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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Skepticism, Empathy, and Animal Suffering. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):457-467.
    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. (...)
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  2. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Varieties of Empathy and Moral Agency. Topoi 33 (1):1-11.
    Contemporary literature includes a wide variety of definitions of empathy. At the same time, the revival of sentimentalism has proposed that empathy serves as a necessary criterion of moral agency. The paper explores four common definitions in order to map out which of them best serves such agency. Historical figures are used as the backdrop against which contemporary literature is analysed. David Hume’s philosophy is linked to contemporary notions of affective and cognitive empathy, Adam Smith’s philosophy to projective empathy, and (...)
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  3. Mitchell Aboulafia (2008). W.E.B. Du Bois : Double-Consciousness, Jamesian Sympathy, and the Critical Turn. In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  4. Kate Abramson (2001). Sympathy and the Project of Hume's Second Enquiry. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (1):45-80.
    More than two hundred years after its publication, David Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is still widely regarded as either a footnote to the more philosophically interesting third book of the Treatise, or an abbreviated, more stylish, version of that earlier work. These standard interpretations are rather difficult to square with Hume's own assessment of the second Enquiry. Are we to think that Hume called the EPM “incomparably the best” of all his writings only because he preferred that (...)
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  5. H. B. Acton (1955). The Ethical Importance of Sympathy. Philosophy 30 (112):62 - 66.
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  6. Lou Agosta (2011). Empathy and Sympathy in Ethics. In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  7. Louis Agosta (2010). Empathy in the Context of Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Empathy remains poorly understood, under-theorized, and subject to conflicting and opportunistic uses. Its systematic role in human experience has not been analyzed and interpreted from top to bottom. In this book, the author attempts to provide such an analysis in the philosophical traditions of hermeneutics, phenomenology, analytic philosophy of language, and psychoanalysis. applying his interpretation of empathy to the philosophical issues of intentionality, the emotions, and the checkered transformations of empathy itself. In doing so the author aims to rescue empathy (...)
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  8. George Ainslie (2006). Cruelty May Be a Self-Control Device Against Sympathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):224-225.
    Dispassionate cruelty and the euphoria of hunting or battle should be distinguished from the emotional savoring of victims' suffering. Such savoring, best called negative empathy, is what puzzles motivational theory. Hyperbolic discounting theory suggests that sympathy with people who have unwanted but seductive traits creates a threat to self-control. Cruelty to those people may often be the least effortful way of countering this threat.
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  9. Amy Allen (2005). Sandra Bartky, “Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays:“Sympathy and Solidarity” and Other Essays. Ethics 115 (3):599-601.
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  10. R. W. Altmann (1980). Hume on Sympathy. Southern Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):123-136.
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  11. Kenneth J. Arrow (1978). Extended Sympathy and the Possibility of Social Choice. Philosophia 7 (2):223-237.
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  12. R. B. (1956). Preface to Empathy. Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):184-184.
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  13. Annette C. Baier & Anik Waldow (2008). A Conversation Between Annette Baier and Anik Waldow About Hume's Account of Sympathy. Hume Studies 34 (1):61-87.
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  14. Kim A. Bard (2001). Developmental Processes in Empathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):25-26.
    In recent years, explanations of primate cognition highlighted clever arguments, rather than different ability. In the target article, definitions unify, explanations rely on basic nervous system functioning, theory is built on data that fit, and the emphasis is on evolutionary continuities. This commentary describes complexities inherent in the development of empathy that are not accounted for in Preston & de Waal's theory.
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  15. Janelle N. Beadle, Daniel Tranel, Neal J. Cohen & Melissa Duff (2013). Empathy in Hippocampal Amnesia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy (...)
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  16. Mark Bevir & Karsten Stueber (2011). Empathy, Rationality, and Explanation. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (2):147-162.
    This paper describes the historical background to contemporary discussions of empathy and rationality. It looks at the philosophy of mind and its implications for action explanation and the philosophy of history. In the nineteenth century, the concept of empathy became prominent within philosophical aesthetics, from where it was extended to describe the way we grasp other minds. This idea of empathy as a way of understanding others echoed through later accounts of historical understanding as involving re-enactment, noticeably that of R. (...)
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  17. Lawrence Blum (2008). Review of Michael Slote, The Ethics of Care and Empathy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (3).
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  18. Henrik Bohlin (2009). Sympathy, Understanding, and Hermeneutics in Hume's Treatise. Hume Studies 35 (1-2):135-170.
