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  1. M. A. & H. Kh, Behavior of a Magnetic Dipole Freely Floating on Water Surface.
    In this paper, the authors have detected a new effect in the area of geomagnetism, related to the behavior of a magnetic dipole freely floating on water surface. An experiment is described in the present paper in which a magnetic dipole fixed upon a float placed on non- magnetized water surface undergoes displacement along with reorientation caused by fine structure of the earth's magnetic field. This fact can probably be explained by secular decrease of the earth's major dipole moment. Further, (...)
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  2. Peter Achinstein (1990). Hypotheses, Probability, and Waves. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):73-102.
  3. Peter Achinstein (1990). Light Problems: Reply to Chen. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (4):677-684.
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  4. Peter Achinstein (1987). Light Hypotheses. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (3):293-337.
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  5. I. Açikgöz & N. Ünal (1998). Vacuum Polarization in Self-Field Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):815-828.
    We have evaluated analytically the vacuum polarization in a Coulomb field using the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb wave functions by a new method. The result is made finite by an appropriate choice of contour integrations and gives the standard result in the lowest order of iteration. We used the formalism of self-field quantum electrodynamics in the evaluation of the vacuum polarization which needs neither field quantization nor renormalization. There are no infrared or ultraviolet divergences.
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  6. S. V. Adamenko & V. I. Vysotskii (2004). Evolution of Annular Self-Controlled Electron–Nucleus Collapse in Condensed Targets. Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1801-1831.
    We considered peculiarities of the evolution of a region with sharp boundaries that is filled with a partially ionized plasma and is a part of the volume of a condensed target. The creation of such a region in the near-surface layer of the target can be related to the action of an external impulse symmetric ionizator or to the action of an intense small-extension shock wave on the target surface. We defined the conditions such that their fulfilment during the establishment (...)
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  7. Peter J. Adams (1979). Scale-Covariant Gravitation and Electromagnetism. Foundations of Physics 9 (7-8):609-618.
    The theory of scale-covariant gravity is extended to include charged matter and electromagnetism at the classical level. The possibility of charge creation exists and the creation rate of charge differs from the creation rate of matter. A variational principle for scale-covariant gravity and electromagnetism coupled to a charged perfect fluid is given.
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  8. Mavriche Adrian (2012). From the Relative Existence of Electromagnetic Field to its Connection with the Gravitational Field. NON.
    The present document starts from the relative existence of the electromagnetic field, reaching through mental experiments to its connection with the gravitational field, without the necessity to resort to other space - time dimensions or supplementary "exotic" particles. The final conclusion is that the field "electro-gravitational" and electromagnetic field with accelerated source are two different manifestations of the same single field dynamic. Whilst demonstrating why there are light sources with "flee" towards the red or blue of the light spectrum.
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  9. Alexander Afriat, Is the World Made of Loops?
    In discussions of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, Healey and Lyre have attributed reality to loops $\sigma_0$ (or hoops $[\sigma_0]$), since the electromagnetic potential $A$ is currently unmeasurable and can therefore be transformed. I argue that $[A]=[A+d\lambda]_{\lambda}$ and the hoop $[\sigma_0]$ are related by a meaningful duality, so that however one feels about $[A]$ (or any potential $A\in[A]$), it is no worse than $[\sigma_0]$ (or any loop $\sigma_0\in[\sigma_0]$): no ontological firmness is gained by retreating to the loops, which are just as flimsy (...)
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  10. G. S. Agarwal (1995). Interference in Complementary Spaces. Foundations of Physics 25 (2):219-228.
    I present the current experimental and theoretical work on interference in complementary spaces. These ideas are applicable to both light and matter waves. I give a detailed treatment for classical light beams in frequency and time domains. I also present a description which gives the totality of interferences.
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  11. Joseph Agassi (1971). Faraday as a Natural Philosopher. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  12. B. J. Ahmedov & N. I. Rakhmatov (2003). Concerning Measurement of Gravitomagnetism in Electromagnetic Systems. Foundations of Physics 33 (4):625-639.
    Measurement of gravitomagnetic field is of fundamental importance as a test of general relativity. Here we present a new theoretical project for performing such a measurement based on detection of the electric field arising from the interplay between the gravitomagnetic and magnetic fields in the stationary axial-symmetric gravitational field of a slowly rotating massive body. Finally it is shown that precise magnetometers based on superconducting quantum interferometers could not be designed for measurement of the gravitomagnetically induced magnetic field in the (...)
