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  1. Mitchell Aboulafia (2008). W.E.B. Du Bois : Double-Consciousness, Jamesian Sympathy, and the Critical Turn. In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  2. Kate Abramson (2001). Sympathy and the Project of Hume's Second Enquiry. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (1):45-80.
    More than two hundred years after its publication, David Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is still widely regarded as either a footnote to the more philosophically interesting third book of the Treatise, or an abbreviated, more stylish, version of that earlier work. These standard interpretations are rather difficult to square with Hume's own assessment of the second Enquiry. Are we to think that Hume called the EPM “incomparably the best” of all his writings only because he preferred that (...)
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  3. H. B. Acton (1955). The Ethical Importance of Sympathy. Philosophy 30 (112):62 - 66.
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  4. George Ainslie (2006). Cruelty May Be a Self-Control Device Against Sympathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):224-225.
    Dispassionate cruelty and the euphoria of hunting or battle should be distinguished from the emotional savoring of victims' suffering. Such savoring, best called negative empathy, is what puzzles motivational theory. Hyperbolic discounting theory suggests that sympathy with people who have unwanted but seductive traits creates a threat to self-control. Cruelty to those people may often be the least effortful way of countering this threat.
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  5. Amy Allen (2005). Sandra Bartky, “Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays:“Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays. Ethics 115 (3):599-601.
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  6. R. W. Altmann (1980). Hume on Sympathy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):123-136.
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  7. Kenneth J. Arrow (1978). Extended Sympathy and the Possibility of Social Choice. Philosophia 7 (2):223-237.
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  8. Annette C. Baier & Anik Waldow (2008). A Conversation Between Annette Baier and Anik Waldow About Hume's Account of Sympathy. Hume Studies 34 (1):61-87.
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  9. Kim A. Bard (2001). Developmental Processes in Empathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):25-26.
    In recent years, explanations of primate cognition highlighted clever arguments, rather than different ability. In the target article, definitions unify, explanations rely on basic nervous system functioning, theory is built on data that fit, and the emphasis is on evolutionary continuities. This commentary describes complexities inherent in the development of empathy that are not accounted for in Preston & de Waal's theory.
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  10. Lawrence Blum (2008). Review of Michael Slote, The Ethics of Care and Empathy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (3).
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  11. Henrik Bohlin (2009). Sympathy, Understanding, and Hermeneutics in Hume's Treatise. Hume Studies 35 (1-2):135-170.
    With his theory of sympathy in the Treatise of Human Nature, Hume has been interpreted as anticipating later hermeneutic theories of understanding. It is argued in the present article that Hume has good reasons to consider a hermeneutic theory of empathetic understanding, that such a theory avoids a serious difficulty in Hume’s “official,” positivist theory of sympathy, that it is compatible with the complex and subtle form of positivism, or naturalism, developed in Book 1 of the Treatise, and that his (...)
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  12. O. K. Bouwsma (1942). Stace's "the Primacy of Sympathy". Journal of Philosophy 39 (23):631-635.
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  13. F. H. Bradley (1883). Sympathy and Interest. Mind 8 (32):573-575.
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  14. Emily Brady (2011). Adam Smith's ''Sympathetic Imagination'' and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Environment. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (1):95-109.
    This paper explores the significance of Adam Smith's ideas for defending non-cognitivist theories of aesthetic appreciation of nature. Objections to non-cognitivism argue that the exercise of emotion and imagination in aesthetic judgement potentially sentimentalizes and trivializes nature. I argue that although directed at moral judgement, Smith's views also find a place in addressing this problem. First, sympathetic imagination may afford a deeper and more sensitive type of aesthetic engagement. Second, in taking up the position of the impartial spectator, aesthetic judgements (...)
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  15. Michael Bray (2007). Sympathy, Disenchantment, and Authority: Adam Smith and the Construction of Moral Sentiments. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 28 (1):159-193.
  16. Alexander Broadie (2006). Sympathy and the Impartial Spectator. In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
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  17. Florian Bruns & Andreas Frewer (2011). Ethics Consultation and Empathy. HEC Forum 23 (4):247-255.
