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  1. I. Açikgöz & N. Ünal (1998). Vacuum Polarization in Self-Field Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):815-828.
    We have evaluated analytically the vacuum polarization in a Coulomb field using the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb wave functions by a new method. The result is made finite by an appropriate choice of contour integrations and gives the standard result in the lowest order of iteration. We used the formalism of self-field quantum electrodynamics in the evaluation of the vacuum polarization which needs neither field quantization nor renormalization. There are no infrared or ultraviolet divergences.
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  2. S. V. Adamenko & V. I. Vysotskii (2004). Evolution of Annular Self-Controlled Electron–Nucleus Collapse in Condensed Targets. Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1801-1831.
    We considered peculiarities of the evolution of a region with sharp boundaries that is filled with a partially ionized plasma and is a part of the volume of a condensed target. The creation of such a region in the near-surface layer of the target can be related to the action of an external impulse symmetric ionizator or to the action of an intense small-extension shock wave on the target surface. We defined the conditions such that their fulfilment during the establishment (...)
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  3. Peter J. Adams (1979). Scale-Covariant Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 9 (7-8):609-618.
    The theory of scale-covariant gravity is extended to include charged matter and electromagnetism at the classical level. The possibility of charge creation exists and the creation rate of charge differs from the creation rate of matter. A variational principle for scale-covariant gravity and electromagnetism coupled to a charged perfect fluid is given.
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  4. B. J. Ahmedov & N. I. Rakhmatov (2003). Concerning Measurement of Gravitomagnetism in Electromagnetic Systems. Foundations of Physics 33 (4):625-639.
    Measurement of gravitomagnetic field is of fundamental importance as a test of general relativity. Here we present a new theoretical project for performing such a measurement based on detection of the electric field arising from the interplay between the gravitomagnetic and magnetic fields in the stationary axial-symmetric gravitational field of a slowly rotating massive body. Finally it is shown that precise magnetometers based on superconducting quantum interferometers could not be designed for measurement of the gravitomagnetically induced magnetic field in the (...)
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  5. Peter M. Ainsworth (2011). What Chains Does Liouville's Theorem Put on Maxwell's Demon? Philosophy of Science 78 (1):149-164.
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  6. Matthew Alexander & Peter G. Bergmann (1984). Electrodynamics at Spatial Infinity. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):925-951.
    In preparation for the treatment of the gravitational field at spatial infinity, this paper deals with the electromagnetic field at spatial infinity. The field equations on this three-dimensional(1+2) manifold can be obtained from an action principle, which in turn lends itself to a Hamiltonian formulation. Quantization is formally straightforward, but some thought is given to the physical interpretation of the results.
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  7. A. D. Alhaidari (2010). Dirac Equation with Coupling to 1/R Singular Vector Potentials for All Angular Momenta. Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1088-1095.
    We consider the Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions with spherical symmetry and coupling to 1/r singular vector potential. An approximate analytic solution for all angular momenta is obtained. The approximation is made for the 1/r orbital term in the Dirac equation itself not for the traditional and more singular 1/r 2 term in the resulting second order differential equation. Consequently, the validity of the solution is for a wider energy spectrum. As examples, we consider the Hulthén and Eckart potentials.
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  8. I. Antoniou, E. Karpov & G. Pronko (2001). Non-Locality in Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1641-1655.
    We investigate the applicability of Hegerfeldts arguments on Quantum nonlocality in Quantum Electrodynamics following the work of Prigogine, Pronko, Petrosky, Ordonez and Karpov. We demonstrate the appearance of nonlocal effects at the level of quantum states. We show, however that the expectation values of some observables spread causally. Therefore the measurement of the nonlocality is questionable. We investigate an approach to classical measurement and conclude that the classical measurement cannot detect the “acausal” effects of the non-locality.
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  9. Rollin S. Armour Jr (2004). Spin-1/2 Maxwell Fields. Foundations of Physics 34 (5):815-842.
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  10. Frank Arntzenius & Hilary Greaves (2009). Time Reversal in Classical Electromagnetism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):557-584.