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  13. Peter M. Ainsworth (2011). What Chains Does Liouville's Theorem Put on Maxwell's Demon? Philosophy of Science 78 (1):149-164.
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  14. Jean-Pascal Alcantara (2008). Remarques sur la dérivation des transformations de Lorentz par A. N. Whitehead. Chromatikon: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès / Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 4:9-20.
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  15. Matthew Alexander & Peter G. Bergmann (1984). Electrodynamics at Spatial Infinity. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):925-951.
    In preparation for the treatment of the gravitational field at spatial infinity, this paper deals with the electromagnetic field at spatial infinity. The field equations on this three-dimensional(1+2) manifold can be obtained from an action principle, which in turn lends itself to a Hamiltonian formulation. Quantization is formally straightforward, but some thought is given to the physical interpretation of the results.
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  16. A. D. Alhaidari (2010). Dirac Equation with Coupling to 1/R Singular Vector Potentials for All Angular Momenta. Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1088-1095.
    We consider the Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions with spherical symmetry and coupling to 1/r singular vector potential. An approximate analytic solution for all angular momenta is obtained. The approximation is made for the 1/r orbital term in the Dirac equation itself not for the traditional and more singular 1/r 2 term in the resulting second order differential equation. Consequently, the validity of the solution is for a wider energy spectrum. As examples, we consider the Hulthén and Eckart potentials.
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  17. Wade Allison (2011). We Should Stop Running Away From Radiation. Philosophy and Technology 24 (2):193-195.
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  18. Valia Allori (forthcoming). Maxwell's Paradox: The Metaphysics of Classical Electrodynamics and its Time-Reversal Invariance. Analytica.
    In this paper, I argue that the recent discussion on the time - reversal invariance of classical electrodynamics (see (Albert 2000: ch.1), (Arntzenius 2004), (Earman 2002), (Malament 2004),(Horwich 1987: ch.3)) can be best understood assuming that the disagreement among the various authors is actually a disagreement about the metaphysics of classical electrodynamics. If so, the controversy will not be resolved until we have established which alternative is the most natural. It turns out that we have a paradox, namely that the (...)
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  19. S. Alves, G. Demouchy, A. Bee, D. Talbot & A. Bourdon (2003). Investigation of the Sign of the Soret Coefficient in Different Ionic and Surfacted Magnetic Colloids Using Forced Rayleigh Scattering and Single-Beam Z -Scan Techniques. Philosophical Magazine 83 (17-18):2059-2066.
    The sign of the Soret coefficient S T of a large set of ionic magnetic colloids ) and surfacted magnetic colloids ) is determined using forced Rayleigh scattering and the single-beam Z -scan techniques. Different samples were investigated: acid and alkaline colloids with different values of pH; colloids with different concentrations of magnetic grains; colloids with grains of different typical diameters; colloids with magnetic grains with different coating natures; colloids with different non-polar and polar liquid carriers. Our results indicate that (...)
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  20. Ronald Anderson (1991). The Ontological Status of Potentials Within Classical Electromagnetism. Dissertation, Boston University
    To infer ontological features in the domain of a physical theory from its mathematical structures often requires one to consider an interpretation of the structures which goes beyond that necessary to provide an empirically adequate theory. I undertake this task for a set of mathematical structures of classical electromagnetism known as potentials. ;Since their first use in the nineteenth century through to their role within contemporary quantum theory, their interpretation has posed a number of problems and has sometimes been the (...)
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  21. A. Andreev, V. SechovskÝ, K. ProkeŠ, Y. Homma & O. Syshchenko (2003). Magnetism in a UNi 2/3 Rh 1/3 Al Single Crystal. Philosophical Magazine 83 (13):1613-1633.
    We report a magnetization, magnetostriction, electrical resistivity, specific heat and neutron scattering study of a UNi 2/3 Rh 1/3 Al single crystal, a solid solution of an antiferromagnet UNiAl and a ferromagnet URhAl. The huge uniaxial magnetic anisotropy confining the principal magnetic response to the c axis in the parent compounds persists also for the solid solution. The magnetization curve at 1.6 K has a pronounced S shape with an inflection at 12 T. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility exhibits (...)
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  22. I. Antoniou, E. Karpov & G. Pronko (2001). Non-Locality in Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1641-1655.
