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  1. Pascal Acot (1997). The Lamarckian Cradle of Scientific Ecology. Acta Biotheoretica 45 (3-4):185-193.
    Historians of science generally consider that Darwinism has played an important part in the birth of scientific ecology. Now most 19th century seminal works of the new discipline have been elaborated within a Lamarckian framework. The source of this paradox lies in the double-content of the adaptation concept, considered as a static phenomenon by the ecologists and as a dynamic process by the evolutionists. Although closely related nowadays, as shown by modern evolutionary ecology, the problematics of the fields of research (...)
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  2. Thomas R. Alley (1982). Competition Theory, Evolution, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of (...)
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  3. M. Anand (2000). The Fundamentals of Vegetation Change - Complexity Rules. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (1):1-14.
    Long-term vegetation dynamics based on paleo-pollen data display transient behaviour, often alternating in phase between predominant determinism and predominant 'turbulence', when viewed as a trajectory in a multivariate phase space. Given this, the metaphor of vegetation dynamics as a 'flowing stream', first introduced by Cooper in his classic 1926 paper entitled "The fundamentals of vegetation change", is re-examined and revealed to be not only useful, but strikingly realistic. Vegetation dynamic theory is reviewed and classic theories are found to reflect reality (...)
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  4. Christopher B. Anderson, Gene E. Likens, Ricardo Rozzi, Julio R. Gutiérrez & Juan J. Armesto (2008). Integrating Science and Society Through Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research. Environmental Ethics 30 (3):295-312.
    Long-term ecological research (LTER), addressing problems that encompass decadal or longer time frames, began as a formal term and program in the United States in 1980. While long-term ecological studies and observation began as early as the 1400s and 1800s in Asia and Europe, respectively, the long-term approach was not formalized until the establishment of the U.S. long-term ecological research programs. These programs permitted ecosystem-level experiments and cross-site comparisons that led to insights into the biosphere’s structure and function. The holistic (...)
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  5. Paul K. Anderson (1966). The Periodical Literature of Ecology. BioScience 16 (11):794-795.
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  6. A. A. Batabyal (1998). Daniel S. Licht, Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains. Agriculture and Human Values 15:283-284.
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  7. Frederic L. Bender (1990). Scarcity and the Turn From Economics to Ecology. Social Epistemology 4 (1):93 – 113.
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  8. Donato Bergandi (ed.) (2013). The Structural Links Between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics: The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Springer.
    Abstract - Evolutionary, ecological and ethical studies are, at the same time, specific scientific disciplines and, from an historical point of view, structurally linked domains of research. In a context of environmental crisis, the need is increasingly emerging for a connecting epistemological framework able to express a common or convergent tendency of thought and practice aimed at building, among other things, an environmental policy management respectful of the planet’s biodiversity and its evolutionary potential. -/- Evolutionary biology, ecology and ethics: at (...)
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  9. J. Bogaert (2002). Sanderson, J. And L.D. Harris (Editors) (2000). Landscape Ecology — a Top-Down Approach. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2):129-131.
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  10. Jan Bogaert (2001). Mcgarigal, K., S. Cusham and S. Stafford (2000). Multivariate Statistics for Wildlife and Ecology Research. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (2):141-143.
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  11. Jean-Sébastien Bolduc (2012). Behavioural Ecology's Ethological Roots. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (3):674-683.
    Since Krebs and Davies’s (1978) landmark publication, it is acknowledged that behavioural ecology owes much to the ethological tradition in the study of animal behaviour. Although this assumption seems to be right—many of the first behavioural ecologists were trained in departments where ethology developed and matured—it still to be properly assessed. In this paper, I undertake to identify the approaches used by ethologists that contributed to behavioural ecology’s constitution as a field of inquiry. It is my contention that the current (...)
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  12. Frédéric Bouchard (2009). Understanding Colonial Traits Using Symbiosis Research and Ecosystem Ecology. Biological Theory 4 (3):240-246.
