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Philosophers working on the emotions are interested in answering the following kinds of questions:

What are emotions? Are they thoughts, feelings, perceptual or quasi-perceptual states, or something else? Or perhaps they are combination of all these things? Do emotions form a natural class? Are emotions natural kinds? Are emotions in some sense ‘socially constructed’?

What emotions are there? Is love an emotion? How about Schadenfreude? Are moods emotions? What about so-called moral or aesthetic or religious emotions? Are these emotions proper? Again, how are different emotions to be characterized? What distinguishes them from one another?

What is the relationship between emotion and reason? Can emotions be evaluated for their rationality? Or are emotions non-rational mental states? Do we need emotions in order to be ‘rational’?

Closely related to the last few questions, what is the nature of the relationship between emotion and morality? Are emotions needed to have insight into the evaluate realm? Can a person who lacks certain emotional capacities be a moral agent? How might emotion be important for understanding character, vice and virtue? How might emotion be a hindrance to morality?

Each of the emotion subcategories contains details of work on the emotions that is devoted to answering and shedding light on the above sorts of questions, along with many others.

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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Emotions
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  1. Rodolfo Ahumada (1969). Emotion, Knowledge and Belief. Personalist 50:371-382.
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  2. Elizabeth Anscombe (1978). Will and Emotion. Grazer Philosophische Studien 5:139-148.
    This paper considers and criticizes Brentano's contention of the identity in kind between will and emotion.
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  3. Michael A. Arbib (2004). Beware the Passionate Robot. In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  4. Jorge L. Armony (2013). Current Emotion Research in Behavioral Neuroscience: The Role(s) of the Amygdala. Emotion Review 5 (1):104-115.
    Substantial advances in our understanding of the neural bases of emotional processing have been made over the past decades. Overall, studies in humans and other animals highlight the key role of the amygdala in the detection and evaluation of stimuli with affective value. Nonetheless, contradictory findings have been reported, especially in terms of the exact role of this structure in the processing of different emotions, giving rise to different neural models of emotion. For instance, although the amygdala has traditionally been (...)
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  5. Neal M. Ashkanasy & Ronald H. Humphrey (2011). Current Emotion Research in Organizational Behavior. Emotion Review 3 (2):214-224.
    Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect (...)
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  6. Anthony P. Atkinson & Matthew Ratcliffe (2012). Introduction to the Special Section on “Emotions and Feelings in Psychiatric Illness”. Emotion Review 4 (2):119-121.
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  7. Anthony P. Atkinson & Hannah E. Smithson (2013). Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated Versus Nonfoveated Facial Features. Emotion Review 5 (1):30-35.
    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another’s face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for assessing another’s emotion), or what processes extract task-relevant (e.g., emotion-related) cues from facial features that first (...)
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  8. James R. Averill (2012). The Future of Social Constructionism: Introduction to a Special Section of Emotion Review. Emotion Review 4 (3):215-220.
    It is easy to envision marked progress in biological and physiological approaches to emotion, due to technological advances in imaging and other recording techniques. The future of social-constructionism appears more hazy: Progress will likely depend as much on new ideas as on new empirical discoveries. The most fruitful breeding ground for new ideas is where disciplines meet. Hence, the contributors to this special section represent diverse disciplines: biology, computer science, and the arts, as well as areas more traditionally associated with (...)
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  9. James R. Averill (2009). On Art, Science, Metaphors, and Ghosts: A Few Thoughts to Share. Emotion Review 1 (1):88-89.
    The sharing of emotional experiences, whether in face-to-face interactions or anonymously through written communications, can influence a person's psychological and physical well-being. The mediating mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. The present comment concerns ambiguities that may result when concepts from ordinary language, such as emotion, cognition, and related metaphors, are applied to presumed mediating mechanisms.
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  10. Ruth Aylett & Ana Paiva (2012). Computational Modelling of Culture and Affect. Emotion Review 4 (3):253-263.
    This article discusses work on implementing emotional and cultural models into synthetic graphical characters. An architecture, FAtiMA, implemented first in the antibullying application FearNot! and then extended as FAtiMA-PSI in the cultural-sensitivity application ORIENT, is discussed. We discuss the modelling relationships between culture, social interaction, and cognitive appraisal. Integrating a lower level homeostatically based model is also considered as a means of handling some of the limitations of a purely symbolic approach. Evaluation to date is summarised and future directions discussed.
