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  1. Ajith Abraham, Crina Grosan & Stefan Tigan (2008). Pharmaceutical Drug Design Using Dynamic Connectionist Ensemble Networks. In S. Iwata, Y. Oshawa, S. Tsumoto, N. Zhong, Y. Shi & L. Magnani (eds.), Communications and Discoveries From Multidisciplinary Data. Springer. 221--231.
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  2. Natalie Achamallah (2011). Psychotropic Medications and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Informative or Irresponsible? Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 6:1-5.
    In 1997 the FDA relaxed restrictions on the practice of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising . The subsequent increase in advertisements aimed at potential patients had a signifi cant impact on rates of drug prescription. This paper gives a brief history of visual representations of mental illness used by DTCA and examines ethical concerns raised by DTCA, specifi cally for psychotropic medications. Issues discussed include overestimation of symptoms and over-prescription of unnecessary drugs, modifi cation of social perception and the perpetuation of stigma, (...)
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  3. Matthias Adam, The Changing Significance of Chance Experiments in Technological Development.
    Industrial drug design methodology has undergone remarkable changes in the recent history. Up to the 1970s, the screening of large numbers of randomly selected substances in biological test system was often a crucial step in the development of novel drugs. From the early 1980s, such ‘blind’ screening was increasingly rejected by many pharmaceutical researchers and gave way to ‘rational drug design’, a method that grounds the design of new drugs on a detailed mechanistic understanding of the drug action. Surprisingly, however, (...)
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  4. Ronald J. Adams (2010). Prescription Drug Labeling and “Over‐Warning”: The Disturbing Case of Diana Levine and Wyeth Pharmaceutical. Business and Society Review 115 (2):231-248.
    ABSTRACTIn April of 2000, Diana Levine went to a clinic in Vermont suffering from a migraine headache. She was given the drug Demerol for the migraine symptoms and Phenergan for nausea. Complications with the administration of Phenergan ultimately resulted in Ms. Levine contracting gangrene, necessitating the amputation of her right arm. Ms. Levine sued the drug maker, Wyeth Pharmaceutical, in state court and prevailed. The lower court's decision was appealed by Wyeth to the state supreme court where the ruling was (...)
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  5. W. Adams (1958). The Regulation of American Industry. Diogenes 6 (24):65-81.
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  6. James Anderson & Toby Schonfeld (2009). Data-Sharing Dilemmas: Allowing Pharmaceutical Company Access to Research Data. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (3):17-19.
    Pharmaceutical companies can dramatically improve their understanding of how certain drugs work by having access to data from prospective research participants and those enrolled in clinical trials. Yet can data legitimately be used in ways that these individuals have not specifically authorized? In some cases it is ethically acceptable to share data with pharmaceutical companies even if there was no specific consent to do so by appealing to the principles of beneficence and respect for persons. These principles require us to (...)
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  7. Raymond Anton (2010). Substance Abuse Is a Disease of the Human Brain: Focus on Alcohol. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (4):735-744.
    Alcohol and substance abuse are prevalent in our society. Advances in neuroscience have led to a clearer understanding of the effects of abused substances on the brain. Clues are now available regarding how a person goes from a “user” to being addicted based on brain chemistry, anatomy, and genetic risk. During this process the person loses at least partial, if not complete, control, over their compulsive substance use. This article attempts to put modern notions of alcohol and substance abuse and (...)
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  8. Richard E. Ashcroft (2005). Access to Essential Medicines: A Hobbesian Social Contract Approach. Developing World Bioethics 5 (2):121–141.
    ABSTRACTMedicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent‐holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal (...)
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  9. Rebecca Bamford, C. D. Brewer, Bayly Bucknell, Heather DeGrote, Loren Fabry, Madeleine E. M. Hammerlund & Bryan M. Weisbrod (2012). A Paradoxical Ethical Framework for Unpredictable Drug Shortages. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (1):16 - 18.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 16-18, January 2012.
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  10. Randy E. Barnett (1984). Review Essay / Public Decisions and Private Rights. Criminal Justice Ethics 3 (2):50-62.
    John Kaplan, The Hardest Drug: Heroin and Public Policy Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983, xi + 247 pp.
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  11. Christian Barry & Kate Raworth (2002). Access to Medicines and the Rhetoric of Responsibility. Ethics and International Affairs 16 (2):57–70.
    In Africa fewer than 50,000 people—less than 2 percent of the people in need—currently receive ARV therapy. These facts have elicited strongly divergent reactions, and views about the appropriate response to this crisis have varied widely.
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  12. Margaret P. Battin, Erik Luna, Arthur G. Lipman, Paul M. Gahlinger, Douglas E. Rollins, Jeanette C. Roberts & Troy L. Booher (2008). Drugs and Justice: Seeking a Consistent, Coherent, Comprehensive View. Oup Usa.
    This compact and innovative book tackles one of the central issues in drug policy: the lack of a coherent conceptual structure for thinking about drugs. Drugs generally fall into one of seven categories: prescription, over the counter, alternative medicine, common-use drugs like alcohol, tobacco and caffeine; religious-use, sports enhancement; and of course illegal street drugs like cocaine and marijuana. Our thinking and policies varies wildly from one to the other, with inconsistencies that derive more from cultural and social values than (...)
