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Egalitarianism

Edited by Theron Pummer (Oxford University, University of California, San Diego)
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  1. Arash Abizadeh (2006). Liberal Egalitarian Arguments for Closed Borders: Some Preliminary Critical Reflections. Ethics & Economics 4 (1).
    There are at least five important arguments for why liberal egalitarianism permits states, under today's circumstances, to close their borders to foreigners: the public order, domestic economy, social integration, political threat, and domestic welfare arguments. Critical examination of these arguments suggests that liberal egalitarianism, rather than supporting a right to close one's borders to foreigners, mandates borders considerably more open than is the practice of today's self-styled liberal states.
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  2. Arash Abizadeh & Pablo Gilabert (2008). Is There a Genuine Tension Between Cosmopolitan Egalitarianism and Special Responsibilities? Philosophical Studies 138 (3):349 - 365.
    Samuel Scheffler has recently argued that some relationships are non-instrumentally valuable; that such relationships give rise to “underived” special responsibilities; that there is a genuine tension between cosmopolitan egalitarianism and special responsibilities; and that we must consequently strike a balance between the two. We argue that there is no such tension and propose an alternative approach to the relation between cosmopolitan egalitarianism and special responsibilities. First, while some relationships are non-instrumentally valuable, no relationship is unconditionally valuable. Second, whether such relationships (...)
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  3. Andreas Albertsen & Sören Flinch Midtgaard (2014). Unjust Equalities. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):335-346.
    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitarianism: asymmetrical and symmetrical luck egalitarianism. According to the former, while inequalities due to luck are unjust, equalities due to luck are not necessarily so. The latter view, by contrast, affirms the undesirability of equalities as well as inequalities insofar (...)
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  4. John M. Alexander (2003). Capability Egalitarianism and Moral Selfhood. Ethical Perspectives 10 (1):3-21.
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  5. Martin Marchman Andersen (2014). What Does Society Owe Me If I Am Responsible for Being Worse Off? Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1).
    Luck egalitarians need to address the question of cost-responsibility: If an individual is responsible for being worse off than others, then what benefits, if any, is that individual uniquely cost-responsible for? By applying luck egalitarianism to justice in health I discuss different answers to this question inspired by two different interpretations of luck egalitarianism, namely ‘standard luck egalitarianism’ and ‘all luck egalitarianism’, respectively. Even though I argue that the latter is more plausible than the former, I ultimately suggest and defend (...)
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  6. Elizabeth Anderson, The Divided Society and the Democratic Idea by Glenn C. Loury University Lecture Boston University October 7, 1996.
    If truth is not unproblematic, then neither is it inaccessible. And, telling the truth is decidedly a political act. "From the viewpoint of politics, truth has a despotic character," declared Hannah Arendt, in her essay, "Truth and Politics." "Unwelcome opinion can be argued with, rejected, or compromised upon," she goes on, "but unwelcome facts possess an infuriating stubbornness that nothing can move except plain lies." Moreover, at this late date in the twentieth century, we know that social justice is impossible (...)
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  7. Elizabeth Anderson (2008). Expanding the Egalitarian Toolbox: Equality and Bureaucracy. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 82 (1):139-160.
    Many problems of inequality in developing countries resist treatment by formal egalitarian policies. To deal with these problems, we must shift from a distributive to a relational conception of equality, founded on opposition to social hierarchy. Yet the production of many goods requires the coordination of wills by means of commands. In these cases, egalitarians must seek to tame rather than abolish hierarchy. I argue that bureaucracy offers important constraints on command hierarchies that help promote the equality of workers in (...)
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  8. Pierre Ansart (1986). La Thématique Contemporaine de l'Égalité Louise Marcil-Lacoste Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1984. 245 P. [REVIEW] Dialogue 25 (02):369-.
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  9. Chris Armstrong (2011). Citizenship, Egalitarianism and Global Justice. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (5):603-621.
    Many of the foremost defenders of distributive egalitarianism hold that its scope should be limited to co-citizens. But this bracketing of distributive equality exclusively to citizens turns out to be very difficult to defend. Pressure is placed on it, for instance, when we recognize its vulnerability to ?extension arguments? which attempt to cast the net of egalitarian concern more widely. The paper rehearses those arguments and also examines some ? ultimately unsuccessful ? responses which ?citizenship egalitarians? might make. If it (...)