    Richard Feynman has claimed that anti-particles are nothing but particles `propagating backwards in time'; that time reversing a particle state always turns it into the corresponding anti-particle state. According to standard quantum field theory textbooks this is not so: time reversal does not turn particles into anti-particles. Feynman's view is interesting because, in particular, it suggests a nonstandard, and possibly illuminating, interpretation of the CPT theorem. In this paper, we explore a classical analog of Feynman's view, in the context of (...)
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  11. G. S. Asanov (1980). Clebsch Representations and Energy-Momentum of the Classical Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields. Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):855-863.
    By means of a Clebsch representation which differs from that previously applied to electromagnetic field theory it is shown that Maxwell's equations are derivable from a variational principle. In contrast to the standard approach, the Hamiltonian complex associated with this principle is identical with the generally accepted energy-momentum tensor of the fields. In addition, the Clebsch representation of a contravariant vector field makes it possible to consistently construct a field theory based upon a direction-dependent Lagrangian density (it is this kind (...)
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  12. R. A. Asanov (1995). Gravitational Field of Electrically Charged Mass in the Lobachevski Space. Foundations of Physics 25 (6):951-957.
    A variant of the Rosen bimetric general relativity with the Lobachevski background space metric is considered. An exact static external solution for the gravitational field of a concentrated electrically charged mass is found when the space is spherically symmetric. When the Lobachevski constant k → ∞, the solution turns into the Nordström-Reissner solution in general relativity, expressed via the harmonic coordinates. The results are also valid for the Chernikov theory with two connections and one metric.
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  13. A. K. T. Assis (2000). On the Propagation of Electromagnetic Signals in Wires and Coaxial Cables According to Weber's Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 30 (7):1107-1121.
    We derive the equation describing the flow of a variable current in straight wires and in coaxial cables from Newton's second law of motion plus Weber's electrodynamics. We show that in both cases the signal propagates at light velocity.
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  14. A. K. T. Assis, J. A. Hernandes & J. E. Lamesa (2001). Surface Charges in Conductor Plates Carrying Constant Currents. Foundations of Physics 31 (10):1501-1511.
    In this work we analyze the case of resistive conductor plates carrying constant currents, utilizing surface charge distributions. We obtain the electric potential in the plates and in the space surrounding them. We obtain a non-vanishing electric field outside the conductors. We compare the theoretical results with experimental data present in the literature.
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  15. A. K. T. Assis, W. A. Rodrigues Jr & A. J. Mania (1999). The Electric Field Outside a Stationary Resistive Wire Carrying a Constant Current. Foundations of Physics 29 (5):729-753.
    We present the opinion of some authors who believe there is no force between a stationary charge and a stationary resistive wire carrying a constant current. We show that this force is different from zero and present its main components: the force due to the charges induced in the wire by the test charge and a force proportional to the current in the resistive wire. We also discuss briefly a component of the force proportional to the square of the current (...)
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  16. Anatoli Babin & Alexander Figotin (2011). Electrodynamics of Balanced Charges. Foundations of Physics 41 (2):242-260.
    We introduce here a new “neoclassical” electromagnetic (EM) theory in which elementary charges are represented by wave functions and individual EM fields to account for their EM interactions. We call so defined charges balanced or “b-charges”. We construct the EM theory of b-charges (BEM) based on a relativistic field Lagrangian and show that: (i) the elementary EM fields satisfy the Maxwell equations; (ii) the Newton equations with the Lorentz forces hold approximately when b-charges are well separated and move with non-relativistic (...)
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  17. Mario Bacelar Valente (2011). The Relation Between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics. Theoria 26 (70):51-68.
    In this article it is presented the idea that quantum electrodynamics has to be seen as a theoretical upgrade of classical electrodynamics and the theory of relativity, that permits an extension of classical theory in the description of phenomena, that while being clearly related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory – the description of matter, radiation, and their interaction – cannot be properly addressed from the classical theory. In this way quantum electrodynamics would not be a fundamental theory, (...)
