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Summary

Philosophers working on the emotions are interested in answering the following kinds of questions:

What are emotions? Are they thoughts, feelings, perceptual or quasi-perceptual states, or something else? Or perhaps they are combination of all these things? Do emotions form a natural class? Are emotions natural kinds? Are emotions in some sense ‘socially constructed’?

What emotions are there? Is love an emotion? How about Schadenfreude? Are moods emotions? What about so-called moral or aesthetic or religious emotions? Are these emotions proper? Again, how are different emotions to be characterized? What distinguishes them from one another?

What is the relationship between emotion and reason? Can emotions be evaluated for their rationality? Or are emotions non-rational mental states? Do we need emotions in order to be ‘rational’?

Closely related to the last few questions, what is the nature of the relationship between emotion and morality? Are emotions needed to have insight into the evaluate realm? Can a person who lacks certain emotional capacities be a moral agent? How might emotion be important for understanding character, vice and virtue? How might emotion be a hindrance to morality?

Each of the emotion subcategories contains details of work on the emotions that is devoted to answering and shedding light on the above sorts of questions, along with many others.

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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Emotions
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  1. J. A. A. Abe (2015). Differential Emotions Theory as a Theory of Personality Development. Emotion Review 7 (2):126-130.
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  2. J. A. A. Abe & D. Schultz (2015). Introduction: Special Section to Honor Carroll Izard. Emotion Review 7 (2):101-103.
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  3. Maria Magoula Adamos (2007). The Unity of Emotion: An Unlikely Aristotelian Solution. Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (2):101-114.
    Most researchers of emotions agree that although cognitive evaluations such as beliefs, thoughts, etc. are essential for emotion, bodily feelings and their behavioral expressions are also required. Yet, only a few explain how all these diverse aspects of emotion are related to form the unity or oneness of emotion. The most prevalent account of unity is the causal view, which, however, has been shown to be inadequate because it sees the relations between the different parts of emotion as external and (...)
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  4. Rodolfo Ahumada (1969). Emotion, Knowledge and Belief. Personalist 50 (3):371-382.
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  5. Debo W. Akande (2002). A Data-Based Analysis of the Psychometric Performance of the Differential Emotions Scale. Educational Studies 28 (2):123-131.
    This Differential Emotions Scale (DES) is an objective pencil-and-paper instrument designed to measure the subjective-experience components of the fundamental emotions, based on the assumption that mood states involved a characteristic pattern. Following Boyle (Boyle, G.J. Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale, Personality, 56, pp. 747-750, 1984), the present paper reports a repeated-measure multiple discriminant function analysis for individual items across raters. At least, two-thirds of the DES items are sensitive indicators of the different mood states, however, the construct (...)
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  6. L. Al-Shawaf, D. Conroy-Beam, K. Asao & D. M. Buss (forthcoming). Human Emotions: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective. Emotion Review.
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  7. Gerhard Albersheim (1964). Mind and Matter in Music. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (3):289-294.
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  8. Candace Alcorta & Richard Sosis (2005). Religion, Emotion, and Symbolic Ritual: The Evolution of an Adaptive Complex. Human Nature 16:323-359.
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  9. R. T. Allen (2000). The Cognitive Functions of Emotion. Appraisal 3:38.
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  10. Rudolf Allers (1961). Emotion and Personality. New Scholasticism 35 (3):382-385.
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  11. William P. Alston (1967). Emotion and Feeling. In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan. 2--479.
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  12. Supakwadee Amatayakul & Nicole G. Albert (2012). Surmonter Ses Émotions, Conquérir Son Destin. Diogène 237 (1):109.
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  13. A. K. Anderson (2009). Emotional Expression. In David Sander & Klaus R. Scherer (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press. 165--167.
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  14. Erik Angner & Valerie Tiberius, Commentary.
    In the history of Western philosophy, questions of well-being and happiness have played a central role for some 2,500 years. Yet, when it comes to the systematic empirical study of happiness and satisfaction, philosophers are relative latecomers. Empirically-minded psychologists began studying systematically the determinants and distribution of happiness and satisfaction – understood as positive or desirable subjectively experienced mental states – during the 1920’s and 30’s, as personality psychology emerged as a bona fide subdiscipline of psychology shortly after World War (...)
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  15. Elizabeth Anscombe (1978). Will and Emotion. Grazer Philosophische Studien 5:139-148.
    This paper considers and criticizes Brentano's contention of the identity in kind between will and emotion.
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  16. Michael A. Arbib (2004). Beware the Passionate Robot. In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  17. J. Arlow (1989). Time as Emotion. In J. T. Fraser (ed.), Time and Mind: Interdisciplinary Issues. International Universities Press. 85--98.