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  13. Richard D. Baylis (1994). Drug Utilization Review: A Description of Use for a Medicaid Population (Maryland) 1986?1994. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (3):247-251.
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  14. Paul H. Bell (1966). New Drug Leads From Enzyme Studies. BioScience 16 (10):721-725.
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  15. Richard F. Beltramini (2006). Consumer Believability of Information in Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Advertising of Prescription Drugs. Journal of Business Ethics 63 (4):333 - 343.
    Direct to consumer (DTC) advertising has attracted significant research attention, yet none has focused on empirical assessments of its overall impact on U.S. consumers nationally, and tying assessment to relevant behavioral outcomes. This paper addresses the ethical issue of DTC advertising providing a balance of product and risk information that is both understandable and believable, and contributes direction to those exploring this phenomenon.
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  16. Elizabeth Ben-Ishai (2012). Responding to Vulnerability: The Case of Injection Drug Use. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):39-63.
    "Before they were 'junkies,' they were kids." The words appear on a poster, beneath a montage of photographs of children and the text: "Save Insite." Insite, located in Vancouver, Canada, is North America's first and only supervised injection facility (SIF). At Insite, people who use injection drugs can inject previously obtained drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, under medical supervision, using sterile equipment provided by this government-run facility. Opened under the auspices of a three-year exemption from federal drug laws in (...)
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  17. S. R. Benatar (2003). Canadian Pharmaceuticals. Hastings Center Report 34 (5):7-7.
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  18. Bradley C. Bennett (1998). Pharmaceuticals and Forests. BioScience 48 (3):213-214.
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  19. P. N. Bennett & European Ethical Review Committee (1990). Ethical Responsibilities in European Drug Research.
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  20. P. N. Bennett, European Ethical Review Committee & European Foundation for Good Clinical Practice (1994). Good Clinical Practice and Ethics in European Drug Research.
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  21. Marvin W. Berkowitz, Nancy Guerra & Larry Nucci (1991). Sociomoral Development and Drug and Alcohol Abuse. In William M. Kurtines & Jacob L. Gewirtz (eds.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development. L. Erlbaum. 3--35.
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  22. Paul Biegler & Patrick Vargas (2013). Ban the Sunset? Nonpropositional Content and Regulation of Pharmaceutical Advertising. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (5):3-13.
    The risk that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) may increase inappropriate medicine use is well recognized. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration addresses this concern by subjecting DTCA content to strict scrutiny. Its strictures are, however, heavily focused on the explicit claims made in commercials, what we term their ?propositional content.? Yet research in social psychology suggests advertising employs techniques to influence viewers via nonpropositional content, for example, images and music. We argue that one such technique, evaluative conditioning, is (...)
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  23. Kim M. Blankenship & Stephen Koester (2002). Criminal Law, Policing Policy, and HIV Risk in Female Street Sex Workers and Injection Drug Users. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):548-559.
  24. Walter E. Block & Violet Obioha (2012). War on Black Men: Arguments for the Legalization of Drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (2):106-120.
    Abstract The leadership of the black community is concerned with welfare, with equality, with unemployment, with discrimination, with racism, with the pay gap, and with dozens of other such traditional issues. Oh, yes, they are also apprehensive about the use of addictive drugs. But, as we speak, young male members of this community are being incarcerated at frightful rates, and, even worse, are killing each other to boot. One would think that this latter issue would occupy the interest of black (...)
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  25. Nestor Bohonos & Henry D. Piersma (1966). Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical Industry. BioScience 16 (10):706-729.
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  26. John Braithwaite (1984). Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry.
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  27. Francis B. Brévart (2008). Between Medicine, Magic, and Religion: Wonder Drugs in German Medico-Pharmaceutical Treatises of the Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries. Speculum 83 (1):1.
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  28. D. Kim Broadwell (1994). The Evolution of Workplace Drug Screening: A Medical Review Officer's Perspective. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (3):240-246.
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  29. Baruch A. Brody & Udo Schuklenk (1998). Ethical Issues in Drug Testing, Approval and Pricing: The Clot-Dissolving Drugs. Bioethics-Oxford 12 (1):79-81.
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  30. Howard Brody (2007). Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book explores the controversial relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, identifies the ethical tensions and controversies, and proposes numerous reforms both for medicine's own professional integrity and for effective public regulation of the industry.
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  31. Olga Bruyaka, Hanko K. Zeitzmann, Isabelle Chalamon, Richard E. Wokutch & Pooja Thakur (2013). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility and Orphan Drug Development: Insights From the US and the EU Biopharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (1):45-65.
    In recent years, the biopharmaceutical industry has seen an increase in the development of so-called orphan drugs for the treatment of rare and neglected diseases. This increase has been spurred on by legislation in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere designed to promote orphan drug development. In this article, we examine the drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities in orphan drug markets and the extent to which biopharmaceutical firms engage in these activities with a strategic orientation. The unique context (...)