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  11. Ruth Aylett & Ana Paiva (2012). Reply to Comments by Bainbridge, Gratch, and Nishida. Emotion Review 4 (3):271-272.
    We respond to two themes in the comments by Bainbridge, Gratch, and Nishida: first, the importance of embodiment, and second the issue of what should be explicitly modelled as against what should be dynamically generated. Finally, we briefly respond to the ethical questions raised by Bainbridge.
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  12. Annette C. Baier (2004). Feelings That Matter. In Robert C. Solomon (ed.), Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  13. William Sims Bainbridge (2012). Affective Alternates: Comment on Aylett and Paiva. Emotion Review 4 (3):264-265.
    A bewildering array of sciences, theories, and methodologies offer researchers many difficult choices when studying emotion or designing affective technologies. Thus, clarity of focus is a prime virtue of good work, as illustrated in the Aylett and Paiva (2012) article. The social sciences remain fundamentally undecided about how to conceptualize human variations, including how to measure culture and personality, and even about whether these two commonly used words have real meaning. This disagreement is pronounced in human-centered computing, because cognitive and (...)
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  14. Jack Barbalet (2011). Emotions Beyond Regulation: Backgrounded Emotions in Science and Trust. Emotion Review 3 (1):36-43.
    Emotions are understood sociologically as experiences of involvement. Emotion regulation influences the type, incidence, and expression of emotions. Regulation occurs through physical processes prior to an emotions episode, through social interaction in which a person’s emotions are modified due to the reactions of others to them, and by a person’s self-modification or management of emotions which they are consciously aware of. This article goes on to show that there are emotions which the emoting subject is not consciously aware of. Therefore, (...)
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  15. Lisa Feldman Barrett (forthcoming). The Conceptual Act Theory: A Précis. Emotion Review.
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  16. Lisa Feldman Barrett (2013). Psychological Construction: The Darwinian Approach to the Science of Emotion. Emotion Review 5 (4):379-389.
    Psychological construction constitutes a different paradigm for the scientific study of emotion when compared to the current paradigm that is inspired by faculty psychology. This new paradigm is more consistent with the post-Darwinian conceptual framework in biology that includes a focus on (a) population thinking (vs. typologies), (b) domain-general core systems (vs. physical essences), and (c) constructive analysis (vs. reductionism). Three psychological construction approaches (the OCC model, the iterative reprocessing model, and the conceptual act theory) are discussed with respect to (...)
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  17. Lisa Feldman Barrett (2010). Introduction to the Special Section. Emotion Review 2 (3):203-203.
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  18. Jordan Bartol & Stefan Linquist (forthcoming). How Do Somatic Markers Feature in Decision Making? Emotion Review.
    Several recent criticisms of the somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) identify multiple ambiguities in the way it has been formulated by its chief proponents. Here we provide evidence that this hypothesis has also been interpreted in various different ways by the scientific community. Our diagnosis of this problem is that SMH lacks an adequate computational-level account of practical decision making. Such an account is necessary for drawing meaningful links between neurological- and psychological-level data. The paper concludes by providing a simple, five-step (...)
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  19. M. H. Bazerman, F. Gino, L. L. Shu & C. -J. Tsay (2014). Reply: The Power of the Cognition/Emotion Distinction for Morality. Emotion Review 6 (1):87-88.
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  20. Max H. Bazerman, Francesca Gino, Lisa L. Shu & Chia-Jung Tsay (2011). Joint Evaluation as a Real-World Tool for Managing Emotional Assessments of Morality. Emotion Review 3 (3):290-292.
    Moral problems often prompt emotional responses that invoke intuitive judgments of right and wrong. While emotions inform judgment across many domains, they can also lead to ethical failures that could be avoided by using a more deliberative, analytical decision-making process. In this article, we describe joint evaluation as an effective tool to help decision makers manage their emotional assessments of morality.
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  21. Andrew Beatty (2013). Current Emotion Research in Anthropology: Reporting the Field. Emotion Review 5 (4):414-422.
    An internal critique of anthropology in recent decades has shifted the focus and scope of anthropological work on emotion. In this article I review the changes, explore the pros and cons of leading anthropological approaches and theories, and argue that—so far as anthropology is concerned—only detailed narrative accounts can do full justice to the complexity of emotions. A narrative approach captures both the particularity and the temporal dimension of emotion with greater fidelity than semantic, synchronic, and discourse-based approaches.
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  22. Hagit Benbaji (2013). How is Recalcitrant Emotion Possible? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (3):577-599.