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  10. Richard Arneson, Rethinking Luck Egalitarianism and Unacceptable Inequalities.
    Even a cursory glance around the contemporary world shows that some people lead miserable lives, and some people are far worse off than others. The first fact is surely morally undesirable. What should we say about the second? Inequalities in people’s condition might be thought morally objectionable because they are bad in themselves or because they lead to other bads, or for both reasons combined. The last section of this essay explores what to say about inequalities that are instrumentally bad. (...)
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  11. Richard Arneson (2011). Luck Egalitarianism–A Primer. In Carl Knight & Zofia Stemplowska (eds.), Responsibility and Distributive Justice. Oxford University Press. 24--50.
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  12. Richard Arneson, Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  13. Richard Arneson (2004). Luck Egalitarianism Interpretated and Defended. Philosophical Topics 32 (1/2):1-20.
    In recent years some moral philosophers and political theorists, who have come to be called “luck egalitarians,” have urged that the essence of social justice is the moral imperative to improve the condition of people who suffer from simple bad luck. Prominent theorists who have attracted the luck egalitarian label include Ronald Dworkin, G. A. Cohen, and John Roemer.1 Larry Temkin should also be included in this group, as should Thomas Nagel at the time that he wrote Equality and Partiality.2 (...)
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  14. Richard Arneson (2000). Egalitarian Justice Versus the Right to Privacy? Social Philosophy and Policy 17 (02):91-.
    In their celebrated essay “The Right to Privacy,” Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis identify as the generic privacy value “the right to be let alone.”1 This same phrase occurs in Louis Brandeis’s dissent in Olmstead v. U.S.2 This characterization of privacy has been found objectionable by philosophers acting as conceptual police. For example, William Parent asserts that one can wrongfully fail to let another person alone in all sorts of ways such as assault that intuitively do not qualify as violations (...)
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  15. Richard J. Arneson (2000). Luck Egalitarianism and Prioritarianism. Ethics 110 (2):339-349.
    In her recent, provocative essay “What Is the Point of Equality?”, Elizabeth Anderson argues against a common ideal of egalitarian justice that she calls “luck egalitarianism” and in favor of an approach she calls “democratic equality.”1 According to the luck egalitarian, the aim of justice as equality is to eliminate so far as is possible the impact on people’s lives of bad luck that falls on them through no fault or choice of their own. In the ideal luck egalitarian society, (...)
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  16. Richard J. Arneson (1999). Egalitarianism and Responsibility. Journal of Ethics 3 (3):225-247.
    This essay examines several possible rationales for the egalitarian judgment that justice requires better-off individuals to help those who are worse off even in the absence of social interaction. These rationales include equality (everyone should enjoy the same level of benefits), moral meritocracy (each should get benefits according to her responsibility or deservingness), the threshold of sufficiency (each should be assured a minimally decent quality of life), prioritarianism (a function of benefits to individuals should be maximized that gives priority to (...)
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  17. Richard J. Arneson (1997). Egalitarianism and the Undeserving Poor. Journal of Political Philosophy 5 (4):327–350.
    Recently in the U.S. a near-consensus has formed around the idea that it would be desirable to "end welfare as we know it," in the words of President Bill Clinton.1 In this context, the term "welfare" does not refer to the entire panoply of welfare state provision including government sponsored old age pensions, government provided medical care for the elderly, unemployment benefits for workers who have lost their jobs without being fired for cause, or aid to the disabled. "Welfare" in (...)
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  18. Richard J. Arneson (1989). Liberal Egalitarianism and World Resource Distribution: Two Views. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 23 (3):171-190.
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  19. John Atherton (2010). Challenging Inequality in a Post-Scarcity Era : Christian Contributions to Egalitarian Trends. In John R. Atherton, Elaine L. Graham & Ian Steedman (eds.), The Practices of Happiness: Political Economy, Religion and Wellbeing. Routledge.
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  20. Yonathan Reshef Avner de-Shalit (2009). Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought – Andrew Mason. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):756-760.