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  18. V. Bach, J. Fröhlich & I. M. Sigal (1997). Mathematical Theory of Radiation. Foundations of Physics 27 (2):227-237.
    In this paper we present an informal review of our recent work whose goal is to develop a mathematical theory of the physical phenomenon of emission and absorption of radiation by systems of nonrelativistic matter such as atoms and molecules.
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  19. William Band (1988). Can Information Be Transferred Faster Than Light? II. The Relativistic Doppler Effect on Electromagnetic Wave Packets with Suboptic and Superoptic Group Velocities. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):625-638.
    It is shown that (a) both the dispersion relations between the mean frequency θ0 and the mean wave number k 0 are invariant under the Lorentz transformation; and (b) the relativistic Doppler effects on θ 0 and k 0 differ. In the suboptic packet there is anomalous red shift in the mean wave number k' 0 received from a source receding with speed v: k′ 0 changes sign through zero as v goes through the value vg, the mean group velocity (...)
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  20. A. O. Barut (1994). On the Formulation of Electrodynamics From a Single Principle. Foundations of Physics 24 (4):477-485.
    The single postulate of Coulomb-Clausius potential between charges allows one to derive all of Maxwell's equations with an explicit form for polarizability.
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  21. A. O. Barut (1987). Irreversibility, Organization, and Self-Organization in Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 17 (6):549-559.
    QED is a fundamental microscopic theory satisfying all the conservation laws and discrete symmetries C, P, T. Yet, dissipative phenomena, organization, and self-organization occur even at this basic microscopic two-body level. How these processes come about and how they are described in QED is discussed. A possible new phase of QED due to self-energy effects leading to self-organization is predicted.
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  22. A. O. Barut & A. J. Bracken (1992). Particle-Like Configurations of the Electromagnetic Field: An Extension of de Broglie's Ideas. Foundations of Physics 22 (10):1267-1285.
    Localised configurations of the free electromagnetic field are constructed, possessing properties of massive, spinning, relativistic particles. In an inertial frame, each configuration travels in a straight line at constant speed, less than the speed of lightc, while slowly spreading. It eventually decays into pulses of radiation travelling at speedc. Each configuration has a definite rest mass and internal angular momentum, or spin. Each can be of “electric” or “magnetic” type, according as the radial component of the magnetic or electric field (...)
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  23. A. O. Barut & J. Kraus (1983). Nonperturbative Quantum Electrodynamics: The Lamb Shift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (2):189-194.
    The nonlinear integro-differential equation, obtained from the coupled Maxwell-Dirac equations by eliminating the potential Aμ, is solved by iteration rather than perturbation. The energy shift is complex, the imaginary part giving the spontaneous emission. Both self-energy and vacuum polarization terms are obtained. All results, including renormalization terms, are finite.
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  24. A. O. Barut & S. Malin (1975). Electrodynamics in Terms of Functions Over the groupSU(2). I. The Equation of the Vector Potential. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):375-386.
    This is the first in a series of papers in which a method of harmonic analysis in terms of functions over the groupSU(2) is applied to the description of interaction between matter and the electromagnetic field. Carmeli'sSU(2) formulation of Maxwell's equations is extended to anSU(2) formulation of the equations for the electromagnetic vector potential. The four functions which describe the vector potential are expanded in a generalized Fourier series [SU(2) harmonic analysis] and the equations for the coefficients are derived. These (...)
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  25. A. O. Barut, S. Malin & M. Semon (1982). Electrodynamics in Terms of Functions Over the groupSU(2): II. Quantization. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 12 (5):521-530.
    In a previous article by two of the present authors Carmeli's group-theoretic method for the formulation of wave equations was applied to the case of the electromagnetic field, and the equations for the vector potential were derived. In the present paper a quantization procedure for these equations is carried out in the Lorentz gauge. It involves two independent variables, corresponding to the number of degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field in a Hilbert space with a positive-definite metric. Conserved quantities (...)
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  26. Asim O. Barut & Walter Wyss (1998). The Energy-Momentum Tensor for Electromagnetic Interactions. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):699-715.
