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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Affective Empathy as Core Moral Agency: Psychopathy, Autism and Reason Revisited. Philosophical Explorations 17 (1):76-92.
    Empathy has become a common point of debate in moral psychology. Recent developments in psychiatry, neurosciences and social psychology have led to the revival of sentimentalism, and the ‘empathy thesis’ has suggested that affective empathy, in particular, is a necessary criterion of moral agency. The case of psychopaths – individuals incapable of affective empathy and moral agency, yet capable of rationality – has been utilised in support of this case. Critics, however, have been vocal. They have asserted that the case (...)
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  2. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Skepticism, Empathy, and Animal Suffering. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):457-467.
    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. (...)
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  3. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Varieties of Empathy and Moral Agency. Topoi 33 (1):1-11.
    Contemporary literature includes a wide variety of definitions of empathy. At the same time, the revival of sentimentalism has proposed that empathy serves as a necessary criterion of moral agency. The paper explores four common definitions in order to map out which of them best serves such agency. Historical figures are used as the backdrop against which contemporary literature is analysed. David Hume’s philosophy is linked to contemporary notions of affective and cognitive empathy, Adam Smith’s philosophy to projective empathy, and (...)
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  4. Mitchell Aboulafia (2008). W.E.B. Du Bois : Double-Consciousness, Jamesian Sympathy, and the Critical Turn. In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  5. Kate Abramson (2001). Sympathy and the Project of Hume's Second Enquiry. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (1):45-80.
    More than two hundred years after its publication, David Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is still widely regarded as either a footnote to the more philosophically interesting third book of the Treatise, or an abbreviated, more stylish, version of that earlier work. These standard interpretations are rather difficult to square with Hume's own assessment of the second Enquiry. Are we to think that Hume called the EPM “incomparably the best” of all his writings only because he preferred that (...)
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  6. H. B. Acton (1955). The Ethical Importance of Sympathy. Philosophy 30 (112):62 - 66.
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  7. Lou Agosta (forthcoming). Erratum To: A Rumor of Empathy: Reconstructing Heidegger's Contribution to Empathy and Empathic Clinical Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-1.
    Heidegger’s 1927 call to provide “a special hermeneutic of empathy” is linked with his later commitment at the Zollikon Seminars to engage explicitly with issues in psychodynamic therapy with psychiatrists. The task of providing a special hermeneutic of empathy is one that Heidegger assigns in Being and Time, but on which he does not deliver. Inspired by the assignment, this article applies the distinctions of Heidegger’s Daseinanalysis to human interrelations. This article generates a Heideggerian account of empathy as a multi-dimensional (...)
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  8. Lou Agosta (2011). Empathy and Sympathy in Ethics. In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  9. Louis Agosta (2010). Empathy in the Context of Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Empathy remains poorly understood, under-theorized, and subject to conflicting and opportunistic uses. Its systematic role in human experience has not been analyzed and interpreted from top to bottom. In this book, the author attempts to provide such an analysis in the philosophical traditions of hermeneutics, phenomenology, analytic philosophy of language, and psychoanalysis. applying his interpretation of empathy to the philosophical issues of intentionality, the emotions, and the checkered transformations of empathy itself. In doing so the author aims to rescue empathy (...)
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  10. George Ainslie (2006). Cruelty May Be a Self-Control Device Against Sympathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):224-225.
    Dispassionate cruelty and the euphoria of hunting or battle should be distinguished from the emotional savoring of victims' suffering. Such savoring, best called negative empathy, is what puzzles motivational theory. Hyperbolic discounting theory suggests that sympathy with people who have unwanted but seductive traits creates a threat to self-control. Cruelty to those people may often be the least effortful way of countering this threat.
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  11. Amy Allen (2005). Sandra Bartky, “Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays:“Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays. Ethics 115 (3):599-601.
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  12. R. W. Altmann (1980). Hume on Sympathy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):123-136.
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  13. Cameron Anderson & Dacher Keltner (2001). The Role of Empathy in the Formation and Maintenance of Social Bonds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):21-22.
    A primary function of empathy is to help individuals form and maintain social bonds. Empathy should thus occur only when individuals seek to solidify social bonds, and not in response to any opportunity to process others' emotions. Empathy should also involve only certain types of emotion – specifically, emotions that facilitate social bonds – and not any and all types of emotion.
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  14. Kenneth J. Arrow (1978). Extended Sympathy and the Possibility of Social Choice. Philosophia 7 (2):223-237.