    We investigate the applicability of Hegerfeldts arguments on Quantum nonlocality in Quantum Electrodynamics following the work of Prigogine, Pronko, Petrosky, Ordonez and Karpov. We demonstrate the appearance of nonlocal effects at the level of quantum states. We show, however that the expectation values of some observables spread causally. Therefore the measurement of the nonlocality is questionable. We investigate an approach to classical measurement and conclude that the classical measurement cannot detect the “acausal” effects of the non-locality.
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  23. H. I. Arcos, C. S. O. Mayor, G. Otalora & J. G. Pereira (2012). Spin-2 Fields and Helicity. Foundations of Physics 42 (10):1339-1349.
    By considering the irreducible representations of the Lorentz group, an analysis of the different spin-2 waves is presented. In particular, the question of the helicity is discussed. It is concluded that, although from the point of view of representation theory there are no compelling reasons to choose between spin-2 waves with helicity σ=±1 or σ=±2, consistency arguments of the ensuing field theories favor waves with helicity σ=±1.
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  24. Rollin S. Armour Jr (2004). Spin-1/2 Maxwell Fields. Foundations of Physics 34 (5):815-842.
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  25. Frank Arntzenius & Hilary Greaves (2009). Time Reversal in Classical Electromagnetism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):557-584.
    Richard Feynman has claimed that anti-particles are nothing but particles `propagating backwards in time'; that time reversing a particle state always turns it into the corresponding anti-particle state. According to standard quantum field theory textbooks this is not so: time reversal does not turn particles into anti-particles. Feynman's view is interesting because, in particular, it suggests a nonstandard, and possibly illuminating, interpretation of the CPT theorem. In this paper, we explore a classical analog of Feynman's view, in the context of (...)
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  26. G. S. Asanov (1980). Clebsch Representations and Energy-Momentum of the Classical Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields. Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):855-863.
    By means of a Clebsch representation which differs from that previously applied to electromagnetic field theory it is shown that Maxwell's equations are derivable from a variational principle. In contrast to the standard approach, the Hamiltonian complex associated with this principle is identical with the generally accepted energy-momentum tensor of the fields. In addition, the Clebsch representation of a contravariant vector field makes it possible to consistently construct a field theory based upon a direction-dependent Lagrangian density (it is this kind (...)
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  27. R. A. Asanov (1995). Gravitational Field of Electrically Charged Mass in the Lobachevski Space. Foundations of Physics 25 (6):951-957.
    A variant of the Rosen bimetric general relativity with the Lobachevski background space metric is considered. An exact static external solution for the gravitational field of a concentrated electrically charged mass is found when the space is spherically symmetric. When the Lobachevski constant k → ∞, the solution turns into the Nordström-Reissner solution in general relativity, expressed via the harmonic coordinates. The results are also valid for the Chernikov theory with two connections and one metric.
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  28. A. K. T. Assis (2000). On the Propagation of Electromagnetic Signals in Wires and Coaxial Cables According to Weber's Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 30 (7):1107-1121.
    We derive the equation describing the flow of a variable current in straight wires and in coaxial cables from Newton's second law of motion plus Weber's electrodynamics. We show that in both cases the signal propagates at light velocity.
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  29. A. K. T. Assis, J. A. Hernandes & J. E. Lamesa (2001). Surface Charges in Conductor Plates Carrying Constant Currents. Foundations of Physics 31 (10):1501-1511.
    In this work we analyze the case of resistive conductor plates carrying constant currents, utilizing surface charge distributions. We obtain the electric potential in the plates and in the space surrounding them. We obtain a non-vanishing electric field outside the conductors. We compare the theoretical results with experimental data present in the literature.
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  30. A. K. T. Assis, W. A. Rodrigues Jr & A. J. Mania (1999). The Electric Field Outside a Stationary Resistive Wire Carrying a Constant Current. Foundations of Physics 29 (5):729-753.
    We present the opinion of some authors who believe there is no force between a stationary charge and a stationary resistive wire carrying a constant current. We show that this force is different from zero and present its main components: the force due to the charges induced in the wire by the test charge and a force proportional to the current in the resistive wire. We also discuss briefly a component of the force proportional to the square of the current (...)
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  31. Anatoli Babin & Alexander Figotin (2011). Electrodynamics of Balanced Charges. Foundations of Physics 41 (2):242-260.