    We compute the energy tensor and the energy-momentum tensor for electrodynamics coupled to the current of a charged scalar field and for electrodynamics coupled tothe current of a Dirac spinor field, without using the equations of motion.
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  27. W. G. Bauer & H. Salecker (1983). Muonic Atoms Testing the Electron Propagator of Quantum Electrodynamics and the Higgs Boson Contribution. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):115-132.
    In this work we consider the energy states of muonic atoms which are predominantly influenced by vacuum polarization. This fact is used for testing the electron propagator of QED with the modification $S(p) = (\not p - me)^{ - 1} + f(\not p - M)^{ - 1}$ . The data of some well analyzed transitions in muonic He, Si, Ba, and Pb yield the limit M>29 MeV for f=1.Similarly the presence of a Higgs boson would cause a shift of the (...)
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  28. A. B. Bell & D. M. Bell (1978). New Theory of Superconductivity. Foundations of Physics 8 (11-12):951-957.
    Based on three earlier papers which treat electromagnetic, elastogravitational, and radiant-nonradiant thermal phenomena in terms of six types of electric or nonelectric charges, the authors classify states of matter as hyperefficient, efficient, semiefficient, and hypoefficient in transmitting a particular type of charge, by means of a generalization of Ohm's law to two or three dimensions. Conventional states of matter (solid, liquid, gas, vacuum) are associated with torsional (gravitational) charges. Applications are made to electric superconductivity of crystals at elevated temperatures, and (...)
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  29. Gordon Belot (1998). Understanding Electromagnetism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (4):531-555.
    It is often said that the Aharonov-Bohm effect shows that the vector potential enjoys more ontological significance than we previously realized. But how can a quantum-mechanical effect teach us something about the interpretation of Maxwell's theory—let alone about the ontological structure of the world—when both theories are false? I present a rational reconstruction of the interpretative repercussions of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and suggest some morals for our conception of the interpretative enterprise.
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  30. N. Ben-Amots (2007). Relativistic Exponential Gravitation and Exponential Potential of Electric Charge. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):773-787.
    We present theories of gravitation and electric potentials with exponential dependence on the reciprocal distance. In the context of this kind of electric potential we investigate the dynamics of a relativistic electron interacting with a proton.
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  31. William Berkson (1974). Fields of Force. New York,Wiley.
    This book tells how a series of very remarkable men tried to get a better understanding of the world. These men are Michael Faraday and those he influenced: ...
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  32. J. D. Bernal (1972). The Extension of Man: A History of Physics Before the Quantum. Cambridge,M.I.T. Press.
  33. Armando Bernui (2000). The Radiation Reaction Problem in a Simple Coupled Model. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):121-138.
    The complete description of the interaction between an external electromagnetic field and a charged particle causing it to radiate is one of the most fundamental problems in classical electrodynamics. Here we provide a simple coupled model that describes via the Lagrangian of the physical system the full radiation reaction process resulting from the particle–field interactions which simulate the electromagnetic ones. The particle and field evolution equations obtained from the Lagrangian are studied as an initial value problem giving rise to the (...)
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  34. M. Berrondo & J. F. Van Huele (1993). The Pole Expansion in Normalized QED. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):711-719.
    We present a pole expansion for the propagators in the framework of normalized quantum electrodynamics and compare it with the more canonical results from S-matrix theory.
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  35. Horst Beyer & Jürgen Nitsch (1990). A Note on a Casimir Effect in a Uniformly Accelerated Reference Frame. Foundations of Physics 20 (4):459-469.
    Maxwell's equations are established for the free electromagnetic field in two-dimensional space-times. In Minkowski space they are solved under the boundary conditions set by a pair of uniformly accelerated “plates.” With the help of these solutions we determine the regularized energy-momentum tensor of the canonically quantized electromagnetic field at the position of one of the “plates.” Thereby (as a new result) we arrive at a Casimir effect in an accelerated reference frame.
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  36. R. Blanco (1999). On a Hypothetical Explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. Foundations of Physics 29 (5):693-720.
