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  1. Robert Batterman (2011). Emergence, Singularities, and Symmetry Breaking. Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1031-1050.
    This paper looks at emergence in physical theories and argues that an appropriate way to understand socalled “emergent protectorates” is via the explanatory apparatus of the renormalization group. It is argued that mathematical singularities play a crucial role in our understanding of at least some well-defined emergent features of the world.
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  2. Robert Batterman, "Fundamental Physics": Molecular Dynamics Vs. Hydrodynamics.
    This paper concerns the scale related decoupling of the physics of breaking drops and considers the phenomenon from the point of view of both hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics at the nanolevel. It takes the shape of droplets at breakup to be an example of a genuinely emergent phenomenon---one whose explanation depends essentially on the phenomenological (non-fundamental) theory of Navier-Stokes. Certain conclusions about the nature of "fundamental" theory are drawn.
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  3. Robert W. Batterman (2002). The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence. Oxford University Press.
    Robert Batterman examines a form of scientific reasoning called asymptotic reasoning, arguing that it has important consequences for our understanding of the scientific process as a whole. He maintains that asymptotic reasoning is essential for explaining what physicists call universal behavior. With clarity and rigor, he simplifies complex questions about universal behavior, demonstrating a profound understanding of the underlying structures that ground them. This book introduces a valuable new method that is certain to fill explanatory gaps across disciplines.
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  4. Reinaldo Bernal Velásquez (2012). E-Physicalism. A Physicalist Theory of Phenomenal Consciousness. Ontos Verlag.
    This work advances a theory in the metaphysics of phenomenal consciousness, which the author labels “e-physicalism”. Firstly, he endorses a realist stance towards consciousness and physicalist metaphysics. Secondly, he criticises Strong AI and functionalist views, and claims that consciousness has an internal character. Thirdly, he discusses HOT theories, the unity of consciousness, and holds that the “explanatory gap” is not ontological but epistemological. Fourthly, he argues that consciousness is not a supervenient but an emergent property, not reducible and endowed with (...)
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  5. Robert C. Bishop & Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as a (...)
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  6. Paul Sheldon Davies (2006). The Physics of Downward Causation. In Philip Clayton & Paul Sheldon Davies (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence. Oxford University Press.
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  7. Sharon R. Ford (2011). Deriving the Manifestly Qualitative World From a Pure-Power Base: Light-Like Networks. Philosophia Scientiae 15 (3):155-175.
    Seeking to derive the manifestly qualitative world of objects and entities without recourse to fundamental categoricity or qualitativity, I offer an account of how higher-order categorical properties and objects may emerge from a pure-power base. I explore the possibility of ‘fields’ whose fluctuations are force-carrying entities, differentiated with respect to a micro-topology of curled-up spatial dimensions. Since the spacetime paths of gauge bosons have zero ‘spacetime interval’ and no time-like extension, I argue that according them the status of fundamental entities (...)
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  8. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2005). Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon: The Statistical. Philosophy of Science 72 (4):642-645.
  9. Amit Hagar (forthcoming). Review of M. Thalos' "Without Hierarchy" (OUP 2012). [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  10. Matthew C. Haug (2011). Emergence in Mind * Edited by Cynthia MacDonald and Graham MacDonald. Analysis 71 (4):783-785.
  11. Richard Healey (2011). Reduction and Emergence in Bose-Einstein Condensates. Foundations of Physics 41 (6):1007-1030.
    A closer look at some proposed Gedanken-experiments on BECs promises to shed light on several aspects of reduction and emergence in physics. These include the relations between classical descriptions and different quantum treatments of macroscopic systems, and the emergence of new properties and even new objects as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking.
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  12. C. A. Hooker (2002). Review of Robert W. Batterman, The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction and Emergence. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (10).
  13. Paul W. Humphreys (1997). Emergence, Not Supervenience. Philosophy of Science Supplement 64 (4):337-45.
    I argue that supervenience is an inadequate device for representing relations between different levels of phenomena. I then provide six criteria that emergent phenomena seem to satisfy. Using examples drawn from macroscopic physics, I suggest that such emergent features may well be quite common in the physical realm.
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  14. Andreas Hüttemann, Reimer Kühn & Orestis Terzidis (forthcoming). Stability, Emergence and Part-Whole-Reduction. In Brigitte Falkenburg & Margret Morrison (eds.), Why More Is Different. Philosophical Issues in Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Systems.
  15. Frederick M. Kronz & Justin T. Tiehen (2002). Emergence and Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 69 (2):324-347.
    In a recent article Humphreys has developed an intriguing proposal for making sense of emergence. The crucial notion for this purpose is what he calls "fusion" and his paradigm for it is quantum nonseparability. In what follows, we will develop this position in more detail, and then discuss its ramifications and limitations. Its ramifications are quite radical; its limitations are substantial. An alternative approach to emergence that involves quantum physics is then proposed.
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  16. N. P. Landsman (2010). Review of Alisa Bokulich, Reexamining the Quantum-Classical Relation: Beyond Reductionism and Pluralism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (1).