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  21. John Baker (2004). Review of Lesley A. Jacobs, Pursuing Equal Opportunities: The Theory and Practice of Egalitarian Justice. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (5).
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  22. Stephen W. Ball (1987). Choosing Between Choice Models of Ethics: Rawlsian Equality, Utilitarianism, and the Concept of Persons. Theory and Decision 22 (3):209-224.
  23. Linda Barclay (2009). Egalitarianism and Responsibility in the Genetic Future. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (2):119-134.
    Recent discussions of genetic enhancement have argued that unregulated access to genetic enhancement technology will have a mainly negative impact on equality, a development that an egalitarian approach to distributive justice should be concerned with and seek to address. I argue that the extent to which egalitarians should be concerned about unequal access to genetic enhancement therapies has been overplayed. Many of the genetic differences that exist between people, including those that arise from differential access to genetic enhancement technology, are (...)
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  24. Christian Barry & Pablo Gilabert (2008). Does Global Egalitarianism Provide an Impractical and Unattractive Ideal of Justice? International Affairs 84 (5):1025-1039.
    In his important new book National responsibility and global justice, David Miller presents a systematic challenge to existing theories of global justice. In particular, he argues that cosmopolitan egalitarianism must be rejected. Such views, Miller maintains, would place unacceptable burdens on the most productive political communities, undermine national self-determination, and disincentivize political communities from taking responsibility for their fate. They are also impracticable and quite unrealistic, at least under present conditions. Miller offers an alternative account that conceives global justice in (...)
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  25. Christian Barry & Laura Valentini (2009). Egalitarian Challenges to Global Egalitarianism: A Critique. Review of International Studies 35:485-512.
  26. Nicholas Barry (2006). Defending Luck Egalitarianism. Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):89–107.
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  27. Jerome E. Bickenbach (2008). Distributive Justice and Disability: Utilitarianism Against Egalitarianism. Social Theory and Practice 34 (2):300-306.
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  28. Ken Binmore, Interpersonal Comparison in Egalitarian Societies.
    When judging what is fair, how do we decide how much weight to assign to the conflicting interests of different classes of people? This subject has received some attention in a utilitarian context, but has been largely neglected in the case of egalitarian societies of the kind studied by John Rawls. My Game Theory and the Social Contract considers the problem for a toy society with only two citizens. This paper examines the theoretical difficulties in extending the discussion to societies (...)
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  29. Ken Binmore (1998). Egalitarianism Versus Utilitarianism. Utilitas 10 (3):353-367.
    This paper is a comparative analysis of egalitarianism and utilitarianism from a naturalistic perspective that offers some insight into the manner in which we come to make interpersonal comparisons of welfare.
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  30. Elisabeth Boetzkes (2002). If You're an Egalitarian, How Come You're So Rich? G. A. Cohen Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000, Xii + 233 Pp., $35.00. [REVIEW] Dialogue 41 (02):386-.
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  31. Patrick Boleyn‐Fitzgerald (1999). Misfortune, Welfare Reform, and Right‐Wing Egalitarianism. Critical Review 13 (1-2):141-163.
    Abstract A close look at the rhetoric in America's recent welfare?reform debate has both surprising and important implications for political philosophy. Political philosophers typically presume that opponents of redistribution are motivated by considerations other than equality. Recent arguments for welfare reform, however, have been formulated in a manner consistent with most contemporary egalitarian theories. This result should make us question either the political relevance of egalitarian ideals or the adequacy of those theories of equality.
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  32. Paul Bou-Habib & Serena Olsaretti (2012). Equality of Resources and the Demands of Authenticity. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-22.
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  33. Paul Bou-Habib & Serena Olsaretti (2004). Liberal Egalitarianism and Workfare. Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (3):257-270.
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  34. Josiane Boulad-Ayoub (1985). La thématique contemporaine de l'égalité: répertoire, résumé, typologie Louise Marcil-Lacoste Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1984. xviii, 240 p. [REVIEW] Dialogue 24 (03):566-.
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  35. Josiane Boulad-Ayoub (1985). Un ègalitarisme radical ad usum delphini. Dialogue 24 (03):523-.