    We introduce here a new “neoclassical” electromagnetic (EM) theory in which elementary charges are represented by wave functions and individual EM fields to account for their EM interactions. We call so defined charges balanced or “b-charges”. We construct the EM theory of b-charges (BEM) based on a relativistic field Lagrangian and show that: (i) the elementary EM fields satisfy the Maxwell equations; (ii) the Newton equations with the Lorentz forces hold approximately when b-charges are well separated and move with non-relativistic (...)
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  32. Mario Bacelar Valente (2011). The Relation Between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics. Theoria 26 (70):51-68.
    In this article it is presented the idea that quantum electrodynamics has to be seen as a theoretical upgrade of classical electrodynamics and the theory of relativity, that permits an extension of classical theory in the description of phenomena, that while being clearly related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory – the description of matter, radiation, and their interaction – cannot be properly addressed from the classical theory. In this way quantum electrodynamics would not be a fundamental theory, (...)
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  33. V. Bach, J. Fröhlich & I. M. Sigal (1997). Mathematical Theory of Radiation. Foundations of Physics 27 (2):227-237.
    In this paper we present an informal review of our recent work whose goal is to develop a mathematical theory of the physical phenomenon of emission and absorption of radiation by systems of nonrelativistic matter such as atoms and molecules.
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  34. William Band (1988). Can Information Be Transferred Faster Than Light? II. The Relativistic Doppler Effect on Electromagnetic Wave Packets with Suboptic and Superoptic Group Velocities. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):625-638.
    It is shown that (a) both the dispersion relations between the mean frequency θ0 and the mean wave number k 0 are invariant under the Lorentz transformation; and (b) the relativistic Doppler effects on θ 0 and k 0 differ. In the suboptic packet there is anomalous red shift in the mean wave number k' 0 received from a source receding with speed v: k′ 0 changes sign through zero as v goes through the value vg, the mean group velocity (...)
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  35. T. Barakat & H. A. Alhendi (2013). Generalized Dirac Equation with Induced Energy-Dependent Potential Via Simple Similarity Transformation and Asymptotic Iteration Methods. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1171-1181.
    This study shows how precise simple analytical solutions for the generalized Dirac equation with repulsive vector and attractive energy-dependent Lorentz scalar potentials, position-dependent mass potential, and a tensor interaction term can be obtained within the framework of both similarity transformation and the asymptotic iteration methods. These methods yield a significant improvement over existing approaches and provide more plausible and applicable ways in explaining the pseudospin symmetry’s breaking mechanism in nuclei.
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  36. Terence W. Barrett (2000). Topology and the Physical Properties of the Electromagnetic Field. Apeiron 7:3-11.
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  37. A. O. Barut (1994). On the Formulation of Electrodynamics From a Single Principle. Foundations of Physics 24 (4):477-485.
    The single postulate of Coulomb-Clausius potential between charges allows one to derive all of Maxwell's equations with an explicit form for polarizability.
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  38. A. O. Barut (1987). Irreversibility, Organization, and Self-Organization in Quantum Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 17 (6):549-559.
    QED is a fundamental microscopic theory satisfying all the conservation laws and discrete symmetries C, P, T. Yet, dissipative phenomena, organization, and self-organization occur even at this basic microscopic two-body level. How these processes come about and how they are described in QED is discussed. A possible new phase of QED due to self-energy effects leading to self-organization is predicted.
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  39. A. O. Barut & A. J. Bracken (1992). Particle-Like Configurations of the Electromagnetic Field: An Extension of de Broglie's Ideas. Foundations of Physics 22 (10):1267-1285.
    Localised configurations of the free electromagnetic field are constructed, possessing properties of massive, spinning, relativistic particles. In an inertial frame, each configuration travels in a straight line at constant speed, less than the speed of lightc, while slowly spreading. It eventually decays into pulses of radiation travelling at speedc. Each configuration has a definite rest mass and internal angular momentum, or spin. Each can be of “electric” or “magnetic” type, according as the radial component of the magnetic or electric field (...)
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  40. A. O. Barut & J. Kraus (1983). Nonperturbative Quantum Electrodynamics: The Lamb Shift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (2):189-194.
    The nonlinear integro-differential equation, obtained from the coupled Maxwell-Dirac equations by eliminating the potential Aμ, is solved by iteration rather than perturbation. The energy shift is complex, the imaginary part giving the spontaneous emission. Both self-energy and vacuum polarization terms are obtained. All results, including renormalization terms, are finite.
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  41. A. O. Barut & S. Malin (1975). Electrodynamics in Terms of Functions Over the groupSU(2). I. The Equation of the Vector Potential. Foundations of Physics 5 (3):375-386.
