, Why be moral at all. Turning to (...)
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  24. Matt Zwolinski (2009). Review of Autonomy and Rights: The Moral Foundations of Liberalism. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (2):255-262.
    This is a review of Horacio Spector's book on the occassion of its publiaction in paperback form in 2007. The version of the review posted here includes a number of footnotes and references that had to be deleted in the final published version.
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  1. Richard Oxenberg (2015). Philosopher-Kings in the Kingdom of Ends: Why Democracy Needs a Philosophically Informed Citizenry. Philosophy Now 10 (111).
    My thesis is that in order for democracy to function it must inculcate in its citizens something of the self-transcending moral and intellectual virtues of Plato’s Philosopher-King, who identifies his own personal good with the good of society as a whole. Only thereby can Kant’s ideal of the ‘Kingdom of Ends,’ in which each citizen functions as both sovereign and subject, be realized. The alternative to this, as Plato well understood, is a society of appetitively driven individuals competing each with (...)
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  2. Ferran Requejo (2012). Cosmopolitan Justice and Minority Rights: The Case of Minority Nations. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 3 (3):83.
    This chapter links a conception of global justice, moral cosmopolitanism, with plurinational democracies. After giving a brief description of moral cosmopolitanism, I go on to analyse notions of cosmopolitanism and patriotism in Kant's work and the political significance that the notion of unsocial sociability and the Ideas of Pure Reason of Kant's first Critique have for cosmopolitanism. Finally, I analyse the relationship between cosmopolitanism and minority nations based on the preceding sections. I postulate the need for a moral and institutional (...)
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  3. Faviola Rivera (2006). Kantian Ethical Duties. Kantian Review 11 (1):78-101.
    Perfect ethical duties have usually puzzled commentators on Kant's ethics because they do not fit neatly within his taxonomy of duties. Ethical duties require the adoption of maxims of ends: the happiness of others and one's own perfection are Kant's two main categories. These duties, he claims, are of wide obligation because they do not specify what in particular one ought to do, when, and how much. They leave ‘a latitude for free choice’ as (...)
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  4. Faviola Rivera-Castro (2014). Kant’s Formula of the Universal Law of Nature Reconsidered. Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (2):185-208.
    I criticize the widely accepted “practical” interpretation of the universality test contained in Kant’s first formula of the categorical imperative in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals – the formula of the universal law of nature. I argue that this interpretation does not work for contradictions in conception because it wrongly takes contradictions in the will as the model for them and, as a consequence, cannot establish a clear distinction between the two kinds of contradiction. This interpretation also assumes (...)
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  5. Colin Roberts (1975). Zellner and Imperative Inferences. Mind 84 (333):111-113.
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  6. Daniel N. Robinson and Rom Harre (1994). On the Demography of the Kingdom of Ends. Philosophy 69:5-19.
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  7. H. J. Roby (1905). The Imperative in St. John XX. 17. The Classical Review 19 (04):229-.
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  8. Dennis A. Rohatyn (1975). Mill, Kant, and Negative Utility. Philosophia 5 (4):515-521.
  9. Georg Römpp (1994). Kant's Ethics as a Philosophy of Happiness. Modern Schoolman 71 (4):271-284.
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  10. Viggo Rossvæ (1979). Kant's Moral Philosophy an Interpretation of the Categorical Imperative. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  11. Klas Roth (2011). Understanding Agency and Educating Character. Educational Theory 61 (3):257-274.
    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the means used, and that we act in accordance with and are motivated by the Categorical Imperative. It also requires that we are or strive to (...)
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  12. Tamar Bacia Schapiro (1997). Caring for Our Principles: Action Under Nonideal Conditions. Dissertation, Harvard University
    Kant's moral theory demands that we interact with others on the basis of reason rather than force. In deciding what to do, we are to reject any actions which depend for their efficacy upon bypassing the consent of others, whether through deception, coercion, or outright violence. In this sense, Kantianism puts forth a strongly anti-paternalistic, anti-manipulative ideal of human relations. And yet there are many situations in which we feel it can be permissible or even obligatory to act in paternalistic (...)
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  13. W. Schmitals (1991). The Ethical Imperative According to Logstrup, Knud, E. Philosophische Rundschau 38 (1-2):131-142.
