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Emergence

Edited by Patrick McGivern (University of Wollongong)
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  1. Mika Aaltonen, Harri Härmä, Timo Hyypiä & Matti Waris (2010). Emergence And Immergence Of Viruses. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 12 (4).
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  2. Evandro Agazzi, Luisa Montecucco & M. Buzzoni (2005). Complexity and Emergence. Epistemologia 28 (2).
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  3. Samuel Alexander (1920/1966). Space, Time, and Deity: The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow 1916-1918. Dover Publications.
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  4. Garland E. Allen (1966). A Model for the Emergence of Biochemical Novelties. BioScience 16 (5):325-331.
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  5. Peter M. Allen & Mark Strathern (2003). Evolution, Emergence, and Learning in Complex Systems. Emergence 5 (4):8-33.
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  6. Frank Alvarez-Pereyre (2008). Catégories Et Catégorisation: Émergence Et Cristallisation de Quelques Problématiques. In , Catégories Et Catégorisation: Une Perspective Interdisciplinaire. Peeters. 33--1.
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  7. Irene Appelbaum (2004). Two Conceptions of the Emergence of Phonemic Structure. Foundations of Science 9 (4):415-435.
    . Björn Lindbloms account of the emergence of phonemic structure is a central reference point in contemporary discussions of the emergence of language. I argue that there are two distinct, and largely orthogonal conceptions of emergence implicit in Lindbloms account. According to one conception (causal emergence), the process by which minimal pairs are generated is crucial to the claim that phonemic structure is emergent; according to the other conception (analytic emergence), the fact that segments are an abstraction from the physical (...)
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  8. Mariano Artigas (1991). Emergence and Reduction in Morphogenetic Theories. In Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.), Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 253--262.
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  9. Harald Atmanspacher (2007). Contextual Emergence From Physics to Cognitive Neuroscience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (1-2):18-36.
    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a non-reductive, yet well- defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It is illustrated for the transition from statistical mechanics to thermodynamical properties such as temperature. Stability conditions are shown to be crucial for a rigorous implementation of contingent contexts that are required to understand temperature as an emergent property. Are such stability conditions meaningful for contextual emergence beyond physics as well? An affirmative example from cognitive (...)
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  10. Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop, Stability Conditions in Contextual Emergence.
    The concept of contextual emergence is proposed as a non-reductive, yet welldefined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It is illustrated for the transition from statistical mechanics to thermodynamical properties such as temperature. Stability conditions are crucial for a rigorous implementation of contingent contexts that are required to understand temperature as an emergent property. It is proposed that such stability conditions are meaningful for contextual emergence beyond physics as well.
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  11. Archie J. Bahm (1948). Emergence of Values. Journal of Philosophy 45 (15):411-414.
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  12. Archie J. Bahm (1947). Emergence of Purpose. Journal of Philosophy 44 (23):633-636.
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  13. N. A. Baldwin (1988). Increases in Post-Emergence Damping-Ofe of Agrostis Castellana and Po a Pratensis Following Treatment with Benomyl. Emergence 1988 (1988).
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  14. Yaneer Bar‐Yam (2004). A Mathematical Theory of Strong Emergence Using Multiscale Variety. Complexity 9 (6):15-24.
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  15. Ansgar Beckermann (1992). Supervenience, Emergence, and Reduction. In Ansgar Beckermann, Hans Flohr & Jaegwon Kim (eds.), Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism. De Gruyter. 94--118.
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  16. Ansgar Beckermann, Hans Flohr & Jaegwon Kim (1992). Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism. De Gruyter.
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  17. Ma Bedau (1996). Weak Emergence: Causation and Emergence. Philosophical Perspectives 11:375-399.
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  18. Mark A. Bedau (2010). 3 Weak Emergence and Context-Sensitive Reduction. In Antonella Corradini & Timothy O'Connor (eds.), Emergence in Science and Philosophy. Routledge. 6--46.
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  19. Mark A. Bedau (2008). Is Weak Emergence Just in the Mind? Minds and Machines 18 (4):443-459.
    Weak emergence is the view that a system’s macro properties can be explained by its micro properties but only in an especially complicated way. This paper explains a version of weak emergence based on the notion of explanatory incompressibility and “crawling the causal web.” Then it examines three reasons why weak emergence might be thought to be just in the mind. The first reason is based on contrasting mere epistemological emergence with a form of ontological emergence that involves irreducible downward (...)
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  20. Mark A. Bedau (2002). Downward Causation and the Autonomy of Weak Emergence. Principia 6 (1):5-50.
    Weak emergence has been offered as an explication of the ubiquitous notion of emergence used in complexity science (Bedau 1997). After outlining the problem of emergence and comparing weak emergence with the two other main objectivist approaches to emergence, this paper explains a version of weak emergence and illustrates it with cellular automata. Then it explains the sort of downward causation and explanatory autonomy involved in weak emergence.