    There is no doubt that emotions have an important effect on practices of moral reasoning such as clinical ethics consultation. Empathy is not only a basic human emotion but also an important and learnable skill for health care professionals. A basic amount of empathy is essential both in patient care and in clinical ethics consultation. This article debates the “adequate dose” of empathy in ethics consultations in clinical settings and tries to identify possible situations within the process of consultation in (...)
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  18. Sophie Bryant (1895). Antipathy and Sympathy. Mind 4 (15):365-370.
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  19. Adam Budd (2008). Aesthetic Sensibility and the Contours of Sympathy Through Hume's Insertions to the Treatise. In Alexander John Dick & Christina Lupton (eds.), Theory and Practice in the Eighteenth Century: Writing Between Philosophy and Literature. Pickering & Chatto.
  20. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2009). Cultural Memory, Empathy, and Rape. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 16 (1):25-42.
    Assuming a relational understanding of the self, I argue that empathy is necessary for individual and cultural recovery from rape. However, gender affects our ability to listen with empathy to rape survivors. For women, the existence of cultural memories discourages empathy either by engendering fear of their own future rape or by provoking sympathy rather than empathy. For men, the lack of cultural memories makes rape what Arendt calls an "unreality," thus diminishing the possibility for empathy. Although empathetic listeningpresents gender (...)
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  21. Noël Carroll (2010). Movies, the Moral Emotions, and Sympathy. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):1-19.
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  22. Peter Carruthers (1999). Sympathy and Subjectivity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (4):465-82.
    This paper shows that even if the mental states of non-human animals lack phenomenological properties, as some accounts of mental-state consciousness imply, this need not prevent those states from being appropriate objects of sympathy and moral concern. The paper argues that the most basic form of mental (as opposed to biological) harm lies in the existence of thwarted agency, or thwarted desire, rather than in anything phenomenological.
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  23. Douglas Chismar (1988). Empathy and Sympathy: The Important Difference. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (4):257-266.
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  24. Matthew R. Christ (2008). History (R.H.) Sternberg Tragedy Offstage. Suffering and Sympathy in Ancient Athens. Austin: U. Of Texas P, 2006. Pp. 238. £26. 9780292714168. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:225-.
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  25. Henry C. Clark (2009). Adam Smith and Neo-Darwinian Debate Over Sympathy, Strong Reciprocity, and Reputation Effects. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):47-64.
    This paper aims to do two things. First, it describes the place that Adam Smith actually occupies in current research occurring at the boundaries of new interdisciplinary social-science fields such as evolutionary anthropology, evolutionary psychology, neuro-economics and behavioral economics. Second, it suggests a way in which Smith's place in the debates with which these subjects are concerned may be more properly defined and conceptualized. Specifically, the paper focuses on the controversial new theory of strong reciprocity, and on the reputation effects (...)
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  26. Mark Coeckelbergh (2007). Who Needs Empathy? A Response to Goldie's Arguments Against Empathy and Suggestions for an Account of Mutual Perspective-Shifting in Contexts of Help and Care. Ethics and Education 2 (1):61-72.
    According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an external perspective is morally superior: we should focus on the other, rather than ourselves. But this argument is misguided in several ways. If we consider conversation, there (...)
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  27. Bridget Cooper (2010). In Search of Profound Empathy in Learning Relationships: Understanding the Mathematics of Moral Learning Environments. Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):79-99.
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  28. Amy Coplan (2011). Will the Real Empathy Please Stand Up? A Case for a Narrow Conceptualization. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):40-65.
    A longstanding problem with the study of empathy is the lack of a clear and agreed upon definition. A trend in the recent literature is to respond to this problem by advancing a broad and all-encompassing view of empathy that applies to myriad processes ranging from mimicry and imitation to high-level perspective taking. I argue that this response takes us in the wrong direction and that what we need in order to better understand empathy is a narrower conceptualization, not a (...)
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  29. Garrett Cullity (2004). Sympathy, Discernment, and Reasons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):37–62.