    I study in detail a proposal made by T. H. Boyer in an attempt to explain classically the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. Boyer claims that in an AB experiment, the perturbation the external incident particle produces on the charge and current distributions within the solenoid will affect back the motion of the external particle. With a qualitative analysis based on energetic considerations, Boyer seemed to arrive at the conclusion that this perturbation could give account of the AB effect. In this paper (...)
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  37. Nikolai N. Bogolubov Jr & Anatoliy K. Prykarpatsky (2010). The Analysis of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Properties of the Classical Relativistic Electrodynamics Models and Their Quantization. Foundations of Physics 40 (5):469-493.
    The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian properties of classical electrodynamics models and their associated Dirac quantizations are studied. Using the vacuum field theory approach developed in (Prykarpatsky et al. Theor. Math. Phys. 160(2): 1079–1095, 2009 and The field structure of a vacuum, Maxwell equations and relativity theory aspects. Preprint ICTP) consistent canonical Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised, and these formulations include the Lorentz condition in a natural way. The Dirac quantization procedure corresponding to the Hamiltonian formulations is (...)
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  38. Timothy H. Boyer (2012). The Blackbody Radiation Spectrum Follows From Zero-Point Radiation and the Structure of Relativistic Spacetime in Classical Physics. Foundations of Physics 42 (5):595-614.
    The analysis of this article is entirely within classical physics. Any attempt to describe nature within classical physics requires the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation so as to account for the Casimir forces between parallel conducting plates at low temperatures. Furthermore, conformal symmetry carries solutions of Maxwell’s equations into solutions. In an inertial frame, conformal symmetry leaves zero-point radiation invariant and does not connect it to non-zero-temperature; time-dilating conformal transformations carry the Lorentz-invariant zero-point radiation spectrum into zero-point radiation (...)
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  39. Timothy H. Boyer (2010). Blackbody Radiation and the Scaling Symmetry of Relativistic Classical Electron Theory with Classical Electromagnetic Zero-Point Radiation. Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1102-1116.
    It is pointed out that relativistic classical electron theory with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation has a scaling symmetry which is suitable for understanding the equilibrium behavior of classical thermal radiation at a spectrum other than the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum. In relativistic classical electron theory, the masses of the particles are the only scale-giving parameters associated with mechanics while the action-angle variables are scale invariant. The theory thus separates the interaction of the action variables of matter and radiation from the scale-giving parameters. (...)
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  40. Timothy H. Boyer (2007). Connecting Blackbody Radiation, Relativity, and Discrete Charge in Classical Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 37 (7):999-1026.
    It is suggested that an understanding of blackbody radiation within classical physics requires the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, the restriction to relativistic (Coulomb) scattering systems, and the use of discrete charge. The contrasting scaling properties of nonrelativistic classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics are noted, and it is emphasized that the solutions of classical electrodynamics found in nature involve constants which connect together the scales of length, time, and energy. Indeed, there are analogies between the electrostatic forces for groups (...)
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  41. Timothy H. Boyer (2002). Classical Electromagnetic Interaction of a Point Charge and a Magnetic Moment: Considerations Related to the Aharonov–Bohm Phase Shift. Foundations of Physics 32 (1):1-39.
    A fundamentally new understanding of the classical electromagnetic interaction of a point charge and a magnetic dipole moment through order v 2 /c 2 is suggested. This relativistic analysis connects together hidden momentum in magnets, Solem's strange polarization of the classical hydrogen atom, and the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift. First we review the predictions following from the traditional particle-on-a-frictionless-rigid-ring model for a magnetic moment. This model, which is not relativistic to order v 2 /c 2 , does reveal a connection between (...)
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  42. Timothy H. Boyer (2002). Semiclassical Explanation of the Matteucci–Pozzi and Aharonov–Bohm Phase Shifts. Foundations of Physics 32 (1):41-49.
    Classical electromagnetic forces can account for the experimentally observed phase shifts seen in an electron interference pattern when a line of electric dipoles or a line of magnetic dipoles (a solenoid) is placed between the electron beams forming the interference pattern.
