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  1. Aristotle, On Prophesying by Dreams.
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  2. D. Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.) (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
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  3. Alexander A. Borbély & Lutz Wittmann (2000). Sleep, Not Rem Sleep, is the Royal Road to Dreams. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):911-912.
    The advent of functional imaging has reinforced the attempts to define dreaming as a sleep state-dependent phenomenon. PET scans revealed major differences between nonREM sleep and REM sleep. However, because dreaming occurs throughout sleep, the common features of the two sleep states, rather than the differences, could help define the prerequisite for the occurrence of dreams. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Solms; Revonsuo; Vertes & Eastman].
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  4. Thorsten Botz-Bornstein (2003). The Dream of Language: Wittgenstein's Concept of Dreams in the Context of Style and Lebensform. Philosophical Forum 34 (1):73-89.
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  5. Thorsten Botz-Borstein (2004). Virtual Reality and Dreams. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (2):1-10.
    The virtual annuls all suspension of time that could, through its tragic or stylistic character, confer to time an existential value. This condition is contrasted with time as it functions in dreams. On the grounds of these observations it is shown that there are resemblances between “autistic” symptoms and the virtual world.
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  6. C. Bouchet (1995). Psychoanalysis and the Interpretation of Lucid Dreams. Diogenes 43 (170):109-126.
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  7. Alice Browne (1977). Descartes's Dreams. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 40:256-273.
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  8. P. Brugger (2008). The Phantom Limb in Dreams☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1272-1278.
    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. . Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266–1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of (...)
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  9. K. BulKeley & T. Kahan (2008). The Impact of September 11 on Dreaming☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1248-1256.
    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. . Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13, 61–66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. . A systematic change in dreams (...)
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  10. Kelly Bulkeley (2007). Sacred Sleep: Scientific Contributions to the Study of Religiously Significant Dreaming. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers 3--71.
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  11. Rosalind Cartwright (2000). How and Why the Brain Makes Dreams: A Report Card on Current Research on Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):914-916.
    The target articles in this volume address the three major questions about dreaming that have been most responsible for the delay in progress in this field over the past 25 years. These are: (1) Where in the brain is dreaming produced, given that dream reports can be elicited from sleep stages other than REM? (2) Do dream plots have any intrinsic meaning? (3) Does dreaming serve some specialized function? The answers offered here when added together support a new model of (...)
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  12. Anton Coenen (2000). The Divorce of Rem Sleep and Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):922-924.
    The validity of dream recall is discussed. What is the relation between the actual dream and its later reflection? Nielsen proposes differential sleep mentation, which is probably determined by dream accessibility. Solms argues that REM sleep and dreaming are double dissociable states. Dreaming occurs outside REM sleep when cerebral activation is high enough. That various active sleep states correlate with vivid dream reports implies that REM sleep and dreaming are single dissociable states. Vertes & Eastman reject that REM sleep is (...)
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  13. Edward Covello (1984). Lucid Dreaming: A Review and Experimental Study of Waking Intrusions During Stage REM Sleep. Journal of Mind and Behavior 5 (1).
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  14. Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.
    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte tested several predictions derived from the Threat Simulation Theory of dreaming in a large sample of recurrent dreams. In response to these findings, Valli and Revonsuo presented a commentary outlining alternate conceptualizations and explanations for the results obtained. We argue that many points raised by Valli and Revonsuo do not accurately reflect our main findings and at times present a biased assessment of the data. In this article, we provide necessary clarifications and responses to each one (...)
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  15. Fabrizio Doricchi & Cristiano Violani (2000). Mesolimbic Dopamine and the Neuropsychology of Dreaming: Some Caution and Reconsiderations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):930-931.
    New findings point to a role for mesolimbic DA circuits in the generation of dreaming. We disagree with Solms about these structures having an exclusive role in generating dreams. We review data suggesting that dreaming can be interrupted at different levels of processing and that anterior-subcortical lesions associated with dream cessation are unlikely to produce selective hypodopaminergic dynamic impairments. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Solms].
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  16. Charles E. M. Dunlop (ed.) (1977). Philosophical Essays on Dreaming. Cornell University Press.
  17. Owen Flanagan (2000). Dreaming is Not an Adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):936-939.
    The five papers in this issue all deal with the proper evolutionary function of sleep and dreams, these being different. To establish that some trait of character is an adaptation in the strict biological sense requires a story about the fitness enhancing function it served when it evolved and possibly a story of how the maintenance of this function is fitness enhancing now. My aim is to evaluate the proposals put forward in these papers. My conclusion is that although sleep (...)