    According to "the argument from discernment", sympathetic motivation is morally faulty, because it is morally undiscriminating. Sympathy can incline you to do the right thing, but it can also incline you to do the wrong thing. And if so, it is no better as a reason for doing something than any other morally arbitrary consideration. The only truly morally good form of motivation--because the only morally non-arbitrary one--involves treating an action's rightness as your reason for performing it. This paper attacks (...)
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  30. Andrew S. Cunningham (2004). The Strength of Hume's “Weak” Sympathy. Hume Studies 30 (2):237-256.
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  31. Justin D'Arms (2011). Empathy, Approval, and Disapproval in Moral Sentimentalism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):134-141.
    This discussion explores the moral psychology and metaethics of Michael Slote's Moral Sentimentalism. I argue that his account of empathy has an important lacuna, because the sense in which an empathizer feels the same feeling that his target feels requires explanation, and the most promising candidates are unavailable to Slote. I then argue that the (highly original) theory of moral approval and disapproval that Slote develops in his book is implausible, both phenomenologically and for the role it accords to empathy. (...)
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  32. J. C. Daniel (1984). `Sympathy' or `Empathy'? Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (2):103-103.
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  33. Stephen Darwall (2011). Being With. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):4–24.
    What is it for two or more people to be with one another or together? And what role do empathic psychological processes play, either as essential constituents or as typical elements? As I define it, to be genuinely with each other, persons must be jointly aware of their mutual openness to mutual relating. This means, I argue, that being with is a second-personal phenomenon in the sense I discuss in The Second-Person Standpoint. People who are with each other are in (...)
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  34. Stephen Darwall (1998). Empathy, Sympathy, Care. Philosophical Studies 89 (2-3):261–282.
    In what follows, I wish to discuss empathy and sympathy’s relevance to ethics, taking recent findings into account. In particular, I want to consider sympathy’s relation to the idea of a person’s good or well-being. It is obvious and uncontroversial that sympathetic concern for a person involves some concern for her good and some desire to promote it. What I want to suggest is that the concept of a person’s good or well-being is one we have because we are capable (...)
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  35. Zachary Davis (2005). Husserl on the Ethical Renewal of Sympathy and the One World of Solidarity. Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (4):561-581.
    Edmund Husserl’s Kaizo articles mark one of his first attempts at notions of cultural renewal and critique. (1) Central to both of these notions for Husserl is the idea of a best possible humanity. At the conclusion of the Kaizo articles, Husserl entertains some quite troubling and potentially dangerous descriptions of the best possible in terms of an Übernation or Weltvolk. Although merely provisional, these descriptions call for a cultural and ethical renewal through the reorientation of humanity in accord with (...)
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  36. Laura Day (2002). 'Putting Yourself in Other People's Shoes': The Use of Forum Theatre to Explore Refugee and Homeless Issues in Schools. Journal of Moral Education 31 (1):21-34.
    This study investigated the experiences of, and interactions between, participants of a Forum theatre workshop, which addressed the issue of the refugee child at school. Staged by a UK theatre company, whose actors had, in their own lives, experienced being homeless and/or refugees, the workshop was investigated as it was performed in three London secondary state schools. Findings revealed that the workshop was highly relevant to the students, reflecting moral dilemmas which they faced in their everyday lives, as they encountered (...)
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  37. Remy Debes (2011). Editor's Introduction. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):1-3.
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  38. Remy Debes (2010). Which Empathy? Limitations in the Mirrored “Understanding” of Emotion. Synthese 175 (2):219-239.
    The recent discovery of so-called “mirror-neurons” in monkeys and a corresponding mirroring “system” in humans has provoked wide endorsement of the claim that humans understand a variety of observed actions, somatic sensations, and emotions via a kind of direct representation of those actions, sensations, and emotions. Philosophical efforts to assess the import of such “mirrored understanding” have typically focused on how that understanding might be brought to bear on theories of mindreading (how we represent other creatures as having mental states), (...)