    A recalcitrant emotion is an emotion that we experience despite a judgment that seems to conflict with it. Having been bitten by a dog in her childhood, Jane cannot shake her fear of dogs, including Fido, the cute little puppy that she knows to be in no way dangerous. There is something puzzling about recalcitrant emotions, which appear to defy the putatively robust connection between emotions and judgments. If Jane really believes that Fido cannot harm her, what is she afraid (...)
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  23. Gary G. Berntson, Greg J. Norman & John T. Cacioppo (2011). Comment: Laterality and Evaluative Bivalence: A Neuroevolutionary Perspective. Emotion Review 3 (3):344-346.
    Rutherford and Lindell (2011) review an extensive literature on lateralization of emotion. As they note, an important issue surrounding this question is the nature of emotion, which bears on what, precisely, is lateralized. The present comments are intended to broaden the context of the review, by considering lateralization from the standpoint of a bivariate model of evaluative processes and a neuroevolutionary perspective.
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  24. Kent C. Berridge (2010). Remembering Robert Zajonc: The Complete Psychologist. Emotion Review 2 (4):348-352.
    This article joins with others in the same issue to celebrate the career of Robert B. Zajonc who was a broad, as well as a deeply talented, psychologist. Beyond his well-known focus in social psychology, the work of Zajonc also involved, at one time or another, forays into nearly every other subfield of psychology. This article focuses specifically on his studies that extended into biopsychology, which deserve special highlighting in order to be recognized alongside his many major achievements in emotion (...)
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  25. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Author Reply: Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective: Author Response to Commentaries of Kärtner and Keller and Klann-Delius. Emotion Review 4 (1):53-54.
    Self–other distinction, as documented by mirror self-recognition (MSR), allows for empathy which offers a motivational base for helping a person in need. Kärtner and Keller propose a different, culture-related, possibility of helping based on shared intentional relations and emotional contagion which could explain helping behavior in Indian children not yet capable of MSR. Due to the experimental setting, however, other releasers of children’s sadness and helping behavior have to be considered. An alternative setting is proposed. With respect to MSR, the (...)
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  26. Carolyn Black (1990). Very Late Wittgenstein on Emotion. Grazer Philosophische Studien 38:99-114.
    This paper comprises a sketch of Wittgenstein's view of emotion. Addressed especially are his claims in the three books of his philosophical psychology published in the eariy 1980s: Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology (two volumes) and Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, Two suggestions are made. First, to understand Wittgenstein's view of emotion one must notice how he sees emotion as, characteristically, linked to its surroundings. Second, the 1980s publications contain some modification of a central theme in Wittgenstein's (...)
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  27. Karina S. Blair & R. J. R. Blair (2012). A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia. Emotion Review 4 (2):133-138.
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  28. R. J. R. Blair (2011). Moral Judgment and Psychopathy. Emotion Review 3 (3):296-298.
    Recent interest in emotion as the basis for moral development began with work involving individuals with psychopathic tendencies, and a recent paper with this population has allowed fresh insights (Glenn, Iyer, Graham, Koleva, & Haidt, 2009). Two main conclusions suggested by this paper are: (i) that systems involved in different forms of morality can be differentiated; and (ii) that systems involved in justice reasoning likely include amygdala and/or ventromedial prefrontal cortex, even if the specifics of their functional contribution to justice (...)
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  29. R. J. R. Blair (2011). Should Affective Arousal Be Grounded in Perception-Action Coupling? Emotion Review 3 (1):109-110.
    Decety (2011) considers the cognitive neuroscience of empathy and, in particular, his three-component model of empathic responding. His position is highly influential with its emotional awareness/understanding and emotional regulation components representing clear extensions of previous theorizing on empathy. In this brief commentary, I will critically consider the third of his components: affective arousal. In particular, I will consider the implications of the literature to the proposed computations, based on perception—action coupling, that underlie this component of his model. I will suggest (...)
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  30. Robyn Bluhm (2013). Self‐Fulfilling Prophecies: The Influence of Gender Stereotypes on Functional Neuroimaging Research on Emotion. Hypatia 28 (4):870-886.
    Feminist scholars have shown that research on sex/gender differences in the brain is often used to support gender stereotypes. Scientists use a variety of methodological and interpretive strategies to make their results consistent with these stereotypes. In this paper, I analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research that examines differences between women and men in brain activity associated with emotion and show that these researchers go to great lengths to make their results consistent with the view that women are more (...)