    E. O. Wilson (1974: 54) describes the problem that social organisms pose: “On what bases do we distinguish the extremely modified members of an invertebrate colony from the organs of a metazoan animal?” This framing of the issue has inspired many to look more closely at how groups of organisms form and behave as emergent individuals. The possible existence of “superorganisms” test our best intuitions about what can count and act as genuine biological individuals and how we should study them. (...)
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  13. Paul Bouissac (2001). On Signs, Memes and MEMS. Sign Systems Studies 29 (2):627-644.
    The first issue raised by this paper is whether semiotics can bring any added value to ecology. A brief examination of the epistemological status of semiotics in its current forms suggests that semiotics' phenomenological macroconcepts (which are inherited from various theological and philosophical traditions) are incommensurate with the complexity of the sciences comprising ecology and are too reductive to usefully map the microprocesses through which organisms evolve and interact. However, there are at least two grounds on which interfacing semiotics with (...)
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  14. Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock Kevin deLaplante (2011). Philosophy of Ecology Today. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 3.
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  15. James H. Brown (forthcoming). Complex Ecological Systems. Complexity.
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  16. J. Baird Callicott (1996). Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic? Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is still (...)
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  17. David Castle (2001). A Gradualist Theory of Discovery in Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):547-571.
    The distinction between the context ofdiscovery and the context of justificationrestricts philosophy of science to the rationalreconstruction of theories, and characterizesscientific discovery as rare, theoreticalupheavals that defy rational reconstruction. Kuhnian challenges to the two contextsdistinction show that non-rational elementspersist in the justification of theories, butgo no further to provide a positive account ofdiscovery. A gradualist theory of discoverydeveloped in this paper shows, with supportfrom ecological cases, that discoveries areroutinely made in ecology by extending modelsto new domains, or by making additions (...)
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  18. Han-Liang Chang (2003). Notes Towards a Semiotics of Parasitism. Sign Systems Studies 31 (2):421-438.
    The metaphor of parasites or parasitism has dominated literary critical discourse since the 1970s, prominent examples being Michel Serres in France and J. Hillis Miller in America. In their writings the relationship between text and paratext, literature and criticism, is often likened to that between host and parasite, and can be therefore deconstructed. Their writings, along with those by Derrida, Barthes, and Thom, seem to be suggesting the possibility of a semiotics of parasitism. Unfortunately, none of these writers has drawn (...)
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  19. Jonathan Chase (2011). Ecological Niche Theory. In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. The University of Chicago Press.
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  20. Kristel Clayville (2012). Greening Paul: Rereading the Apostle in a Time of Ecological Crisis_, And: _The Bible and Ecology: Rediscovering the Community of Creation (Review). Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 32 (2):200-203.
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  21. Martin L. Cody (1983). Resources and Communities Resource Competition and Community Structure David Tilman. BioScience 33 (11):723-724.
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  22. William Coleman (1986). Evolution Into Ecology? The Strategy of Warming's Ecological Plant Geography. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):181 - 196.
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  23. James P. Collins (1986). "Evolutionary Ecology" and the Use of Natural Selection in Ecological Theory. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):257 - 288.
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  24. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg, Analogical Thinking in Ecology.
    We consider several ways in which a good understanding of modern techniques and principles in physics can elucidate ecology. We focus on analogical reasoning between these two branches of science. This style of reasoning requires an understanding of both sciences and an appreciation of the similarities and points of contact between the two. In the current ecological literature on the relationship between ecology and physics, there has been some misunderstanding about the nature of modern physics and its methods. Physics is (...)
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  25. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions.
    A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues. Second, ecology is only one small step away from urgent political, ethical, and management decisions about how best to live in an apparently fragile and increasingly-degraded environment. Third, philosophy of ecology, properly conceived, can contribute directly to both our understanding of ecology and help with its advancement. Philosophy of ecology can thus be seen (...)