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  15. R. B. (1956). Preface to Empathy. Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):184-184.
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  16. Annette C. Baier & Anik Waldow (2008). A Conversation Between Annette Baier and Anik Waldow About Hume's Account of Sympathy. Hume Studies 34 (1):61-87.
    We discuss the variety of sorts of sympathy Hume recognizes, the extent to which he thinks our sympathy with others’ feelings depends on inferences from the other’s expression, and from her perceived situation, and consider also whether he later changed his views about the nature and role of sympathy, in particular its role in morals.
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  17. Kim A. Bard (2001). Developmental Processes in Empathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):25-26.
    In recent years, explanations of primate cognition highlighted clever arguments, rather than different ability. In the target article, definitions unify, explanations rely on basic nervous system functioning, theory is built on data that fit, and the emphasis is on evolutionary continuities. This commentary describes complexities inherent in the development of empathy that are not accounted for in Preston & de Waal's theory.
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  18. Allison Barnes & Paul R. Thagard (1997). Empathy and Analogy. Dialogue 36 (4):705-720.
    We contend that empathy is best viewed as a kind of analogical thinking of the sort described in the multiconstraint theory of analogy proposed by Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard (1995). Our account of empathy reveals the Theory-theory/Simulation theory debate to be based on a false assumption and formulated in terms too simple to capture the nature of mental state ascription. Empathy is always simulation, but may simultaneously include theory-application. By properly specifying the analogical processes of empathy and their constraints, (...)
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  19. H. Battaly (2011). Is Empathy a Virtue. In Amy Coplan & Peter Goldie (eds.), Empathy: Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives. Oxford University Press. 277--301.
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  20. Janelle N. Beadle, Daniel Tranel, Neal J. Cohen & Melissa Duff (2013). Empathy in Hippocampal Amnesia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy (...)
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  21. Aa Bello (1996). From Empathy to Solidarity: Intersubjective Connections According to Edith Stein: The Deep Springs of Mundanity in Human Co-Existence: Moral Sense, Empathy, Solidarity, Communication, Intersubjective Grounding. Analecta Husserliana 48:367-375.
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  22. Mark Bevir & Karsten Stueber (2011). Empathy, Rationality, and Explanation. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (2):147-162.
    This paper describes the historical background to contemporary discussions of empathy and rationality. It looks at the philosophy of mind and its implications for action explanation and the philosophy of history. In the nineteenth century, the concept of empathy became prominent within philosophical aesthetics, from where it was extended to describe the way we grasp other minds. This idea of empathy as a way of understanding others echoed through later accounts of historical understanding as involving re-enactment, noticeably that of R. (...)
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  23. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective. Emotion Revies 4 (1):40-48.
    Empathy means understanding another person’s emotional or intentional state by vicariously sharing this state. As opposed to emotional contagion, empathy is characterized by the self–other distinction of subjective experience. Empathy develops in the second year, as soon as symbolic representation and mental imagery set in that enable children to represent the self, to recognize their mirror image, and to identify with another person. In experiments with 126 children, mirror recognition and readiness to empathize with a distressed playmate were investigated. Almost (...)
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  24. Lawrence Blum (2008). Review of Michael Slote, The Ethics of Care and Empathy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (3).
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  25. Henrik Bohlin (2009). Sympathy, Understanding, and Hermeneutics in Hume's Treatise. Hume Studies 35 (1-2):135-170.
    With his theory of sympathy in the Treatise of Human Nature, Hume has been interpreted as anticipating later hermeneutic theories of understanding. It is argued in the present article that Hume has good reasons to consider a hermeneutic theory of empathetic understanding, that such a theory avoids a serious difficulty in Hume’s “official,” positivist theory of sympathy, that it is compatible with the complex and subtle form of positivism, or naturalism, developed in Book 1 of the Treatise, and that his (...)
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  26. E. G. N. Borg (2014). From Ape Empathy to Human Morality? Analysis 74 (4):anu080.
    The idea that empathy provides an important developmental precursor to moral decision-making possesses significant conceptual appeal. However, the idea of a necessary, diachronic relation between empathy and morality has been rejected recently (by Prinz 2011, amongst others). This article reassesses the strength of the claim that empathy is developmentally necessary for (at least some forms of) morality and argues that the position remains a live possibility.
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  27. Jonna Bornemark (forthcoming). The Genesis of Empathy in Human Development: A Phenomenological Reconstruction. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-10.