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  18. Jorge L. Armony (2013). Current Emotion Research in Behavioral Neuroscience: The Role(s) of the Amygdala. Emotion Review 5 (1):104-115.
    Substantial advances in our understanding of the neural bases of emotional processing have been made over the past decades. Overall, studies in humans and other animals highlight the key role of the amygdala in the detection and evaluation of stimuli with affective value. Nonetheless, contradictory findings have been reported, especially in terms of the exact role of this structure in the processing of different emotions, giving rise to different neural models of emotion. For instance, although the amygdala has traditionally been (...)
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  19. Felix Arnold (1907). Ranck on Les Expressions Exterieures Et Profondes des Emotions Chez l'Homme Et les Animaux. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 4 (16):444.
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  20. Magda B. Arnold (1973). Historical Development of the Concept of Emotion. Philosophical Studies 22:147-157.
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  21. Jorge V. Arregui (1996). Descartes and Wittgenstein on Emotions. International Philosophical Quarterly 36 (3):319-334.
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  22. John M. Artz (2000). The Role of Emotion in Reason. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 30 (1):14-16.
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  23. Yubraj Aryal (2011). Affective Politics. Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 6 (15):1-7.
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  24. Yubraj Aryal (2011). Affective Turn. Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 6 (15):72-74.
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  25. Zippora Arzi-Gonczarowski (2002). Ai Emotions: Will One Know Them When One Sees Them. In Robert Trappl (ed.), Cybernetics and Systems. Austrian Society for Cybernetics Studies. 2--739.
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  26. J. Ash (2012). Attention, Videogames and the Retentional Economies of Affective Amplification. Theory, Culture and Society 29 (6):3-26.
    This article examines the industrial art of videogame design and production as an exemplar of what could be termed affective design. In doing so, the article theorizes the relationship between affect and attention as part of what Bernard Stiegler calls a ‘retentional economy’ of human and technical memory. Through the examination of a range of different videogames, the article argues that videogame designers utilize techniques of what I term ‘affective amplification’ that seek to modulate affect, which is central to the (...)
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  27. Neal M. Ashkanasy & Ronald H. Humphrey (2011). Current Emotion Research in Organizational Behavior. Emotion Review 3 (2):214-224.
    Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect (...)
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  28. Anthony P. Atkinson & Matthew Ratcliffe (2012). Introduction to the Special Section on “Emotions and Feelings in Psychiatric Illness”. Emotion Review 4 (2):119-121.
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  29. Anthony P. Atkinson & Hannah E. Smithson (2013). Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated Versus Nonfoveated Facial Features. Emotion Review 5 (1):30-35.
    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another’s face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for assessing another’s emotion), or what processes extract task-relevant (e.g., emotion-related) cues from facial features that first (...)
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  30. James R. Averill (2012). The Future of Social Constructionism: Introduction to a Special Section of Emotion Review. Emotion Review 4 (3):215-220.
    It is easy to envision marked progress in biological and physiological approaches to emotion, due to technological advances in imaging and other recording techniques. The future of social-constructionism appears more hazy: Progress will likely depend as much on new ideas as on new empirical discoveries. The most fruitful breeding ground for new ideas is where disciplines meet. Hence, the contributors to this special section represent diverse disciplines: biology, computer science, and the arts, as well as areas more traditionally associated with (...)
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  31. James R. Averill (2009). On Art, Science, Metaphors, and Ghosts: A Few Thoughts to Share. Emotion Review 1 (1):88-89.
    The sharing of emotional experiences, whether in face-to-face interactions or anonymously through written communications, can influence a person's psychological and physical well-being. The mediating mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. The present comment concerns ambiguities that may result when concepts from ordinary language, such as emotion, cognition, and related metaphors, are applied to presumed mediating mechanisms.
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  32. James R. Averill (1999). Creativity in the Domain of Emotion. In Tim Dalgleish & M. J. Powers (eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Wiley. 765--782.
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  33. Ruth Aylett & Ana Paiva (2012). Computational Modelling of Culture and Affect. Emotion Review 4 (3):253-263.
    This article discusses work on implementing emotional and cultural models into synthetic graphical characters. An architecture, FAtiMA, implemented first in the antibullying application FearNot! and then extended as FAtiMA-PSI in the cultural-sensitivity application ORIENT, is discussed. We discuss the modelling relationships between culture, social interaction, and cognitive appraisal. Integrating a lower level homeostatically based model is also considered as a means of handling some of the limitations of a purely symbolic approach. Evaluation to date is summarised and future directions discussed.