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  43. Timothy H. Boyer (2000). Does the Aharonov–Bohm Effect Exist? Foundations of Physics 30 (6):893-905.
    We draw a distinction between the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift and the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Although the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift occurring when an electron beam passes around a magnetic solenoid is well-verified experimentally, it is not clear whether this phase shift occurs because of classical forces or because of a topological effect occurring in the absence of classical forces as claimed by Aharonov and Bohm. The mathematics of the Schroedinger equation itself does not reveal the physical basis for the effect. However, the (...)
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  44. Timothy H. Boyer (2000). Classical Electromagnetism and the Aharonov–Bohm Phase Shift. Foundations of Physics 30 (6):907-932.
    Although there is good experimental evidence for the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift occurring when a solenoid is placed between the beams forming a double-slit electron interference pattern, there has been very little analysis of the relevant classical electromagnetic forces. These forces between a point charge and a solenoid involve subtle relativistic effects of order v 2 /c 2 analogous to those discussed by Coleman and Van Vleck in their treatment of the Shockley–James paradox. In this article we show that a treatment (...)
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  45. Timothy H. Boyer (1989). Conformal Symmetry of Classical Electromagnetic Zero-Point Radiation. Foundations of Physics 19 (4):349-365.
    The two-point correlation functions of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation fields are evaluated in four-vector notation. The manifestly Lorentz-covariant expressions are then shown to be invariant under scale transformations and under the conformal transformations of Bateman and Cunningham. As a preliminary to the electromagnetic work, analogous results are obtained for a scalar Gaussian random classical field with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum.
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  46. K. A. Brading & T. A. Ryckman (2008). Hilbert's 'Foundations of Physics': Gravitation and Electromagnetism Within the Axiomatic Method. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (1):102-153.
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  47. Harvey R. Brown & Peter Holland, Simple Applications of Noether's First Theorem in Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism.
    Internal global symmetries exist for the free non-relativistic Schrodinger particle, whose associated Noether charges---the space integrals of the wavefunction and the wavefunction multiplied by the spatial coordinate---are exhibited. Analogous symmetries in classical electromagnetism are also demonstrated.
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  48. P. F. Browne (1977). Complementary Aspects of Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 7 (3-4):165-183.
    A convention with regard to geometry, accepting nonholonomic aether motion and coordinate-dependent units, is always valid as an alternative to Einstein's convention. Choosing flat spacetime, Newtonian gravitation is extended, step by step, until equations closely analogous to those of Einstein's theory are obtained. The first step, demanded by considerations of inertia, is the introduction of a vector potential. Treating the electromagnetic and gravitational fields as real and imaginary components of a complex field (gravitational mass being treated as imaginary charge), the (...)
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  49. P. F. Browne (1975). Five-Dimensional Unified Field Theory: The Source Function. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 5 (3):387-398.
    In Kaluza's five-dimensional unified field theory the restriction for the 55 component of the metric tensor γ55=1 demands that the 15 equations for the unified field be weakened. Equations which have been proposed have identically vanishing trace. The equations then admit only a radiation field as source of the gravitational field. By relaxing the condition, this limitation is avoided, while retaining the striking successes of the five-dimensional approach. A scalar function, determined by the 15th field equation apart from integration constants, (...)
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  50. Gerhard W. Bruhn (2008). On the Non-Lorentz-Invariance of M.W. Evans' O(3)-Symmetry Law. Foundations of Physics 38 (1):3-6.
    In 1992 M.W. Evans proposed the O(3) symmetry of electromagnetic fields by adding a constant longitudinal magnetic field to the well-known transverse electric and magnetic fields of circularly polarized plane waves, such that certain cyclic relations of a so-called O(3) symmetry are fulfilled. Since then M.W. Evans has elevated this O(3) symmetry to the status of a new law of electromagnetics. As a law of physics must be invariant under admissible coordinate transforms, namely Lorentz transforms, in 2000 he published a (...)
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