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  18. Owen J. Flanagan (2000). Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind. Oxford University Press.
    What, if anything, do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise--"unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys"? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely qualified to answer these questions. In this groundbreaking work, he provides both an accessible survey of the latest research on sleep and dreams and a compelling new theory about the nature (...)
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  19. D. Foulkes (1999). Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Harvard University Press.
    In this book, which distills a lifetime of study, Foulkes shows that dreaming as we normally understand it--active stories in which the dreamer is an actor-...
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  20. D. Foulkes (1964). Theories of Dream Formation and Recent Studies of Sleep Consciousness. Psychological Bulletin 62:236-47.
  21. Jeffrey Lee Gordon (1979). A Phenomenological Exploration of Dreaming. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
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  22. Christopher Grau (ed.) (2005). Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press.
    The Matrix trilogy is unique among recent popular films in that it is constructed around important philosophical questions--classic questions which have fascinated philosophers and other thinkers for thousands of years. Editor Christopher Grau here presents a collection of new, intriguing essays about some of the powerful and ancient questions broached by The Matrix and its sequels, written by some of the most prominent and reputable philosophers working today. They provide intelligent, accessible, and thought-provoking examinations of the philosophical issues that support (...)
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  23. Ramon Greenberg (2005). Old Wine (Most of It) in New Bottles: Where Are Dreams and What is the Memory? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):72-73.
    I discuss how the work in Walker's article adds to the considerable body of research on dreaming, sleep, and memory that appeared in the early days of modern sleep research. I also consider the issue of REM-independent and REM-dependent kinds of learning. This requires including emotional issues in our discussion, and therefore emphasizes the importance of studying and understanding dreams.
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  24. Joshua C. Gregory (1923). Memory, Forgetfulness, and Mistakes of Recognition in Waking and Dreaming. The Monist 33 (1):15-32.
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  25. Keith Gunderson (2000). The Dramaturgy of Dreams in Pleistocene Minds and Our Own. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):946-947.
    The notion of simulation in dreaming of threat recognition and avoidance faces difficulties deriving from (1) some typical characteristics of dream artifacts (some “surreal,” some not) and (2) metaphysical issues involving the need for some representation in the theory of a perspective subject making use of the artifact. [Hobson et al.; Revonsuo].
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  26. Ian Hacking (2001). Dreams in Place. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (3):245–260.
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  27. Ernest Hartmann (2007). The Nature and Functions of Dreaming. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers 171--192.
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  28. R. E. Haskell (1986). Logical Structure and the Cognitive-Psychology of Dreaming. Journal of Mind and Behavior 7 (2-3):345-378.
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  29. Robert Haskell (1995). Dream Reader: Contemporary Approaches to the Understanding of Dreams. [REVIEW] Journal of Mind and Behavior 16 (4):475-478.
    Dream Reader is an extensively documented, scholarly yet easily readable, veritable state-of-the-art encyclopedic compendium of laboratory research, clinical interpretation, and theories of dreams and dreaming. To preface this review, Dream Reader is a superb volume for anyone interested in dreams and dreaming. The title, however, is somewhat misleading. A "reader" is typically either an edited collection of papers on a subject, or a text with multiple brief inserts from other works. Dream Reader is neither; it is a standard single author (...)
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  30. Robert Haskell (1989). The Multiplicity of Dreams: Memory, Imagination and Consciousness. [REVIEW] Journal of Mind and Behavior 10 (4):417-420.
    While at first glance, it may appear atypical and perhaps inappropriate to begin a book review by briefly reviewing a previously published work of another author, this seeming incongruence is, in fact, only apparently inappropriate. In a chapter from an edited book critiquing cognition and dream research in which I focused on the uneasy relationship between mainstream cognitive psychology and dream research, I mainly critiqued Foulkes' work because, I suggested, he had "become a kind of spokesperson for the mainstream approach (...)
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  31. Robert Haskell (1985). Dreaming, Cognition, and Physical Illness: Part I. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 6 (1):46-56.
    Part I of a two part article on the effect upon dreaming on physical illness briefly explores the historical medico-philosophical antecedents of the notion that dreams can be diagnostic of bodily disease. Modern sleep research findings relating REM sleep to physiologic changes are also explored. The controversy of whether dreams are merely the consequence of random brain activity or whether they are a valid psychological phenomenon is discussed. Six contemporary views of the function of REM sleep are outlined. A seventh (...)
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  32. John Herman (2000). Reflexive and Orienting Properties of Rem Sleep Dreaming and Eye Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):950-950.