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  34. Ruth Aylett & Ana Paiva (2012). Reply to Comments by Bainbridge, Gratch, and Nishida. Emotion Review 4 (3):271-272.
    We respond to two themes in the comments by Bainbridge, Gratch, and Nishida: first, the importance of embodiment, and second the issue of what should be explicitly modelled as against what should be dynamically generated. Finally, we briefly respond to the ethical questions raised by Bainbridge.
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  35. F. E. B. (1960). The Fear of God. Review of Metaphysics 13 (3):529-529.
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  36. R. B. (1956). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Review of Metaphysics 9 (3):517-517.
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  37. Raja Bahlul (2014). Emotion as Patheception. Philosophical Explorations (1):1-19.
    Emotion as patheception. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/13869795.2013.874494.
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  38. Annette C. Baier (2004). Feelings That Matter. In Robert C. Solomon (ed.), Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  39. William Sims Bainbridge (2012). Affective Alternates: Comment on Aylett and Paiva. Emotion Review 4 (3):264-265.
    A bewildering array of sciences, theories, and methodologies offer researchers many difficult choices when studying emotion or designing affective technologies. Thus, clarity of focus is a prime virtue of good work, as illustrated in the Aylett and Paiva (2012) article. The social sciences remain fundamentally undecided about how to conceptualize human variations, including how to measure culture and personality, and even about whether these two commonly used words have real meaning. This disagreement is pronounced in human-centered computing, because cognitive and (...)
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  40. Richard Russell Baker (1941). The Thomistic Theory of the Passions and Their Influence Upon the Will ... By Richard R. Baker. Notre Dame, Ind..
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  41. J. M. Baldwin (1909). La mémoire affective et l'art. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 67:449 - 460.
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  42. Bänziger, T., With, S. & Kaiser (2010). The Face and Voice of Emotions: The Expressions of Emotions. In Klaus R. Scherer, Tanja Bänziger & Etienne Roesch (eds.), A Blueprint for Affective Computing: A Sourcebook and Manual. Oup Oxford.
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  43. Jack Barbalet (2011). Emotions Beyond Regulation: Backgrounded Emotions in Science and Trust. Emotion Review 3 (1):36-43.
    Emotions are understood sociologically as experiences of involvement. Emotion regulation influences the type, incidence, and expression of emotions. Regulation occurs through physical processes prior to an emotions episode, through social interaction in which a person’s emotions are modified due to the reactions of others to them, and by a person’s self-modification or management of emotions which they are consciously aware of. This article goes on to show that there are emotions which the emoting subject is not consciously aware of. Therefore, (...)
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  44. Lisa Feldman Barrett (forthcoming). The Conceptual Act Theory: A Précis. Emotion Review.
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  45. Lisa Feldman Barrett (2013). Psychological Construction: The Darwinian Approach to the Science of Emotion. Emotion Review 5 (4):379-389.
    Psychological construction constitutes a different paradigm for the scientific study of emotion when compared to the current paradigm that is inspired by faculty psychology. This new paradigm is more consistent with the post-Darwinian conceptual framework in biology that includes a focus on (a) population thinking (vs. typologies), (b) domain-general core systems (vs. physical essences), and (c) constructive analysis (vs. reductionism). Three psychological construction approaches (the OCC model, the iterative reprocessing model, and the conceptual act theory) are discussed with respect to (...)
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  46. Lisa Feldman Barrett (2010). Introduction to the Special Section. Emotion Review 2 (3):203-203.
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  47. Lisa Feldman Barrett (2005). The Experience of Emotion. In Lisa Feldman Barrett, Paula M. Niedenthal & Piotr Winkielman (eds.), Emotion and Consciousness. Guilford Press.
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  48. Lisa Feldman Barrett & Kristen A. Lindquist (2008). The Embodiment of Emotion. In G. R. Semin & Eliot R. Smith (eds.), Embodied Grounding: Social, Cognitive, Affective, and Neuroscientific Approaches. Cambridge University Press.
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  49. Marian Stewart Bartlett (2010). Emotion Simulation and Expression Understanding: A Case for Time. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):434-435.
    Niedenthal et al. present a model for embodied emotion simulation and expression understanding that spans multiple brain systems. This commentary addresses the potential role of time in this model, and its implications for understanding social dysfunction.
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  50. S. Bartlett (2000). The Development of Teacher Appraisal: A Recent History. British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (1):24 - 37.
    The Conservative government made appraisal compulsory to monitor teaching more effectively. Unable to elicit the type of data required, the process became marginalised. Labour is now turning to appraisal to raise standards. Though appearing more conciliatory, it is argued that the end result will be to achieve the Conservatives' original aim of controlling teachers.
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