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  39. Remy Debes (2007). Humanity, Sympathy and the Puzzle of Hume's Second Enquiry. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (1):27 – 57.
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  40. Remy Debes (2007). Has Anything Changed? Hume's Theory of Association and Sympathy After the Treatise. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (2):313 – 338.
  41. John Deigh (2011). Empathy, Justice, and Jurisprudence. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):73-90.
    This paper uses a study of the opinions in a case recently decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., to explain the role of empathy in legal interpretation. I argue for two theses: (1) that empathy is essential to an interpretation of law if that interpretation is to serve the interests of justice and (2) that no interpretation of a law is sound if it ignores whether so interpreting the law serves the interests of (...)
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  42. Julia Driver (2011). The Secret Chain: A Limited Defense of Sympathy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):234-238.
    This paper responds to criticisms of sympathy-based approaches to ethics made by Jesse Prinz, focusing on the criticism that emotions are too variable to form a basis for ethics. I draw on the idea, articulated by early sentimentalists such as Hutcheson and Hume, that proper reliance on sympathy is subject to a corrective procedure in order, in part, to avoid the variability problem.
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  43. John A. Fischer (1987). Taking Sympathy Seriously: A Defense of Our Moral Psychology Toward Animals. Environmental Ethics 9 (3):197-215.
    Sympathy for animals is regarded by many thinkers as theoretically disreputable. Against this I argue that sympathy appropriately underlies moral concern for animals. I offer an account of sympathy that distinguishes sympathy with from sympathy for fellow creatures, and I argue that both can be placed on an objective basis, if we differentiate enlightened from folk sympathy. Moreover, I suggest that sympathy for animals is not, as some have claimed, incompatible with environmentalism; on the contrary, it can ground environmental concern. (...)
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  44. Samuel Fleischacker (2013). Adam Smith's Moral and Political Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  45. Philippe Fontaine (1997). Identification and Economic Behavior: Sympathy and Empathy in Historical Perspective. Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):261-.
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  46. Michael L. Frazer (2010). The Enlightenment of Sympathy: Justice and the Moral Sentiments in the Eighteenth Century and Today. Oxford University Press.
    However, other leading philosophers of the era--such as David Hume, Adam Smith, and J.G. Herder--placed greater emphasis on feeling, seeing moral and political ...
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  47. Patrick Frierson, Adam Smith and the Possibility of Sympathy with Nature Patrick R. Frierson.
    As J. Baird Callicott has argued, Adam Smith’s moral theory is a philosophical ancestor of recent work in environmental ethics. However, Smith’s “all important emotion of sympathy” (Callicott 2001: 209) seems incapable of extension to entities that lack emotions with which one can sympathize. Drawing on the distinctive account of sympathy developed in Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments , as well as his account of anthropomorphizing nature in “History of Astronomy and Physics,” I show that sympathy with non-sentient nature is (...)
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  48. Patrick R. Frierson (2006). Adam Smith and the Possibility of Sympathy with Nature. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):442–480.
    As J. Baird Callicott has argued, Adam Smith's moral theory is a philosophical ancestor of recent work in environmental ethics. However, Smith's "all important emotion of sympathy" (Callicott, 2001, p. 209) seems incapable of extension to entities that lack emotions with which one can sympathize. Drawing on the distinctive account of sympathy developed in Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, as well as his account of anthropomorphizing nature in "History of Astronomy and Physics," I show that sympathy with non-sentient nature is (...)
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  49. Robert Fudge (2009). Sympathy, Beauty, and Sentiment: Adam Smith's Aesthetic Morality. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (2):133-146.
    One of the more striking aspects of Adam Smith's moral theory is the degree to which it depends on and appeals to aesthetic norms. By considering what Smith says about judgments of propriety – the foundational type of judgment in his system – and by tying what he says in The Theory of Moral Sentiments to certain of his other writings, I argue that Smith ultimately defends an aesthetic morality. Among the challenges that any aesthetic morality faces is that it (...)
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  50. Saulius Geniusas (2003). Between Suspicion and Sympathy. Symposium 7 (2):242-246.
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