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  1. John Aber, William McDowell, Knute Nadelhoffer, Alison Magill, Glenn Berntson, Mark Kamakea, Steven McNulty, William Currie, Lindsey Rustad & Ivan Fernandez (1998). Nitrogen Saturation in Temperate Forest Ecosystems. BioScience 48 (11):921-934.
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  2. P. Acot (ed.) (1998). The European Origins of Scientific Ecology. Gordon & Breach.
  3. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  4. A. Barahona (2007). Andres Moya and Enrique Font, Eds, Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems. Biological Theory 2 (2).
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  5. Ana Barahona (2007). New Wine in Old Bottles: Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems Andrés Moya and Enrique Font , Eds Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (350 Pp; $185.00 Hbk; ISBN 978019851425). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 2 (2):201-203.
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  6. Edward B. Barbier, Poverty, Development, and Ecological Services.
    The importance of ecosystem services to human welfare and economic livelihoods in low-income countries is now well recognized. Poor people in developing regions are particularly vulnerable to the deteriorating ecological values resulting from the loss of tropical forests, coral reefs, mangroves, and other ecosystems. Current efforts to reconcile development pressures with maintaining key ecosystem benefits focus on payment for environmental services and other incentives to protect critical ecosystems and habitat in developing countries. But geographical targeting and other means of tackling (...)
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  7. Gillian Barker & John Odling-Smee (2013). Integrating Ecology and Evolution: Niche Construction and Ecological Engineering. In Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.), Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer 187-211.
  8. G. W. Barrett & G. E. Likens (2002). Eugene P. Odum: Pioneer of Ecosystem Ecology. BioScience 52 (11):1047-1048.
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  9. Donato Bergandi (2002). Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. [REVIEW] Environmental Conservation 29 (4):540-541.
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  10. Olivier Bernard, Zakaria Hadj-Sadok & Denis Dochain (2000). Software Sensors to Monitor the Dynamics of Microbial Communities: Application to Anaerobic Digestion. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):197-205.
    A mass balance based model has been derived to represent the dynamical behavior of the ecosystem contained in an anaerobic digester. The model considers two bacterial populations: acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria. It forms the basis for the design of a software sensor considering both a model of the biological system and on-line gaseous measurements. The software sensor computes the concentration of inorganic carbon and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the digester. Another software sensor is dedicated to the estimation of the (...)
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  11. Stephen Bocking (1995). Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1 - 47.
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  12. E. Boetzkes (2000). Toward an Inclusive Health Ethic for Humans and Ecosystems. Ethics and the Environment 5 (2):143-151.
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  13. Hartmut Bossel (1996). Ecosystems and Society: Implications for Sustainable Development. World Futures 47 (2):143-213.
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  14. Frédéric Bouchard (forthcoming). Ecosystem Evolution is About Variation and Persistence, Not Populations and Reproduction. Biological Theory.
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  15. Ingrid C. Burke & William K. Lauenroth (2011). Theories of Ecosystem Ecology. In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. The University of Chicago Press 243.
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  16. Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Norman Morrison, Barry Smith, Christopher J. Mungall & Suzanna E. Lewis (2013). The Environment Ontology: Contextualising Biological and Biomedical Entities. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (43).
    As biological and biomedical research increasingly reference the environmental context of the biological entities under study, the need for formalisation and standardisation of environment descriptors is growing. The Environment Ontology (ENVO; www.environmentontology.org) is a community-led, open project which seeks to provide an ontology for specifying a wide range of environments relevant to multiple life science disciplines and, through an open participation model, to accommodate the terminological requirements of all those needing to annotate data using ontology classes. This paper summarises ENVO’s (...)
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  17. Harley Cahen (1988). Against the Moral Considerability of Ecosystems. Environmental Ethics 10 (3):195-216.
    Are ecosystems morally considerable-that is, do we owe it to them to protect their “interests”? Many environmental ethicists, impressed by the way that individual nonsentient organisms such as plants tenaciously pursue their own biological goals, have concluded that we should extend moral considerability far enough to include such organisms. There is a pitfall in the ecosystem-to-organism analogy, however. We must distinguish a system’s genuine goals from the incidental effects, or byproducts, of the behavior of that system’s parts. Goals seem capable (...)
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  18. J. Baird Callicott (2008). What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems? Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  19. Anthony Chemero, Animats in the Modeling Ecosystem.
    There are many different kinds of model and scientists do all kind of things with them. This diversity of model type and model use is a good thing for science. Indeed, it is crucial especially for the biological and cognitive sciences, which have to solve many different problems at many different scales, ranging from the most concrete of the structural details of a DNA molecule to the most abstract and generic principles of self-organization in networks. Getting a grip (or more (...)
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  20. Stephen R. L. Clark (1987). Animals, Ecosystems and the Liberal Ethic. The Monist 70 (1):114-133.
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  21. Elizabeth Cripps (2010). Saving the Polar Bear, Saving the World: Can the Capabilities Approach Do Justice to Humans, Animals and Ecosystems? [REVIEW] Res Publica 16 (1):1-22.