  17. N. P. Landsman (1995). Observation and Superselection in Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 26 (1):45-73.
    We attempt to clarify the main conceptual issues in approaches to ‘objectification’ or ‘measurement’ in quantum mechanics which are based on superselection rules. Such approaches venture to derive the emergence of classical ‘reality’ relative to a class of observers; those believing that the classical world exists intrinsically and absolutely are advised against reading this paper. The prototype approach (K. Hepp, Helv. Phys. Acta45 (1972), 237–248) where superselection sectors are assumed in the state space of the apparatus is shown to be (...)
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  18. Pier Luigi Luisi (2002). Emergence in Chemistry: Chemistry as the Embodiment of Emergence. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):183-200.
    The main aim of the paper is to reinforce the notion that emergence is a basic characteristic of the molecular sciences in general and chemistry in particular. Although this point is well accepted, even in the primary reference on emergence, the keyword emergence is rarely utilized by chemists and molecular biologists and chemistry textbooks for undergraduates. The possible reasons for this situation are discussed. The paper first re-introduces the concept of emergence based on very simple geometrical forms; and considers some (...)
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  19. Gunter Mahler (2004). The Partitioned Quantum Universe: Entanglement and the Emergence of Functionality. Mind and Matter 2 (2):67-89.
    Given that the world as we perceive it appears to be predominantly classical, how can we stabilize quantum effects? Given the fundamental description of our world is quantum mechanical, how do classical phenomena emerge? Answers can be found from the analysis of the scaling properties of modular quantum systems with respect to a given level of description. It is argued that, depending on design, such partitioned quantum systems may support various functions. Despite their local appearance these functions are emergent properties (...)
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  20. Klaus Mainzer (2010). The Emergence of Temporal Structures in Dynamical Systems. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1638-1650.
    Dynamical systems in classical, relativistic and quantum physics are ruled by laws with time reversibility. Complex dynamical systems with time-irreversibility are known from thermodynamics, biological evolution, growth of organisms, brain research, aging of people, and historical processes in social sciences. Complex systems are systems that compromise many interacting parts with the ability to generate a new quality of macroscopic collective behavior the manifestations of which are the spontaneous emergence of distinctive temporal, spatial or functional structures. But, emergence is no mystery. (...)
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  21. Alexey Kryukov Malcolm R. Forster (2003). The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1039-1051.
    Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one-dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define "pressure." The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of (...)
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  22. Shimon Malin (1993). The Collapse of Quantum States: A New Interpretation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 23 (6):881-893.
    The collapse of quantum states is analyzed in terms of a breakdown into two generic phases: Phase I, in which the field of potentialities that the quantum state represents undergoes a discontinuous and unpredictable change into one of the base states which corresponds to the measurement performed, and phase II, in which a transition from the level of potentialities to the level of actualities takes place. Phase I is discussed in relation to a comment about collapse, made by Dirac in (...)
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  23. Patrick McGivern & Alexander Rueger (2010). Emergence in Physics. In Antonella Corradini & Timothy O'Connor (eds.), Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Routledge. 6--213.
    We examine cases of emergent behavior in physics, and argue for an account of emergence based on features of the phase space portraits of certain dynamical systems. On our account, the phase space portraits of systems displaying emergent behavior are topologically inequivalent to those of the systems from which they ‘emerge’. This account gives us an objective sense in which emergent phenomena are qualitatively novel, without involving the difficulties associated with downward causation and the like. We also argue that the (...)
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  24. Lee McIntyre (2007). Emergence and Reduction in Chemistry: Ontological or Epistemological Concepts? Synthese 155 (3):337-343.
    In this paper I argue that the ontological interpretation of the concepts of reduction and emergence is often misleading in the philosophy of science and should nearly always be eschewed in favor of an epistemological interpretation. As a paradigm case, an example is drawn from the philosophy of chemistry to illustrate the drawbacks of “ontological reduction” and “ontological emergence,” and the virtues of an epistemological interpretation of these concepts.
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  25. David V. Newman (1996). Emergence and Strange Attractors. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):245-61.
    Recent work in the Philosophy of Mind has suggested that alternatives to reduction are required in order to explain the relationship between psychology and biology or physics. Emergence has been proposed as one such alternative. In this paper, I propose a precise definition of emergence, and I argue that chaotic systems provide concrete examples of properties that meet this definition. In particular, I suggest that being in the basin of attraction of a strange attractor is an emergent property of any (...)
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  26. Alexander Reutlinger (forthcoming). Are Causal Facts Really Explanatorily Emergent? Ladyman and Ross on Higher-Level Causal Facts and Renormalization Group Explanation. Synthese.
    In their Every Thing Must Go, Ladyman and Ross defend a novel version of Neo- Russellian metaphysics of causation, which falls into three claims: (1) there are no fundamental physical causal facts (orthodox Russellian claim), (2) there are higher-level causal facts of the special sciences, and (3) higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent. While accepting claims (1) and (2), I attack claim (3). Ladyman and Ross argue that higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent, because (a) certain aspects of these higher-level (...)