    This is the first in a series of papers in which a method of harmonic analysis in terms of functions over the groupSU(2) is applied to the description of interaction between matter and the electromagnetic field. Carmeli'sSU(2) formulation of Maxwell's equations is extended to anSU(2) formulation of the equations for the electromagnetic vector potential. The four functions which describe the vector potential are expanded in a generalized Fourier series [SU(2) harmonic analysis] and the equations for the coefficients are derived. These (...)
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  42. A. O. Barut, S. Malin & M. Semon (1982). Electrodynamics in Terms of Functions Over the groupSU(2): II. Quantization. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 12 (5):521-530.
    In a previous article by two of the present authors Carmeli's group-theoretic method for the formulation of wave equations was applied to the case of the electromagnetic field, and the equations for the vector potential were derived. In the present paper a quantization procedure for these equations is carried out in the Lorentz gauge. It involves two independent variables, corresponding to the number of degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field in a Hilbert space with a positive-definite metric. Conserved quantities (...)
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  43. Asim O. Barut & Walter Wyss (1998). The Energy-Momentum Tensor for Electromagnetic Interactions. Foundations of Physics 28 (5):699-715.
    We compute the energy tensor and the energy-momentum tensor for electrodynamics coupled to the current of a charged scalar field and for electrodynamics coupled tothe current of a Dirac spinor field, without using the equations of motion.
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  44. Jasminka Batanjac (2000). Enhanced Frequency of Chromosomal Aberration in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation. Facta Universitatis 7:46-48.
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  45. H. Bateman (1918). The Genesis of an Electro-Magnetic Field. The Monist 28 (4):586-596.
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  46. W. G. Bauer & H. Salecker (1983). Muonic Atoms Testing the Electron Propagator of Quantum Electrodynamics and the Higgs Boson Contribution. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):115-132.
    In this work we consider the energy states of muonic atoms which are predominantly influenced by vacuum polarization. This fact is used for testing the electron propagator of QED with the modification $S(p) = (\not p - me)^{ - 1} + f(\not p - M)^{ - 1}$ . The data of some well analyzed transitions in muonic He, Si, Ba, and Pb yield the limit M>29 MeV for f=1.Similarly the presence of a Higgs boson would cause a shift of the (...)
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  47. George Bekefi & Alan H. Barrett (1977). Electromagnetic Vibrations, Waves, and Radiation. The MIT Press.
    The book describes the features that vibrations and waves of all sorts have in commonand includes examples of mechanical, acoustical, and optical manifestations of these phenomena thatunite various parts of physics.
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  48. Yakup Bektas (2001). Displaying the American Genius: The Electromagnetic Telegraph in the Wider World. British Journal for the History of Science 34 (2):199-232.
    Shortly after he made a working model of his electromagnetic telegraph in 1837, Samuel F. B. Morse and his associates began an intense initiative to publicize and market it to the world. At first, using the social skills he had learned during his years as a portrait painter, Morse strove to gain the support of the upper classes in Europe. He and his agents saw the physical seats of institutions such as palaces and academy lecture halls as the most desirable (...)
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  49. M. Beleggia & Y. Zhu (2003). Electron-Optical Phase Shift of Magnetic Nanoparticles I. Basic Concepts. Philosophical Magazine 83 (8):1045-1057.
    The electron-optical phase shift induced in the electron beam due to the interaction with the electromagnetic field of magnetized nanoparticles of defined shape and arbitrary dimensions is calculated, presented and discussed. Together with the computable knowledge of vector potential and magnetic induction, including the demagnetizing field, and with the extension to more realistic geometries which will be presented in part II, this theoretical framework can be employed for the interpretation of transmission electron microscopy experiments on magnetic particles on the nanometre (...)
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  50. M. Beleggia, Y. Zhu, S. Tandon & M. De Graef (2003). Electron-Optical Phase Shift of Magnetic Nanoparticles II. Polyhedral Particles. Philosophical Magazine 83 (9):1143-1161.
    A method is presented to compute the electron-optical phase shift for a magnetized polyhedral nanoparticle, with either a uniform magnetization or a closure domain . The method relies on an analytical expression for the shape amplitude, combined with a reciprocal-space description of the magnetic vector potential. The model is used to construct two building blocks from which more complex structures can be generated. Phase computations are also presented for the five Platonic and 13 Archimedean solids. Fresnel and Foucault imaging mode (...)
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