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  21. Joseph Ben-David (1978). Emergence Of. In Jerry Gaston (ed.), Sociology of Science. Jossey-Bass Publishers. 197.
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  22. Gordon Bendersky (2000). Tlatilco Sculptures, Diprosopus, and the Emergence of Medical Illustrations. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4):477-501.
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  23. Franco Berardi (2005). Les radios libres et l'émergence d'une sensibilité post-médiatique. Multitudes 2 (2):15-22.
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  24. Carlton W. Berenda (1953). On Emergence and Prediction. Journal of Philosophy 50 (April):269-74.
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  25. Gustav Bergmann (1944). Holism, Historicism, and Emergence. Philosophy of Science 11 (March):209-21.
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  26. Reinaldo Bernal Velásquez (2012). E-Physicalism. A Physicalist Theory of Phenomenal Consciousness. Ontos Verlag.
    This work advances a theory in the metaphysics of phenomenal consciousness, which the author labels “e-physicalism”. Firstly, he endorses a realist stance towards consciousness and physicalist metaphysics. Secondly, he criticises Strong AI and functionalist views, and claims that consciousness has an internal character. Thirdly, he discusses HOT theories, the unity of consciousness, and holds that the “explanatory gap” is not ontological but epistemological. Fourthly, he argues that consciousness is not a supervenient but an emergent property, not reducible and endowed with (...)
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  27. Mark H. Bickhard (2004). Process and Emergence: Normative Function and Representation. Axiomathes - An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems 14:135-169.
    Emergence seems necessary for any naturalistic account of the world — none of our familiar world existed at the time of the Big Bang, and it does now — and normative emergence is necessary for any naturalistic account of biology and mind — mental phenomena, such as representation, learning, rationality, and so on, are normative. But Jaegwon Kim’s argument appears to render causally efficacious emergence impossible, and Hume’s argument appears to render normative emergence impossible, and, in its general form, it (...)
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  28. Mark H. Bickhard (2000). Emergence. In P.B. Andersen, Claus Emmeche, N.O. Finnemann & P.V. Christiansen (eds.), Downward Causation. University of Aarhus Press. 322-348.
    * This paper was to have been written jointly with Don Campbell. His tragic death on May 6, 1996, occurred before we had been able to do much planning for the paper. As a result, this is undoubtedly a very different paper than if Don and I had written it together, and, undoubtedly, not as good a paper. Nevertheless, I believe it maintains at least the spirit of what we had discussed. Clearly, all errors are mine alone.
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  29. Alexander Bird (2008). Causal Exclusion and Evolved Emergent Properties. In Ruth Groff (ed.), Revitalizing Causality: Realism About Causality in Philosophy and Social Science. Routledge. 163--78.
    Emergent properties are intended to be genuine, natural higher level causally efficacious properties irreducible to physical ones. At the same time they are somehow dependent on or 'emergent from' complexes of physical properties, so that the doctrine of emergent properties is not supposed to be returned to dualism. The doctrine faces two challenges: (i) to explain precisely how it is that such properties emerge - what is emergence; (ii) to explain how they sidestep the exclusion problem - how it is (...)
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  30. Michel Bitbol (2007). Ontology, Matter and Emergence. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):293-307.
    “Ontological emergence” of inherent high-level properties with causal powers is witnessed nowhere. A non-substantialist conception of emergence works much better. It allows downward causation, provided our concept of causality is transformed accordingly.
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  31. James Blachowicz (2013). The Constraint Interpretation of Physical Emergence. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (1):21-40.
    I develop a variant of the constraint interpretation of the emergence of purely physical (non-biological) entities, focusing on the principle of the non-derivability of actual physical states from possible physical states (physical laws) alone. While this is a necessary condition for any account of emergence, it is not sufficient, for it becomes trivial if not extended to types of constraint that specifically constitute physical entities, namely, those that individuate and differentiate them. Because physical organizations with these features are in fact (...)
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  32. James Blachowicz (2012). Essential Difference: Toward a Metaphysics of Emergence. State University of New York Press.
    Proposes a new way of understanding the nature of metaphysics, focusing on nonreductionist emergence theory, both in ancient and modern philosophy, as well as in contemporary philosophy of science.
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  33. Jim Blackmon (2012). Review of" Re-Emergence: Locating Conscious Properties in a Material World". [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 13 (2):12.
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  34. D. Blitz & M. Richmond (1994). Emergent Evolution: Qualitative Novelty and the Levels of Reality. Annals of Science 51 (6):661-662.