    In this manuscript Hobson et al. propose a model exploring qualitative differences between the three states of consciousness, waking, NREM sleep, and REM sleep, in terms of state-related brain activity. The model consists of three factors, each of which varies along a continuum, creating a three-dimensional space: activation (A), information flow (I), and mode of information processing (M). Hobson has described these factors previously (1990; 1992a). Two of the dimensions, activation and modulation, deal directly with subcortical influences upon cortical structures (...)
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  33. J. Allan Hobson (2002). Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.
    Consciousness can be studied only if subjective experience is documented and quantified, yet first-person accounts of the effects of brain injury on conscious experience are as rare as they are potentially useful. This report documents the alterations in waking, sleeping, and dreaming caused by a lateral medullary infarct. Total insomnia and the initial suppression of dreaming was followed by the gradual recovery of both functions. A visual hallucinosis during waking that was associated with the initial period of sleep and dream (...)
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  34. Mauricio Infante & Lloyd A. Wells (2004). Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. [REVIEW] Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43 (12):1519-1520.
  35. R. Joseph (1988). The Right Cerebral Hemisphere: Emotion, Music, Visual-Spatial Skills, Body-Image, Dreams, and Awareness. Journal of Clinical Psychology 44:630-673.
  36. Tracey L. Kahan (2000). The “Problem” of Dreaming in NREM Sleep Continues to Challenge Reductionist (Two Generator) Models of Dream Generation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):956-958.
    The “problem” of dreaming in NREM sleep continues to challenge models that propose a causal relationship between REM mechanisms and the psychological features of dreaming. I suggest that, ultimately, efforts to identify correspondences among multiple levels of analysis will be more productive for dream theory than attempts to reduce dreaming to any one level of analysis. [Hobson et al. ; Nielsen].
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  37. D. Kahn, E. Pace-Schott & J. A. Hobson (2002). Emotion and Cognition: Feeling and Character Identification in Dreaming. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (1):34-50.
    This study investigated the relationship between dream emotion and dream character identification. Thirty-five subjects provided 320 dream reports and answers to questions on characters that appeared in their dreams. We found that emotions are almost always evoked by our dream characters and that they are often used as a basis for identifying them. We found that affection and joy were commonly associated with known characters and were used to identify them even when these emotional attributes were inconsistent with those of (...)
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  38. E. E. Krieckhaus (2000). Papez Dreams: Mechanism and Phenomenology of Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):961-962.
    I agree with Revonsuo that dreaming, particularly about risky scenes, has a great selective advantage. Although the paleoamygdala system generally facilitates stress and alarm, the system which inhibits stress and alarm, initiates bold actions, and mediates learning in risky scenes is the arche, hippocampal system (Papez circuit). Because all thalamic nuclei are inhibited during sleep except arche, Papez probably also dreams in risky scenes. [Revonsuo].
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  39. Linda Mealey (2000). The Illusory Function of Dreams: Another Example of Cognitive Bias. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-972.
    Patterns of dream content indicating a predominance of themes relating to threat are likely to reflect biases in dream recall and dream scoring techniques. Even if this pattern is not artifactual, it is yet reflective of threat-related biases in our conscious and nonconscious waking cognition, and is not special to dreams. [Revonsuo].
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  40. Valdas Noreika (2011). Dreaming and Waking Experiences in Schizophrenia: How Should the (Dis)Continuity Hypotheses Be Approached Empirically? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):349-352.
    A number of differences between the dreams of schizophrenia patients and those of healthy participants have been linked to changes in waking life that schizophrenia may cause. This way, the “continuity hypothesis” has become a standard way to relate dreaming and waking experiences in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, some of the findings in dream literature are not compatible with the continuity hypothesis and suggest some other ways how dream content and waking experiences could interact. Conceptually, the continuity hypothesis could be sharpened into (...)
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  41. J. F. Pagel (2000). Dreaming is Not a Non-Conscious Electrophysiologic State. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):984-988.
    There has been no generally accepted cognitive definition of dreaming. An electrophysiologic correlate (REM sleep) has become its defining characteristic. Dreaming and REM sleep are complex states for which the Dreaming + REMs model is over-simplified and limited. The target articles in this BBS special issue present strong evidence for a dissociation between dreaming and REM sleep. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen, Revonsuo; Solms; Vertes & Eastman].
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  42. Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the theory (...)
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  43. Mor Segev (2012). The Teleological Significance of Dreaming in Aristotle. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 43:107-141.