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  27. K. Ridderbos (1999). The Loss of Coherence in Quantum Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 30 (1):41-60.
    I analyse two different methods for the retrieval of a classical notion of spacetime from the theory of quantum cosmology in terms of the different means they employ to bring about the necessary loss of coherence. One method employs a direct coarse graining of the appropriate phase space, whereas the other method is based on decohering the system by the interaction with an environment. Although these methods are equivalent on a phenomenological level, I argue that conceptually the decoherence approach is (...)
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  28. Nathan Rosen (1986). Quantum Particles and Classical Particles. Foundations of Physics 16 (8):687-700.
    The relation between wave mechanics and classical mechanics is reviewed, and it is stressed that the latter cannot be regarded as the limit of the former as ℏ →0. The motion of a classical particle (or ensemble of particles) is described by means of a Schrödinger-like equation that was found previously. A system of a quantum particle and a classical particle is investigated (1) for an interaction that leads to stationary states with discrete energies and (2) for an interaction that (...)
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  29. Nathan Rosen (1984). A Semiclassical Interpretation of Wave Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 14 (7):579-605.
    The single-particle wave function ψ=ReiS/h has been interpreted classically: At a given point the particle momentum is ▽S, and the relative particle density in an ensemble is R 2 . It is first proposed to modify this interpretation by assuming that physical variables undergo rapid fluctuations, so that ▽S is the average of the momentum over a short time interval. However, it appears that this is not enough. It seems necessary to assume that the density also fluctuates. The fluctuations are (...)
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  30. Alexander Rueger (2001). Physical Emergence, Diachronic and Synchronic. Synthese 124 (3):297-322.
    This paper explicates two notions of emergencewhich are based on two ways of distinguishinglevels of properties for dynamical systems.Once the levels are defined, the strategies ofcharacterizing the relation of higher level to lower levelproperties as diachronic and synchronic emergenceare the same. In each case, the higher level properties aresaid to be emergent if they are novel or irreducible with respect to the lower level properties. Novelty andirreducibility are given precise meanings in terms of the effectsthat the change of a bifurcation (...)
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  31. Alexander Rueger (2000). Robust Supervenience and Emergence. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):466-491.
    Non-reductive physicalists have made a number of attempts to provide the relation of supervenience between levels of properties with enough bite to analyze interesting cases without at the same time losing the relation's acceptability for the physicalist. I criticize some of these proposals and suggest an alternative supplementation of the supervenience relation by imposing a requirement of robustness which is motivated by the notion of structural stability familiar from dynamical systems theory. Robust supervenience, I argue, captures what the non-reductive physicalist (...)
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  32. Eric R. Scerri (2007). Reduction and Emergence in Chemistry—Two Recent Approaches. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):920-931.
    Two articles on the reduction of chemistry are examined. The first, by McLaughlin, claims that chemistry is reduced to physics and that there is no evidence for emergence or for downward causation between the chemical and the physical level. In a more recent article Le Poidevin maintains that his combinatorial approach provides grounding for the ontological reduction of chemistry and also circumvents some limitations in the physicalist program. In examining the scientific issues that each author has discussed the present (...)
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  33. Gerald F. Thomas (2012). The Emancipation of Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (2):109-155.
    In his classic work The Mind and its Place in Nature published in 1925 at the height of the development of quantum mechanics but several years after the chemists Lewis and Langmuir had already laid the foundations of the modern theory of valence with the introduction of the covalent bond, the analytic philosopher C. D. Broad argued for the emancipation of chemistry from the crass physicalism that led physicists then and later—with support from a rabblement of philosophers who knew as (...)
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  34. Andrew Wayne, Emergence, Singular Limits and Basal Explanation.
    Recent work on emergence in physics has focused on the presence of singular limit relations between basal and upper-level theories as a criterion for emergence. However, over-emphasis on the role of singular limit relations has somewhat obscured what it means to say that a property or behaviour is emergent. This paper argues that singular limits are not central to emergence and develops an alternative account of emergence in terms of the failure of basal explainability. As a consequence, emergence and reduction, (...)
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  35. Jessica M. Wilson (2013). Nonlinearity and Metaphysical Emergence. In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science.
    The nonlinearity of a composite system, whereby certain of its features (including powers and behaviors) cannot be seen as linear or other broadly additive combinations of features of the system's composing entities, has been frequently seen as a mark of metaphysical emergence, coupling the dependence of a composite system on an underlying system of composing entities with the composite system's ontological autonomy from its underlying system. But why think that nonlinearity is a mark of emergence, and moreover, of metaphysical rather (...)
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  36. David Yates (2013). Emergence. In Hal Pashler (ed.), Encyclopaedia of the Mind. SAGE Reference. 283-7.
    This article surveys different forms of emergence, distinguishing them from each other by means of their relationship to deducibility conceived as Kimian functional reduction.
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