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  14. J. B. Schneewind (2004). Comments on the Commentaries. Utilitas 16 (2):184-192.
    Adams 's suggestion that there must be one really right way of presenting the history of moral philosophy seems implausible to me, so I reject – with additional reasons – his charges against the structure of Invention of Autonomy. Skorupski's way of stating the ‘equal moral abilities’ thesis is not, I argue, very Kantian; a more Kantian version is not open to his objections. I am unconvinced by Schultz's claim that Sidgwick did not really hold that thesis. Deigh raises questions (...)
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  15. Dieter Schönecker (2013). Das gefühlte Faktum der Vernunft. Skizze einer Interpretation und Verteidigung. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 61 (1):91-107.
    Kant is by no means the pure rationalist that Husserl and others represented him as being. To the contrary I claim that Kant is an ethical intuitionist when it comes to our recognition of the validity of the moral law. Interpreting Kant’s famous thesis about the “fact of reason”, I will first argue for three interpretative theses: 1. The factum theory explains our insight into the binding character of the moral law; it is a theory of justification. 2. In our (...)
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  16. Dieter Schönecker (2013). Kant’s Argument for the Existence of Duties to Oneself in § 2 of the Tugendlehre. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 609-622.
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  17. G. Schrimpf (1980). The Suitability of the Categorical Imperative as the Supreme Principle of Ethics. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 87 (2):281-293.
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  18. Marcus Schulzke (2012). Kant's Categorical Imperative, the Value of Respect, and the Treatment of Women. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (1):26-41.
    This paper explores the relevance of Kant's categorical imperative to military ethics and the solution it suggests for improving the treatment of women in the military. The second formulation of the categorical imperative makes universal respect for humanity a moral requirement by asserting that one must always treat other people as means in themselves and never as merely means to an end. This principle is a promising guide for military ethics and can be reconciled with the acts of violence required (...)
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  19. Marc Schütze (2004). Subjektive Rechte Und Personale Identität: Die Anwendung Subjektiver Rechte Bei Immanuel Kant, Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen Und Hermann Heller. Duncker & Humblot.
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  20. Robert Shaver (1992). Hume on the Duties of Humanity. Journal of the History of Philosophy 30 (4):545-556.
  21. Nader Shoaibi (2010). In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory. California Undergraduate Philosophy Review 3 (1).
    In this paper, I will argue that Kant provides us with a plausible account of morality. To show that, I will first offer a major criticism of Kantian moral theory, by explaining Bernard Williams’ charge against it. I will explore his understanding of the Kantian theory, and then explain what he finds objectionable about it. This criticism will make up the first part of the paper. In the second part, I will attempt to defend the Kantian theory by appealing to (...)
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  22. Sonia Sikka (2006). Kantian Ethics in Being and Time. Journal of Philosophical Research 31:309-334.
    Heidegger’s Being and Time has been accused of espousing empty decisionism and relativism. I argue, first, that in fact Being and Time’s stress on the situated character of human judgment is supplemented by a very Kantian account of being human that defi nes appropriate behavior towards all entities possessing a certain character. Its analysis of conscience and guilt attempts to uncover the existential basis for the distinction Kant draws between the phenomenal and the noumenal aspects of the self. Building on (...)
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  23. R. W. Simpson & T. C. Williams (1970). The Concept of the Categorical Imperative. Philosophical Quarterly 20 (78):90.
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  24. Marcus G. Singer (1963). Duties and Duties to Oneself. Ethics 73 (2):133-142.
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  25. Marcus G. Singer (1959). On Duties to Oneself. Ethics 69 (3):202-205.
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  26. Jane Singleton (2002). Virtue Ethics, Kantian Ethics, and Consequentialism. Journal of Philosophical Research 27:537-551.
    Contemporary theories of Virtue Ethics are often presented as being in opposition to Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism. It is argued that Virtue Ethics takes as fundamental the question, “What sort of character would a virtuous person have?” and that Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism take as fundamental the question, “What makes an action right?” I argue that this opposition is misconceived. The opposition is rather between Virtue Ethics and Kantian Ethics on the one hand and Consequentialism on the other. The former (...)
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