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  32. Joan Buckley (2004). Pharmaceutical Marketing - Time for Change. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies 9 (2):4-11.
    This paper reviews current marketing practices in the pharmaceutical sector, and their impact on consumer and doctor behaviour. It identifies negative impacts which include misleading advertising, disease mongering and escalating costs. It argues the need to move from industry self-regulation to an independently monitored code of practice for pharmaceutical marketing.
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  33. D. M. Burley (1985). The Pharmaceutical Physician and the Company Medical Department. In D. M. Burley & T. B. Binns (eds.), Pharmaceutical Medicine. E. Arnold. 260--282.
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  34. D. M. Burley, Joan M. Clarke & Louis Lasagna (1993). Pharmaceutical Medicine.
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  35. Jonathan Burns (2009). The Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Alliance with Psychiatry: A Developing Country Perspective. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 4:1-5.
    The socioeconomic and political conditions of developing countries must be considered when evaluating the ethics of Industry involvement with psychiatry in this context. Specii cally, the medicalisation of distress and the globalization of biomedical psychiatry undermines local methods of coping as well as community ef orts to change society. It creates a market for expensive psychotropics in an environment characterized by poverty, unemployment and a lack of basic material needs, raising issues of distributive justice. Patients, subjects in drug trials and (...)
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  36. George Man Burrows (1817). A Statement of Circumstances Connected with the Apothecaries' Act, and its Administration. J. Callow.
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  37. Marc Bygdeman & Marja-Liisa Swahn (1992). Antiprogestin Drugs: Research and Clinical Use in Sweden. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (3):157-160.
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  38. F. S. A. C. (2006). Sir Humphry Davy and the Leather Industry. Annals of Science 24 (2):99-113.
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  39. Oscar A. Cabrera & Juan Carballo (2013). Tobacco Control Litigation: Broader Impacts on Health Rights Adjudication. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):147-162.
    This paper argues that there are instances in which tobacco control litigation is strengthening the justiciability of the right to health and health-related rights. This is happening in different parts of the world, but in particular in Latin America. In part this is because, to a certain extent, tobacco control litigation based on fundamental rights overcomes the traditional arguments against economic, social and cultural rights adjudication: the anti-democratic argument, the lack of technical competency argument, the problem of the misallocation of (...)
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  40. Sandra Caponi (ed.) (2010). Medicalização da Vida: Ética, Saúde Pública E Indústria Farmacêutica. Editora Unisul.
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  41. Elizabeth Carpenter‐Song (2009). Children's Sense of Self in Relation to Clinical Processes: Portraits of Pharmaceutical Transformation. Ethos 37 (3):257-281.
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  42. James Chamberlain, Sherri McDonald, Kirk Torgensen & Fay W. Boozman (2004). Methamphetamine: Tools and Partnerships to Fight the Threat. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (s4):104-105.
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  43. Pepe Lee Chang (2013). Pharmaceutical Companies: The Perfect Scapegoat for Everything. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (5):30-32.
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  44. Eric Chwang (2011). Why Athletic Doping Should Be Banned. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (1):33-49.
    So long as a ban is enforceable, large private athletic institutions—such as Major League Baseball and the National Collegiate Athletic Association—should not allow their athletes to take performance-enhancing drugs. The argument I present is game-theoretic: though each athlete prefers unilateral permission to dope over a universal ban, he also prefers a universal ban over universal permission to dope. That is because, while doping improves absolute measures of performance, it does not improve relative performance if many athletes dope. Large private athletic (...)
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  45. Richard R. Cline & David A. Mott (2003). Demand for a Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: Exploring Consumer Preferences Under a Managed Competition Framework. Inquiry 40 (2):169-183.
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  46. Eric P. Cohen (1990). Are Pharmaceutical Ads Good Medicine. Business and Society Review 2:8-10.
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  47. Richard Cole (1981). Patients' Right to Refuse Antipsychotic Drugs. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 9 (5):19-22.
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  48. Mark Collen (2009). Opioid Contracts and Random Drug Testing for People with Chronic Pain €” Think Twice. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (4):841-845.
    The use of opioid contracts, which often require patients to submit to random drug screens, have become widespread amongst physicians using opioids to treat chronic pain. The main purpose of the contract is to improve care through better adherence to opioid therapy but there is little evidence as to its efficacy. The author suggests the use of opioid contracts and random drug testing destroys patients' trust which impacts health outcomes, and that physicians' motivation for their use are concerns about prosecution, (...)
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  49. Rebecca J. Cook & David A. Grimes (1992). Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (3):149-153.
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  50. Rebecca Julia Cook (forthcoming). Off-Label Drug Use as a Consent and Health Regulation Issue in New Zealand. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-8.
    The term “off-label drug use” refers to drugs that have not yet acquired “approved” status or drugs that have acquired “approved” status but are used with a different dosage, route, or administration method other than that for which the drug has been approved. In New Zealand, the Medicines Act 1981 specifically allows for off-label drug use. However, this authority is limited by the Health and Disability Commissioner (Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers’ Rights) Regulations 1996 and the common law, (...)
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