    With his theory of sympathy in the Treatise of Human Nature, Hume has been interpreted as anticipating later hermeneutic theories of understanding. It is argued in the present article that Hume has good reasons to consider a hermeneutic theory of empathetic understanding, that such a theory avoids a serious difficulty in Hume’s “official,” positivist theory of sympathy, that it is compatible with the complex and subtle form of positivism, or naturalism, developed in Book 1 of the Treatise, and that his (...)
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  19. Jonna Bornemark (forthcoming). The Genesis of Empathy in Human Development: A Phenomenological Reconstruction. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-10.
    In phenomenology, theories of empathy are intimately connected with the question of how it is possible to have insight into the mind of the other person. In this article, the author wants to show why it is self-evident for us that the other person is having experiences. In order to do so, it is not enough to discuss the phenomenon of empathy with a starting point in the already constituted adult person; instead the article presents a genetic approach to human (...)
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  20. O. K. Bouwsma (1942). Stace's "the Primacy of Sympathy". Journal of Philosophy 39 (23):631-635.
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  21. F. H. Bradley (1883). Sympathy and Interest. Mind 8 (32):573-575.
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  22. Emily Brady (2011). Adam Smith's ''Sympathetic Imagination'' and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Environment. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (1):95-109.
    This paper explores the significance of Adam Smith's ideas for defending non-cognitivist theories of aesthetic appreciation of nature. Objections to non-cognitivism argue that the exercise of emotion and imagination in aesthetic judgement potentially sentimentalizes and trivializes nature. I argue that although directed at moral judgement, Smith's views also find a place in addressing this problem. First, sympathetic imagination may afford a deeper and more sensitive type of aesthetic engagement. Second, in taking up the position of the impartial spectator, aesthetic judgements (...)
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  23. Michael Bray (2007). Sympathy, Disenchantment, and Authority: Adam Smith and the Construction of Moral Sentiments. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 28 (1):159-193.
  24. Tila Tabea Brink, Karolina Urton, Dada Held, Evgeniya Kirilina, Markus Hofmann, Gisela Klann-Delius, Arthur M. Jacobs & Lars Kuchinke (2011). The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children. Frontiers in Psychology 2:80.
    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4 to 8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of pre-school and school children (N=48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional (...)
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  25. Alexander Broadie (2006). Sympathy and the Impartial Spectator. In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith. Cambridge University Press.
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  26. Florian Bruns & Andreas Frewer (2011). Ethics Consultation and Empathy. HEC Forum 23 (4):247-255.
    There is no doubt that emotions have an important effect on practices of moral reasoning such as clinical ethics consultation. Empathy is not only a basic human emotion but also an important and learnable skill for health care professionals. A basic amount of empathy is essential both in patient care and in clinical ethics consultation. This article debates the “adequate dose” of empathy in ethics consultations in clinical settings and tries to identify possible situations within the process of consultation in (...)
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  27. Sophie Bryant (1895). Antipathy and Sympathy. Mind 4 (15):365-370.
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  28. Adam Budd (2008). Aesthetic Sensibility and the Contours of Sympathy Through Hume's Insertions to the Treatise. In Alexander John Dick & Christina Lupton (eds.), Theory and Practice in the Eighteenth Century: Writing Between Philosophy and Literature. Pickering & Chatto.
  29. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2009). Cultural Memory, Empathy, and Rape. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 16 (1):25-42.
    Assuming a relational understanding of the self, I argue that empathy is necessary for individual and cultural recovery from rape. However, gender affects our ability to listen with empathy to rape survivors. For women, the existence of cultural memories discourages empathy either by engendering fear of their own future rape or by provoking sympathy rather than empathy. For men, the lack of cultural memories makes rape what Arendt calls an "unreality," thus diminishing the possibility for empathy. Although empathetic listeningpresents gender (...)
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  30. Peter J. Carew & Larry Stapleton (forthcoming). Towards Empathy: A Human-Centred Analysis of Rationality, Ethics and Praxis in Systems Development. AI and Society:1-18.
    Functionalism has long been the dominant paradigm in systems development practice. However, functionalism promotes an innate and immutable instrumental rationality that is indifferent to human values, rights, society, culture and international stability. It, in essence, lacks empathy. Although alternative paradigms have been promoted for decades in the systems development literature to help address this deficit, functionalism remains dominant. This paper reiterates the call for a fundamental paradigm shift away from myopic functionalism and towards a more empathic and human-centred philosophy. It (...)
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  31. Noël Carroll (2010). Movies, the Moral Emotions, and Sympathy. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):1-19.
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  32. Peter Carruthers (1999). Sympathy and Subjectivity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (4):465-82.