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  36. Harry Brighouse (1996). Egalitarianism and Equal Availability of Political Influence. Journal of Political Philosophy 4 (2):118–141.
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  37. Harry Brighouse (1994). The Egalitarian Virtues of Educational Vouchers. Journal of Philosophy of Education 28 (2):211–220.
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  38. Gillian Brock (2005). Egalitarianism, Ideals, and Cosmopolitan Justice. Philosophical Forum 36 (1):1–30.
    Cosmopolitans believe that all human beings have equal moral worth and that our responsibilities to others do not stop at borders. Various cosmopolitans offer different interpretations of how we should understand what is entailed by that equal moral worth and what responsibilities we have to each other in taking our equality seriously. Two suggestions are that a cosmopolitan should endorse a 'global difference principle' and a 'principle of global equality of opportunity'. In the first part of this paper I examine (...)
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  39. Baruch Brody (1983). Redistribution Without Egalitarianism. Social Philosophy and Policy 1 (01):71-.
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  40. Alexander Brown (forthcoming). What Should Egalitarians Believe If They Really Are Egalitarian? A Reply to Martin O'Neill. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885113506710.
    In his article, ‘What Should Egalitarians Believe?’, Martin O’Neill argues, amongst other things, that egalitarians should reject both Telic and Deontic Egalitarianism and that they should adopt in their place a version of Non-Intrinsic Egalitarianism, specifically, the Pluralist Non-Intrinsic Egalitarian View. The central purpose of my article is to challenge O’Neill’s assumption that he can defend each of the various propositions that make up his position simultaneously. I do this with two arguments. First, I argue that in order to justify (...)
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  41. Alexander Brown (2007). An Egalitarian Plateau? Challenging the Importance of Ronald Dworkin's Abstract Egalitarian Rights. Res Publica 13 (3):255-291.
    Ronald Dworkin’s work on the topic of equality over the past twenty-five years or so has been enormously influential, generating a great deal of debate about equality both as a practical aim and as a theoretical ideal. The present article attempts to assess the importance of one particular aspect of this work. Dworkin claims that the acceptance of abstract egalitarian rights to equal concern and respect can be thought to provide a kind of plateau in political argument, accommodating as it (...)
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  42. Alexander Brown (2005). Luck Egalitarianism and Democratic Equality. Ethical Perspectives 12 (3):293-340.
  43. Hauke Brunkhorst (2008). Reluctant Democratic Egalitarianism. Ethical Perspectives 15 (2):149-167.
  44. Allen Buchanan (2010). The Egalitarianism of Human Rights. Ethics 120 (4):679-710.
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  45. Audrey Cahill (2011). Nils Holtug and Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Egalitarianism: New Essays on the Nature and Value of Equality. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3):361-362.
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  46. Alex Callinicos (2003). Egalitarianism and Anticapitalism: A Reply to Harry Brighouse and Erik Olin Wright. Historical Materialism 11 (2):199-214.
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  47. A. W. Cappelen (2005). Responsibility in Health Care: A Liberal Egalitarian Approach. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (8):476-480.
    Lifestyle diseases constitute an increasing proportion of health problems and this trend is likely to continue. A better understanding of the responsibility argument is important for the assessment of policies aimed at meeting this challenge. Holding individuals accountable for their choices in the context of health care is, however, controversial. There are powerful arguments both for and against such policies. In this article the main arguments for and the traditional arguments against the use of individual responsibility as a criterion for (...)
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  48. Alexander W. Cappelen & Bertil Tungodden (2006). A Liberal Egalitarian Paradox. Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):393-408.
    A liberal egalitarian theory of justice seeks to combine the values of equality, personal freedom, and personal responsibility. It is considered a much more promising position than strict egalitarianism, because it supposedly provides a fairness argument for inequalities reflecting differences in choice. However, we show that it is inherently difficult to fulfill this ambition. We present a liberal egalitarian paradox which shows that there does not exist any robust reward system that satisfies a minimal egalitarian and a minimal liberal requirement. (...)
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  49. Joseph H. Carens (1986). Rights and Duties in an Egalitarian Society. Political Theory 14 (1):31-49.
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  50. Alan Carter (2011). A Distinction Within Egalitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 108 (10):535-554.
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