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  26. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Ecology.
    Philosophical interest in ecology is relatively new. Standard texts in the philosophy of biology pay little or no attention to ecology (though Sterelny and Griffiths 1999 is an exception). This is in part because the science of ecology itself is relatively new, but whatever the reasons for the neglect in the past, the situation must change. A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology with distinctive (...)
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  27. Richard C. Connor (2001). Individual Foraging Specializations in Marine Mammals: Culture and Ecology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):329-330.
    Rendell and Whitehead argue persuasively that individual foraging specializations, if socially learned, are examples of cetacean culture. However, they discount ecological variation experienced by individuals within a population as a factor in such behavior. I suggest that ecological variation may play an important role in individual foraging specializations and describe several ecological parameters that may help us understand the high frequency of this interesting behavior in the marine habitat.
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  28. William Bridge Cooke (1984). Decomposer Basidiomycetes Decomposer Basidiomycetes: Their Biology and Ecology J. C. Frankland J. N. Hedger M. J. Swift. BioScience 34 (1):56-56.
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  29. Gregory Cooper (1998). Generalizations in Ecology: A Philosophical Taxonomy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):555-586.
    There has been a significant amount of uncertainty and controversy over the prospects for general knowledge in ecology. Environmental decision makers have begun to despair of ecology's capacity to provide anything more than case by case guidance for the shaping of environmental policy. Ecologists themselves have become suspicious of the pursuit of the kind of genuine nomothetic knowledge that appears to be the hallmark of other scientific domains. Finally, philosophers of biology have contributed to this retreat from generality by suggesting (...)
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  30. Gregory Cooper (1993). The Competition Controversy in Community Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):359-384.
    There is a long history of controversy in ecology over the role of competition in determining patterns of distribution and abundance, and over the significance of the mathematical modeling of competitive interactions. This paper examines the controversy. Three kinds of considerations have been involved at one time or another during the history of this debate. There has been dispute about the kinds of regularities ecologists can expect to find, about the significance of evolutionary considerations for ecological inquiry, and about the (...)
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  31. Gregory John Cooper (2003). The Science of the Struggle for Existence: On the Foundations of Ecology. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is the first examination in almost a decade of issues in the philosophy of ecology that have been a source of controversy since the existence of ecology as an explicit scientific discipline. The controversies revolve around the idea of a balance of nature, the possibility of general ecological knowledge and the role of model-building in ecology. The Science of the Struggle for Existence is also the first sustained treatment of these issues that incorporates both a comprehensive investigation of (...)
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  32. R. Costanza, L. Wainger, C. Folke & K. G. Maeler (1993). Modeling Complex Ecological Systems. BioScience 43 (8).
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  33. Mark Cowell (1993). Ecological Restoration and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):19-32.
    Restoration ecology has recently emerged as a branch of scientific ecology that challenges many of the traditional tenets of environmentalism. Because the restoration of ecosystems, “applied ecology,” has the potential to advance theoretical understanding to such an extent that scientists can extensively manipulate the environment, it encourages increasingly active human participation within ecosystemsand could inhibit the preservation of areas from human influences. Despite the environmentally dangerous possibilities that this form of science and technology present, restoration offers an attractive alternative for (...)
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  34. Jacqueline Cramer & Wolfgang Daele (1985). Is Ecology an 'Alternative' Natural Science? Synthese 65 (3):347 - 375.
    This article discusses whether ecology represents an alternative type of natural science, that is normatively committed. Central questions are:-how man and human action are integrated into the subject matter of ecology.
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  35. Ronald L. Crawford (1985). Field Biology and a Whole Lot More Current Perspectives in Microbial Ecology M. J. Klug C. A. Reddy. BioScience 35 (5):312-312.
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  36. A. N. Creager (2012). Timescapes of Radioactive Tracers in Biochemistry and Ecology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):83-89.