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  35. Shaun Le Boutillier (forthcoming). Emergence and Reduction. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour.
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  36. Dr Steven Ravett Brown (2009). Reentrant Emergence. Cogprints.
    Emergent properties (EPs) are not causally reducible to the properties of a complex system’s elements. If a system’s properties cannot be reduced to those of any of its components, then that system is effectively a singular entity (SE). EPs are thus not properties of known complexes, but of SEs. A precise description of the parameters necessary to observe a physical system as an SE is thus necessary to establish under what conditions properties are understood as emergent. That description is provided (...)
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  37. Steven Ravett Brown (2009). Reentrant emergence. American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (3):225 - 238.
    Despite its long history, there is no agreed-upon conception of emergence. One might claim that a common idea of emergence seems to be that something termed a "system" gives rise to, or possesses, characteristics termed "properties," which latter are absent or unmanifested in whatever individual components the system consists and are thus "emergent" from the system itself. However, types of systems discussed run a gamut from purely mental entities to simple tools . "Properties" is similarly unconstrained . The so-called special (...)
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  38. Mario Bunge (1977). Emergence and the Mind. Neuroscience 2:501-9.
  39. J. Butterfield (2011). Less is Different: Emergence and Reduction Reconciled. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1065-1135.
    This is a companion to another paper. Together they rebut two widespread philosophical doctrines about emergence. The first, and main, doctrine is that emergence is incompatible with reduction. The second is that emergence is supervenience; or more exactly, supervenience without reduction.In the other paper, I develop these rebuttals in general terms, emphasising the second rebuttal. Here I discuss the situation in physics, emphasising the first rebuttal. I focus on limiting relations between theories and illustrate my claims with four examples, each (...)
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  40. Jeremy Butterfield (2014). Reduction, Emergence, and Renormalization. Journal of Philosophy 111 (1):5-49.
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  41. Edward Callanan (1979). Emergence and Amelsis. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology 3:15-31.
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  42. Chris B. Cameron (2006). The Emergence of Shape. BioScience 56 (10):851-852.
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  43. David Chalmers (2008). Varieties of Emergence. In Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis From Science to Religion. Oup Oxford.
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  44. K. Chenchulakshmi (2003). Emergent Evolution and Arambhavada-A Comparison. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 30 (3):371-378.
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  45. John Ross Churchill (2010). Nonreductive Physicalism or Emergent Dualism : The Argument From Mental Causation. In Robert C. Koons & George Bealer (eds.), The Waning of Materialism. Oxford University Press.
    Throughout the 1990s, Jaegwon Kim developed a line of argument that what purport to be nonreductive forms of physicalism are ultimately untenable, since they cannot accommodate the causal efficacy of mental states. His argument has received a great deal of discussion, much of it critical. We believe that, while the argument needs some tweaking, its basic thrust is sound. In what follows, we will lay out our preferred version of the argument and highlight its essential dependence on a causal-powers metaphysic, (...)
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  46. P. Clayton (ed.) (2006). Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press.
    In addition to treatments of questions of methodology and implications for life and practice, the Handbook includes sections devoted to the major scientific ...
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  47. Philip Clayton (2006). Emergence From Physics to Theology: Toward a Panoramic View. Zygon 41 (3):675-687.
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  48. Philip Clayton (2004). Mind and Emergence: From Quantum to Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    Strong claims have been made for emergence as a new paradigm for understanding science, consciousness, and religion. Tracing the past history and current definitions of the concept, Clayton assesses the case for emergent phenomena in the natural world and their significance for philosophy and theology. Complex emergent phenomena require irreducible levels of explanation in physics, chemistry and biology. This pattern of emergence suggests a new approach to the problem of consciousness, which is neither reducible to brain states nor proof of (...)
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  49. Philip Clayton (2002). Emergence — A Response to My Critics. Tradition and Discovery 29 (3):48-51.
    The author responds to criticisms from the four respondents to his “Emergence, Supervenience, and Personal Knowledge,” acknowledging areas where their points have improved the interpretation of science and the interpretation of Polanyi. The discussion focuses on the extent of the “causal decoupling” between parts and emergent wholes, with special attention to the question of whether (and if so, to what degree) brain activity causes thought.
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  50. Philip Clayton (2002). Emergence, Supervenience, and Personal Knowledge. Tradition and Discovery 29 (3):8-19.
    Michael Polanyi was perhaps the most important emergence theorist of the middle of the 20th century. As the key link between the British Emergentists of the 1920s and the explosion of emergence theory in the 1990s, he played a crucial role in resisting reductionist interpretations of science and keeping the concept of emergence alive. Polanyi’s position on emergence is described and its major strengths and weaknesses are analyzed. Using Polanyi as the foundation, the article surveys the major contemporary options in (...)
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