    In his discussions of dreaming in the Parva Naturalia, Aristotle neither claims nor denies that dreams serve a natural purpose. Modern scholarship generally interprets dreaming as useless and teleologically irrelevant for him. I argue that Aristotle's teleology permits certain types of dream to have a natural role in end-directed processes. Dreams are left-overs from waking experience, but they may, like certain bodily residues, be used by nature, which does ‘nothing in vain’ and makes use of available resources, for the benefit (...)
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  44. Todd K. Shackelford & Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford (2000). Threat Simulation, Dreams, and Domain-Specificity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1004-1004.
    According to Revonsuo, dreams are the output of a evolved “threat simulation mechanism.” The author marshals a diverse and comprehensive array of empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis. We propose that the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism might be more domain-specific in design than the author implies. To illustrate, we discuss the possible sex-differentiated design of the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism. [Revonsuo].
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  45. Howard Shevrin & Alan S. Eiser (2000). Continued Vitality of the Freudian Theory of Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1004-1006.
    A minority position is presented in which evidence will be cited from the Hobson, Solms, Revonsuo, and Nielsen target articles and from other sources, supporting major tenets of Freud's theory of dreaming. Support is described for Freud's view of dreams as meaningful, linked to basic motivations, differing qualitatively in mentation, and wish-fulfilling. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Revonsuo; Solms].
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  46. Marco Solinas (2012). La riscoperta della via regia. Freud lettore di Platone. Psicoterapia E Scienze Umane (4):539-568.
    Starting with the reference to “Plato’s dictum” that Freud added in the second last page of the first edition of The Interpretation of Dreams, the author explains the convergences between the conception of dreams expounded by Plato in the Republic and Freud’s fundamental insights. The analysis of bibliographic sources used by Freud, and of his interests, allow than to suppose not only that Freud omitted to acknowledge the Plato’s theoretical genealogy of “the Via Regia to the unconscious”, but also the (...)
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  47. Marco Solinas (2012). Via Platonica zum Unbewussten. Platon und Freud (pdf: Inhaltszerzeichnis, Vegetti Vorwort, Einleitung). Turia + Kant.
    Solinas’ Studie untersucht den Einfluss von Platons Anschauungen von Traum, Wunsch und Wahn auf den jungen Freud. Anhand der Untersuchung einiger zeitgenössischer kulturwissenschaftlicher Arbeiten, die bereits in die ersten Ausgabe der Traumdeutung Eingang fanden, wird Freuds nachhaltige Vertrautheit mit den platonischen Lehren erläutert und seine damit einhergehende direkte Textkenntnis der thematisch relevanten Stellen aus Platons Staat aufgezeigt. Die strukturelle Analogie von Freud’schem und platonischem Seelenbegriff wird inhaltlich am Traum als »Königsweg zum Unbewussten«, in dem von Freud selbst angesprochenen Verhältnis von (...)
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  48. Marco Solinas (2008). Psiche: Platone e Freud. Desiderio, Sogno, Mania, Eros (pdf: indice, prefazione Vegetti, introduzione, capitolo I). Firenze University Press.
    Psiche sets up a close-knit comparison between the psychology of Plato's Republic and Freud's psychoanalysis. Convergences and divergences are discussed in relation both to the Platonic conception of the oneiric emergence of repressed desires that prefigures the main path of Freud's subconscious, to the analysis of the psychopathologies related to these theoretical formulations and to the two diagnostic and therapeutic approaches adopted. Another crucial theme is the Platonic eros - the examination of which is also extended to the Symposium and (...)
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  49. Marco Solinas (2004). Unterdrückung, Traum und Unbewusstes in Platons „Politeia“ und bei Freud. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 111 (1):90-112.
    The essay concerns the reconstruction of the repression of desires, with reference to the analysis of their oneiric emersions expounded in the Republic, in comparison with Freud’s conception. Plato’s concept of suppression according to which specific desires are enslaved, so that they can find satisfaction usually only in dreams seems consistent with Freud’s concept of remotion; therefore both the condition of the suppressed desires and the intrapsychic place of their enslavement seem to be interpretable in the light of Freud’s concept (...)
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  50. Mark Solms (2000). Dreaming and Rem Sleep Are Controlled by Different Brain Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850.
    The paradigmatic assumption that REM sleep is the physiological equivalent of dreaming is in need of fundamental revision. A mounting body of evidence suggests that dreaming and REM sleep are dissociable states, and that dreaming is controlled by forebrain mechanisms. Recent neuropsychological, radiological, and pharmacological findings suggest that the cholinergic brain stem mechanisms that control the REM state can only generate the psychological phenomena of dreaming through the mediation of a second, probably dopaminergic, forebrain mechanism. The latter mechanism (and thus (...)
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