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  31. Michael Boiger & Batja Mesquita (2012). Emotion Science Needs to Account for the Social World. Emotion Review 4 (3):236-237.
    Emotions are complex processes that are constrained by biology, but not fully explained without taking into account the social context in which they develop. Mapping these contexts, and understanding how and under which conditions they shape emotions, is an essential task for the science of emotions; a task that—at least in psychology—has been neglected. The three commentaries each offer some interesting reflections on exactly this task.
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  32. Michael Boiger & Batja Mesquita (2012). The Construction of Emotion in Interactions, Relationships, and Cultures. Emotion Review 4 (3):221-229.
    Emotions are engagements with a continuously changing world of social relationships. In the present article, we propose that emotions are therefore best conceived as ongoing, dynamic, and interactive processes that are socially constructed. We review evidence for three social contexts of emotion construction that are embedded in each other: The unfolding of emotion within interactions, the mutual constitution of emotion and relationships, and the shaping of emotion at the level of the larger cultural context. Finally, we point to interdependencies amongst (...)
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  33. Maria Botero (2012). Reconstructing Basic Emotions with More Situated Social Interactions. Emotion Review 4 (3):245-246.
    Mason and Capitanio (2012) offer an explanation of how basic emotions emerge in organisms that departs from the traditional nature–nurture dichotomy; however, they limit their definition of basic emotions to the development of functional states that are species-typical. It is argued that if Mason and Capitanio take these ideas a step further, they would be able to explain the development of basic emotions in a more complex way, one that would involve understanding how the exchange between the organism and the (...)
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  34. Graham W. Boyd (2012). The Body, Its Emotions, the Self, and Consciousness. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (3):362-377.
    Recently I was trying to explain to an intelligent woman the problem of trying to understand how it is we perceive anything at all, and I was not having any success. She could not see why there was a problem. Finally in despair I asked her how she herself thought she saw the world. She replied that she probably had somewhere in her head something like a little television set. "So who," I asked "is looking at it?" She now saw (...)
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  35. Susanna Braund (2006). Kaster (R.A.) Emotion, Restraint and Community in Ancient Rome. Pp. Xii + 245. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Cased, £26.99. ISBN: 0-19-514078-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 56 (02):429-.
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  36. C. Breazeal & Rodney Brooks (2004). Robot Emotions: A Functional Perspective. In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Fritz Breithaupt (2012). Author Reply: Empathy Does Provide Rational Support for Decisions. But Is It the Right Decision? Emotion Review 4 (1):96-97.
    This article examines the relation of empathy and rational judgment. When people observe a conflict most are quick to side with one of the parties. Once a side has been taken, empathy with that party further solidifies this choice. Hence, it will be suggested that empathy is not neutral to judgment and rational decision-making. This does not mean, however, that the one who empathizes will necessarily have made the best choice.
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  38. Tobias Brosch (2013). Comment: On the Role of Appraisal Processes in the Construction of Emotion. Emotion Review 5 (4):369-373.
    Appraisal and constructivist theories of emotion both emphasize that emotions are not modular phenomena, but are constructed from more basic psychological parts. In the scientific debate, differences between the two approaches are sometimes overplayed, by classifying appraisal theories as “natural kinds” models, and sometimes underplayed, by basically merging them into constructivist accounts. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate some similarities and some differences between contemporary appraisal and constructivist approaches, and to highlight the fact that appraisal theory has indeed (...)
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  39. Tobias Brosch & David Sander (2013). Comment: The Appraising Brain: Towards a Neuro-Cognitive Model of Appraisal Processes in Emotion. Emotion Review 5 (2):163-168.
    Appraisal theories have described elaborate mechanisms underlying the elicitation of emotion at the psychological-cognitive level, but typically do not integrate neuroscientific concepts and findings. At the same time, theoretical developments in appraisal theory have been pretty much ignored by researchers studying the neuroscience of emotion. We feel that a stronger integration of these two literatures would be highly profitable for both sides. Here we outline a blueprint of the “appraising brain.” To this end, we review neuroimaging research investigating the processing (...)
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  40. Paul Brown (2010). Back to the Future: Pierre Janet, Emotion, and Volition. Emotion Review 2 (4):401-401.
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  41. Georg Brun, Ulvi Dogluoglu & Dominique Kuenzle (eds.) (2008). Epistemology and Emotions. Ashgate Publishing Company.