    Martha Nussbaum has expanded the capabilities approach to defend positive duties of justice to individuals who fall below Rawls’ standard for fully cooperating members of society, including sentient nonhuman animals. Building on this, David Schlosberg has defended the extension of capabilities justice not only to individual animals but also to entire species and ecosystems. This is an attractive vision: a happy marriage of social, environmental and ecological justice, which also respects the claims of individual animals. This paper asks whether it (...)
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  22. Joachim L. Dagg, Arthur G. Tansley’s ‘New Psychology’ and its Relation to Ecology. Web Ecology 2007.
    In 1935, A. G. Tansley, who was knighted later, proposed the ecosystem concept. Nevertheless, this concept was not without predecessors. Why did Tansley’s ecosystem prevail and not one of its competitors? The purpose of this article is to pin the distinguishing features of Tansley’s ecosystem down, as far as the published record allows. It is an exercise in finding the difference that made a difference. Besides being a pioneering ecologist, Tansley was an adept of psychoanalysis. His interest even led him (...)
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  23. Joachim L. Dagg (2003). Ecosystem Organization as Side-Effects of Replicator and Interactor Activities. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):491-492.
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  24. Kevin de Laplante & Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
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  25. Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) (2011). Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  26. Michel Dion (2000). The Moral Status of Non-Human Beings and Their Ecosystems. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (2):221 – 229.
    Environmental ethics is generally searching for the intrinsic value in natural beings. However, there are very few holistic models trying to reflect the various dimensions of the experience-to-be a natural being. We are searching for that intrinsic value, in order to determine which species are holders of rights. In this article, I suggest a set of moral and rational principles to be used for identifying the intrinsic value of a given species and for comparing it to that of other species.
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  27. J. F. Eisenberg (1980). The Serengeti Ecosystem Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem A. R. E. Sinclair M. Norton-Griffiths. BioScience 30 (11):780-780.
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  28. James Elser & Andrew Hamilton (2007). Stoichiometry and the New Biology: The Future Is Now. PLoS Biology 5:181-183.
    The world is an untidy place, and the sciences—all of them—reflect this. One source of this untidiness is the relationship between levels of organization. Reducing macrolevels to microlevels—explaining the former in terms of the latter—has met with successes but has never been the whole story. In the biological sciences, there has been much attention lately to the shortcomings of reductionism on the grounds that (i) it changes the subject rather than explaining, (ii) it leads to a myopically molecular view of (...)
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  29. Melissa M. Foley, Matthew H. Armsby, Erin E. Prahler, Margaret R. Caldwell, Ashley L. Erickson, John N. Kittinger, Larry B. Crowder & Phillip S. Levin (2013). Improving Ocean Management Through the Use of Ecological Principles and Integrated Ecosystem Assessments. BioScience 63 (8):619-631.
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  30. Douglas A. Frank, Benjamin F. Tracy & Samuel J. McNaughton (1998). The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing Ecosystems. BioScience 48 (7):513-521.
    Discusses profound functional similarities between the grazing ecosystem of Yellowstone National Park of North America and the Serengeti of East Africa. Structural and climactic differences; Energy dynamics of the grazing ecosystems; Plant biomass concentration throughout the seasonal ranges of migrating animals; The affect that humans have had on grazing ecosystems; The conservation of grazing ecosystems.
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  31. Alexander K. Fremier, Fabrice Aj Declerck, Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez, Natalia Estrada Carmona, Renée Hill, Taylor Joyal, Levi Keesecker, P. Zion Klos, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas & Ryan Niemeyer (2013). Understanding Spatiotemporal Lags in Ecosystem Services to Improve Incentives. BioScience 63 (6):472-482.
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  32. Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch (2014). Modeling Ecological Success of Common Pool Resource Systems Using Large Datasets. World Development 59:93-103.
    The influence of many factors on ecological success in common pool resource management is still unclear. This may be due to methodological issues. These include causal complexity, a lack of large-N-studies and nonlinear relationships between factors. We address all three issues with a new methodological approach, artificial neural networks, which is discussed in detail. It allows us to develop a model with comparably high predictive power. In addition, two success factors are analyzed: legal security and institutional fairness. Both factors show (...)
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  33. Samuel D. Fuhlendorf & David M. Engle (2001). Restoring Heterogeneity on Rangelands: Ecosystem Management Based on Evolutionary Grazing Patterns. BioScience 51 (8):625.
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  34. Philippe Gagnon (2014). "Diversité et historique des mouvements écologiques en Amérique du Nord" [Diversity and origins of the ecological movements in North America]. Connaître: Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 40:76-89.
    The development of ecological thinking in North America has been conditioned by the imperative aiming at a valuation of the biotic community. Since the end of WWII, the US population was warned against the dangerous and violent alterations of nature. Many then found in theology an unforeseen ally. I review the roots of the tension which led to debates involving radical ecologism or its denial, and I aim at analyzing it philosophically.
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  35. Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan Newman (forthcoming). Is It Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management. Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    Conservationists have two (non-mutually exclusive) types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems, instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more (...)