    In phenomenology, theories of empathy are intimately connected with the question of how it is possible to have insight into the mind of the other person. In this article, the author wants to show why it is self-evident for us that the other person is having experiences. In order to do so, it is not enough to discuss the phenomenon of empathy with a starting point in the already constituted adult person; instead the article presents a genetic approach to human (...)
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  28. O. K. Bouwsma (1942). Stace's "the Primacy of Sympathy". Journal of Philosophy 39 (23):631-635.
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  29. F. H. Bradley (1883). Sympathy and Interest. Mind 8 (32):573-575.
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  30. Emily Brady (2011). Adam Smith's ''Sympathetic Imagination'' and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Environment. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (1):95-109.
    This paper explores the significance of Adam Smith's ideas for defending non-cognitivist theories of aesthetic appreciation of nature. Objections to non-cognitivism argue that the exercise of emotion and imagination in aesthetic judgement potentially sentimentalizes and trivializes nature. I argue that although directed at moral judgement, Smith's views also find a place in addressing this problem. First, sympathetic imagination may afford a deeper and more sensitive type of aesthetic engagement. Second, in taking up the position of the impartial spectator, aesthetic judgements (...)
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  31. Michael Bray (2007). Sympathy, Disenchantment, and Authority: Adam Smith and the Construction of Moral Sentiments. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 28 (1):159-193.
  32. Fritz Breithaupt (2012). Author Reply: Empathy Does Provide Rational Support for Decisions. But Is It the Right Decision? Emotion Review 4 (1):96-97.
    This article examines the relation of empathy and rational judgment. When people observe a conflict most are quick to side with one of the parties. Once a side has been taken, empathy with that party further solidifies this choice. Hence, it will be suggested that empathy is not neutral to judgment and rational decision-making. This does not mean, however, that the one who empathizes will necessarily have made the best choice.
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  33. Fritz Breithaupt (2012). A Three-Person Model of Empathy. Emotion Review 4 (1):84-91.
    This article proposes a three-step model of empathy. It assumes that people have various empathy-related mechanisms available and thus can be described as hyper-empathic (Step 1). Under these conditions, the question of blocking and controlling empathy becomes a central issue to channel empathic attention and to avoid self-loss (Step 2). It is assumed that empathy can be sustained only when these mechanisms of controlling empathy are bypassed (Step 3). In particular, the article proposes a three-person scenario with one observing a (...)
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  34. Tila Tabea Brink, Karolina Urton, Dada Held, Evgeniya Kirilina, Markus Hofmann, Gisela Klann-Delius, Arthur M. Jacobs & Lars Kuchinke (2011). The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children. Frontiers in Psychology 2:80.
    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4 to 8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of pre-school and school children (N=48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional (...)
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  35. Alexander Broadie (2006). Sympathy and the Impartial Spectator. In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
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  36. Sarah Brooks (2009). Historical Empathy in the Social Studies Classroom. Journal of Social Studies Research 33 (2):213-234.
    In the field of history education, researchers and practitioners frequently demonstrate a keen interest in historical empathy. However, very little consensus exists concerning the meaning of the term. In an effort to make sense of the continuing debate, this article explores the competing conceptualizations of historical empathy found in the history education literature of the past decade. Discussion of recent theoretical work is coupled with a review of the numerous empirical studies, which have sought to shed light on the various (...)
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  37. Florian Bruns & Andreas Frewer (2011). Ethics Consultation and Empathy. HEC Forum 23 (4):247-255.
    There is no doubt that emotions have an important effect on practices of moral reasoning such as clinical ethics consultation. Empathy is not only a basic human emotion but also an important and learnable skill for health care professionals. A basic amount of empathy is essential both in patient care and in clinical ethics consultation. This article debates the “adequate dose” of empathy in ethics consultations in clinical settings and tries to identify possible situations within the process of consultation in (...)
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  38. Sophie Bryant (1895). Antipathy and Sympathy. Mind 4 (15):365-370.
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  39. Adam Budd (2008). Aesthetic Sensibility and the Contours of Sympathy Through Hume's Insertions to the Treatise. In Alexander John Dick & Christina Lupton (eds.), Theory and Practice in the Eighteenth Century: Writing Between Philosophy and Literature. Pickering & Chatto.
  40. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2009). Cultural Memory, Empathy, and Rape. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 16 (1):25-42.