    This volume is the first collection focusing on the claim that we cannot but account for emotions if we are to understand the processes and evaluations related to empirical knowledge.
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  42. Brian Bruya (2003). Qing (情) and Emotion in Early Chinese Thought. In Keli Fang (ed.), Chinese Philosophy and the Trends of the 21st Century Civilization. Commercial Press.
    In a 1967 article, A. C. Graham made the claim that 情 qing should never be translated as "emotions" in rendering early Chinese texts into English. Over time, sophisticated translators and interpreters have taken this advice to heart, and qing has come to be interpreted as "the facts" or "what is genuine in one." In these English terms all sense of interrelationality is gone, leaving us with a wooden, objective stasis. But we also know, again partly through the work of (...)
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  43. Ross Buck (2010). Emotion is an Entity at Both Biological and Ecological Levels: The Ghost in the Machine is Language. Emotion Review 2 (3):286-287.
    In “Emergent Ghosts of the Emotion Machine,” James Coan neglects emotion displays involved in social communication and activity in central neurochemical systems associated with drug-induced changes in feelings and desires. Also, he fails to recognize that emotions are not rigidly bound to action tendencies, but rather have evolved internal signals to afford flexibility of response. Emotion indices naturally lack close coordination because different aspects—physiological arousal, expressive display, subjective experience—are differentially accessible to the responder and interaction partner, and therefore undergo different (...)
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  44. Malcolm Budd (2012). The Musical Expression of Emotion: Metaphorical-As Versus Imaginative-As Perception. Estetika 49 (2):131-147.
    The paper begins with an overview of various well-known accounts of the musical expression of emotion that have been proposed in recent years. But rather than proceeding to assess the merits and faults of these accounts the paper examines whether a radically new theory by Christopher Peacocke is superior to all of them. The theory, which certainly has a number of attractive features, is based on the idea of metaphorical-as perception. The notion of metaphorical-as perception needs to be elucidated and (...)
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  45. Emily A. Butler & James J. Gross (2009). Emotion and Emotion Regulation: Integrating Individual and Social Levels of Analysis. Emotion Review 1 (1):86-87.
    Rimé makes the important observation that the literature on adult emotion and emotion regulation has largely focused on the individual level of analysis. He argues, we believe correctly, that emotion research would benefit by addressing the fact that emotional events provoke not only individual responses, but systematic social responses as well. We present examples of our own research that are in accord with Rimé's central claims, and that demonstrate the benefits of considering the goals that are provoked and satisfied by (...)
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  46. Emily A. Butler & Ashley K. Randall (2013). Author Reply: Coregulation is a State of a Temporal Interpersonal Emotion System. Emotion Review 5 (2):213-214.
    People in an emotional exchange form a temporal interpersonal emotion system (TIES), in which their emotions are interconnected over time (Butler, 2011). These systems can be in various states, defined by the pattern of emotional interconnections. We have defined coregulation as one such state involving coupled dampened oscillations between partners’ emotions that converge on a stable level. Coregulation could be distinguished from other states, such as stress buffering, by comparing statistical models that represent the theoretical distinctions between states. Optimal data (...)
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  47. Emily A. Butler & Ashley K. Randall (2012). Emotional Coregulation in Close Relationships. Emotion Review 5 (2):1754073912451630.
    Coregulation refers to the process by which relationship partners form a dyadic emotional system involving an oscillating pattern of affective arousal and dampening that dynamically maintains an optimal emotional state. Coregulation may represent an important form of interpersonal emotion regulation, but confusion exists in the literature due to a lack of precision in the usage of the term. We propose an operational definition for coregulation as a bidirectional linkage of oscillating emotional channels between partners, which contributes to emotional stability for (...)
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  48. C. Calhoun (2004). Subjectivity and Emotion. In Robert C. Solomon (ed.), Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions. Oxford University Press. 195-210.
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  49. Rafael A. Calvo (2010). Latent and Emergent Models in Affective Computing. Emotion Review 2 (3):288-289.
    New research on affective computing aiming to develop computer systems that recognize and respond to affective states can also contribute to the issues raised by Coan. Research on how humans interact with computers, and computer models that automatically recognize affective states from features in our physiology, behaviour, and language, may provide insights on how emotions that are experienced and expressed come to be. For example, there is empirical evidence that affect recognition techniques using several modalities are more accurate than those (...)
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  50. S. Campbell (1997). Emotion as an Explanatory Principle in Early Evolutionary Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (3):453-473.
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