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  36. Annabel Gillings (1996). Evolution of Hydrothermal Ecosystems on Earth (and Mars?). Bioessays 18 (6):515-517.
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  37. Linda M. Goad (1997). A Holistic Approach to Freshwater Ecosystems. BioScience 47 (3):191-192.
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  38. Tiziano Gomiero, Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel (2010). Biofuels: Efficiency, Ethics, and Limits to Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Services. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (5):403-434.
    Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing countries, and (2) the limits of the Human Appropriation of ecosystem services and Net Primary Productivity. We warn that large scale conversion of crops, grasslands, natural and semi-natural ecosystem, (such as the conversion of grasslands to cellulosic (...)
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  39. Tina A. Grotzer, Amy M. Kamarainen, M. Shane Tutwiler, Shari Metcalf & Chris Dede (2013). Learning to Reason About Ecosystems Dynamics Over Time: The Challenges of an Event-Based Causal Focus. BioScience 63 (4):288-296.
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  40. Sven Erik J.[0]Rgensen (1992). Integration of Ecosystem Theories a Pattern.
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  41. Kurt Jax (2007). Can We Define Ecosystems? On the Confusion Between Definition and Description of Ecological Concepts. Acta Biotheoretica 55 (4):341-355.
    Sound definitions of its basic concepts are fundamental to every scientific discipline. In some instances, like in the case of the ecosystem concept, the question arises if we can define such concepts at all. And if we can define them, how should we choose from the multiple definitions available? And what are the preconditions for a scientifically sound and useful definition? On the basis of the ecosystem concept, this paper illustrates a major, often neglected distinction in the definition of ecological (...)
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  42. Kurt Jax (2005). Book Review: Schwarz, Astrid E. (Ed.), Wasserwüste – Mikrokosmos – Ökosystem. Eine Geschichte der “Eroberung” Des Wasserraums [Water Desert – Microcosm – Ecosystem. A History of the, Conquest“ of Aquatic Space]. Freiburg, Rombach-Verlag, 350 Pp., 2003, ISBN 3-7930-9318-. [REVIEW] Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):49-51.
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  43. Kurt Jax (1998). Holocoen and Ecosystem: On the Origin and Historical Consequences of Two Concepts. Journal of the History of Biology 31 (1):113 - 142.
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  44. Jonathan M. Jeschke (2013). Energetic Food Webs: An Analysis of Real and Model Ecosystems. BioScience 63 (9):769-770.
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  45. Lawrence E. Johnson (1992). Toward the Moral Considerability of Species and Ecosystems. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):145-157.
    I develop the thesis that species and ecosystems are living entities with morally significant interests in their own right and defend it against leading objections. Contrary to certain claims, it is possible to individuate such entities sufficiently well. Indeed, there is a sense in which such entities define their own nature. I also consider and reject the argument that species and ecosystems cannot have interests or even traits in their own right because evolution does not proceed on that level. Although (...)
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  46. Lionel Johnson (1992). An Ecological Approach to Biosystem Thermodynamics. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):35-60.
    The general attributes of ecosystems are examined and a naturally occurring reference ecosystem is established, comparable with the isolated system of classical thermodynamics. Such an autonomous system with a stable, periodic input of energy is shown to assume certain structural characteristics that have an identifiable thermodynamic basis. Individual species tend to assume a state of least dissipation; this is most clearly evident in the dominant species (the species with the best integration of energy acquisition and conservation). It is concluded that (...)
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  47. Lloyd T. Ackert Jr (2007). The "Cycle of Life" in Ecology: Sergei Vinogradskii's Soil Microbiology, 1885-1940. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (1):109 - 145.
    Historians of science have attributed the emergence of ecology as a discipline in the late nineteenth century to the synthesis of Humboldtian botanical geography and Darwinian evolution. In this essay, I begin to explore another, largely neglected but very important dimension of this history. Using Sergei Vinogradskii's career and scientific research trajectory as a point of entry, I illustrate the manner in which microbiologists, chemists, botanists, and plant physiologists inscribed the concept of a "cycle of life" into their investigations. Their (...)
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  48. Sven Erik Jøgensen (1997). Integration of Ecosystem Theories a Pattern.
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  49. C. Maria Keet (2006). Representations of the Ecological Niche. In B. Klein, I. Johansson & T. Roth-Berghofer (eds.), Third International Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics (WSPI2006), Saarbrucken, Germany. 3-4 May 2006. IFOMIS Reports
    A formal theory of the ecological niche is indispensable not only for semantic precision in philosophy to understand and compare it with other meanings of niche, but also when computer scientists and ecologists desire to create interoperable software where one can retrieve the niche of a species and compare their parameters. The proposed model is a more fine-grained description of the ecological niche, including the distinction between its complex concept, the abstract niche (‘fundamental niche’) with its hypervolume in multidimensional space, (...)
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  50. David Keller (2001). Book Review: Betty Jean Craige. Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, 2001. [REVIEW] Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):119-124.
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