    Assuming a relational understanding of the self, I argue that empathy is necessary for individual and cultural recovery from rape. However, gender affects our ability to listen with empathy to rape survivors. For women, the existence of cultural memories discourages empathy either by engendering fear of their own future rape or by provoking sympathy rather than empathy. For men, the lack of cultural memories makes rape what Arendt calls an "unreality," thus diminishing the possibility for empathy. Although empathetic listeningpresents gender (...)
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  41. Peter J. Carew & Larry Stapleton (forthcoming). Towards Empathy: A Human-Centred Analysis of Rationality, Ethics and Praxis in Systems Development. AI and Society:1-18.
    Functionalism has long been the dominant paradigm in systems development practice. However, functionalism promotes an innate and immutable instrumental rationality that is indifferent to human values, rights, society, culture and international stability. It, in essence, lacks empathy. Although alternative paradigms have been promoted for decades in the systems development literature to help address this deficit, functionalism remains dominant. This paper reiterates the call for a fundamental paradigm shift away from myopic functionalism and towards a more empathic and human-centred philosophy. It (...)
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  42. Noël Carroll (2010). Movies, the Moral Emotions, and Sympathy. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):1-19.
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  43. Peter Carruthers (1999). Sympathy and Subjectivity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (4):465-82.
    This paper shows that even if the mental states of non-human animals lack phenomenological properties, as some accounts of mental-state consciousness imply, this need not prevent those states from being appropriate objects of sympathy and moral concern. The paper argues that the most basic form of mental (as opposed to biological) harm lies in the existence of thwarted agency, or thwarted desire, rather than in anything phenomenological.
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  44. Alisa L. Carse (2005). The Moral Contours of Empathy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):169 - 195.
    Morally contoured empathy is a form of reasonable partiality essential to the healthy care of dependents. It is critical as an epistemic aid in determining proper moral responsiveness; it is also, within certain richly normative roles and relationships, itself a crucial constitutive mode of moral connection. Yet the achievement of empathy is no easy feat. Patterns of incuriosity imperil connection, impeding empathic engagement; inappropriate empathic engagement, on the other hand, can result in self-effacement. Impartial moral principles and constraints (...)
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  45. Stephen Chanderbhan (2013). Does Empathy Have Any Place in Aquinas's Account of Justice? Philosophia 41 (2):273-288.
    Recent developments in cognitive science have prompted philosophers to speculate about the importance of empathy, the ability to directly apprehend and take on the mental and emotional states of others, in understanding and being motivated by moral norms—particularly moral norms concerning other humans. In this paper, I investigate whether some kind of empathy is involved in Thomas Aquinas’s account of the virtue of justice, which he describes as essentially other-directed. I claim that a kind of empathy is involved in Aquinas’s (...)
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  46. Joan Y. Chiao (2011). Towards a Cultural Neuroscience of Empathy and Prosociality. Emotion Review 3 (1):111-112.
    Recent evidence from the social neuroscience of empathy suggests that there is core neural circuitry underlying empathy in humans, and important roles for top—down and bottom—up processes in the production and regulation of empathic experience. Less well understood is how cultural and genetic forces give rise to empathy and prosocial behavior within and across groups. Here I argue that culture-gene coevolutionary theory may play an important role in understanding how and when empathy is experienced, and that future research in cultural (...)
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  47. Douglas Chismar (1988). Empathy and Sympathy: The Important Difference. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (4):257-266.
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  48. Douglas Chismar (1988). Hume's Confusion About Sympathy. Philosophy Research Archives 14:237-246.
    David Hume argues that the prevalence of human sympathizing justifies our attributing to humans a certain degree of benevolence. This move from sympathy to having a concern for others has been challenged by recent critics. A more fine-grained look at Hume’s concept of sympathy may reveal the reasons why he thought that experiencing sympathy implied having a benevolent attitude. Two arguments from the Treatise are analyzed and found wanting. It is suggested that Hume’s confusion may derive from ambiguities surrounding the (...)
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  49. Matthew R. Christ (2008). History (R.H.) Sternberg Tragedy Offstage. Suffering and Sympathy in Ancient Athens. Austin: U. Of Texas P, 2006. Pp. 238. £26. 9780292714168. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:225-.
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  50. Scott D. Churchill (2010). Book Review: Empathy, Intercorporeality, and the Call to Compassion. Ralph R. Acampora, Corporal Compassion: Animal Ethics and Philosophy of Body. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006. [REVIEW] Society and Animals 18 (2):219-225.
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