  37. Kevin de Laplante (2004). Toward a More Expansive Conception of Ecological Science. Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):263-281.
    There are two competing conceptions of the nature and domain of ecological science in the popular and academic literature, an orthodox conception and a more expansive conception. The orthodox conception conceives ecology as a natural biological science distinct from the human social sciences. The more expansive conception views ecology as a science whose domain properly spans both the natural and social sciences. On the more expansive conception, non-traditional ecological disciplines such as ecological psychology, ecological anthropology and ecological economics may legitimately (...)
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  38. Kevin de Laplante (2004). Environmental Alchemy: How to Turn Ecological Science Into Ecological Philosophy. Environmental Ethics 26 (4):361-380.
    Ecological science has been viewed by some philosophers as a foundational resource for the development of metaphysical, epistemological and normative views concerning humanity’s relationship with the natural environment, or what might be called an “ecological philosophy.” Analysis of three attempts to infer philosophical conclusions from ecological science shows that (1) there are serious obstacles facing any attempt to derive unique philosophical consequences from ecological science and (2) the project of developing an ecological philosophy relevant to human-environment relations is seriously hindered (...)
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  39. L. R. de LyonsSantos (2006). Ecology, Domain Specificity, and the Evolution of Theory of Mind: Is Competition the Catalyst. Philosophy Compass 1.
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  40. Kevin deLaplante, Philosophy of Ecology: An Overview.
    The philosophy of ecology addresses foundational conceptual and methodological issues in ecological science. Specifying these issues is complicated by the fact that there is disagreement among ecologists over how to identify the proper domain of ecology. Many ecologists prefer a more restrictive definition that focuses on properties of nonhuman organisms in natural environments. Others defend a more expansive definition that includes the study of human-environment relations, a view that challenges the traditional conception of ecology as strictly a natural biological science. (...)
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  41. Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) (2011). Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  42. Julien Delord (2006). Paths Toward a Proper Philosophy of Ecology. Biological Theory 1 (4):423-427.
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  43. John M. Drake (2004). Whence Explanation? The Diversity of Practices in Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):801-807.
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  44. John M. Drake (2002). Kot, M. (2001). Elements of Mathematical Ecology. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (3):205-207.
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  45. William Dritschilo (2008). Bringing Statistical Methods to Community and Evolutionary Ecology: Daniel S. Simberloff. In Oren Harman & Michael Dietrich (eds.), Rebels, Mavericks, and Heretics in Biology. Yale University Press. 356.
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  46. Christopher Eliot (2007). Method and Metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's Ecological Explanations. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):85-109.
    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead (...)
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  47. Christopher H. Eliot (2011). The Legend of Order and Chaos. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Browne & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. Elsevier.
    A community, for ecologists, is a unit for discussing collections of organisms. It refers to collections of populations, which consist (by definition) of individuals of a single species. This is straightforward. But communities are unusual kinds of objects, if they are objects at all. They are collections consisting of other diverse, scattered, partly-autonomous, dynamic entities (that is, animals, plants, and other organisms). They often lack obvious boundaries or stable memberships, as their constituent populations not only change but also move in (...)
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  48. Christopher H. Eliot (2011). Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604):1-16.
    The complexity and heterogeneity of causes influencing ecology’s domain challenge its capacity to generate a general theory without exceptions, raising the question of whether ecology is capable, even in principle, of achieving the sort of theoretical success enjoyed by physics. Weber has argued that competition theory built around the Competitive Exclusion Principle (especially Tilman’s resource-competition model) offers an example of ecology identifying a law-like causal regularity. However, I suggest that as Weber presents it, the CEP is not yet a causal (...)
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  49. Janet Fiskio (2008). Ecology Without Nature. Environmental Philosophy 5 (1):109-111.
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  50. Richard E. Ford (1989). Phage Ecological Hiatus Ends Phage Ecology S. M. Goyal C. P. Gerga G. Britton. BioScience 39 (3):189-190.
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