    This paper shows that even if the mental states of non-human animals lack phenomenological properties, as some accounts of mental-state consciousness imply, this need not prevent those states from being appropriate objects of sympathy and moral concern. The paper argues that the most basic form of mental (as opposed to biological) harm lies in the existence of thwarted agency, or thwarted desire, rather than in anything phenomenological.
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  33. Alisa L. Carse (2005). The Moral Contours of Empathy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):169 - 195.
    Morally contoured empathy is a form of reasonable partiality essential to the healthy care of dependents. It is critical as an epistemic aid in determining proper moral responsiveness; it is also, within certain richly normative roles and relationships, itself a crucial constitutive mode of moral connection. Yet the achievement of empathy is no easy feat. Patterns of incuriosity imperil connection, impeding empathic engagement; inappropriate empathic engagement, on the other hand, can result in self-effacement. Impartial moral principles and constraints (...)
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  34. Stephen Chanderbhan (2013). Does Empathy Have Any Place in Aquinas's Account of Justice? Philosophia 41 (2):273-288.
    Recent developments in cognitive science have prompted philosophers to speculate about the importance of empathy, the ability to directly apprehend and take on the mental and emotional states of others, in understanding and being motivated by moral norms—particularly moral norms concerning other humans. In this paper, I investigate whether some kind of empathy is involved in Thomas Aquinas’s account of the virtue of justice, which he describes as essentially other-directed. I claim that a kind of empathy is involved in Aquinas’s (...)
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  35. Douglas Chismar (1988). Empathy and Sympathy: The Important Difference. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (4):257-266.
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  36. Douglas Chismar (1988). Hume's Confusion About Sympathy. Philosophy Research Archives 14:237-246.
    David Hume argues that the prevalence of human sympathizing justifies our attributing to humans a certain degree of benevolence. This move from sympathy to having a concern for others has been challenged by recent critics. A more fine-grained look at Hume’s concept of sympathy may reveal the reasons why he thought that experiencing sympathy implied having a benevolent attitude. Two arguments from the Treatise are analyzed and found wanting. It is suggested that Hume’s confusion may derive from ambiguities surrounding the (...)
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  37. Matthew R. Christ (2008). History (R.H.) Sternberg Tragedy Offstage. Suffering and Sympathy in Ancient Athens. Austin: U. Of Texas P, 2006. Pp. 238. £26. 9780292714168. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:225-.
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  38. Henry C. Clark (2009). Adam Smith and Neo-Darwinian Debate Over Sympathy, Strong Reciprocity, and Reputation Effects. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 7 (1):47-64.
    This paper aims to do two things. First, it describes the place that Adam Smith actually occupies in current research occurring at the boundaries of new interdisciplinary social-science fields such as evolutionary anthropology, evolutionary psychology, neuro-economics and behavioral economics. Second, it suggests a way in which Smith's place in the debates with which these subjects are concerned may be more properly defined and conceptualized. Specifically, the paper focuses on the controversial new theory of strong reciprocity, and on the reputation effects (...)
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  39. Mark Coeckelbergh (2007). Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism. Ethics and Information Technology 9 (3):219-231.
    Many philosophical and public discussions of the ethical aspects of violent computer games typically centre on the relation between playing violent videogames and its supposed direct consequences on violent behaviour. But such an approach rests on a controversial empirical claim, is often one-sided in the range of moral theories used, and remains on a general level with its focus on content alone. In response to these problems, I pick up Matt McCormick’s thesis that potential harm from playing computer games is (...)
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  40. Mark Coeckelbergh (2007). Who Needs Empathy? A Response to Goldie's Arguments Against Empathy and Suggestions for an Account of Mutual Perspective-Shifting in Contexts of Help and Care. Ethics and Education 2 (1):61-72.
    According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an external perspective is morally superior: we should focus on the other, rather than ourselves. But this argument is misguided in several ways. If we consider conversation, there (...)
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  41. Taya R. Cohen (2010). Moral Emotions and Unethical Bargaining: The Differential Effects of Empathy and Perspective Taking in Deterring Deceitful Negotiation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):569 - 579.
    Two correlational studies tested whether personality differences in empathy and perspective taking differentially relate to disapproval of unethical negotiation strategies, such as lies and bribes. Across both studies, empathy, but not perspective taking, discouraged attacking opponents' networks, misrepresentation, inappropriate information gathering, and feigning emotions to manipulate opponents. These results suggest that unethical bargaining is more likely to be deterred by empathy than by perspective taking. Study 2 also tested whether individual differences in guilt proneness and shame proneness inhibited the endorsement (...)
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  42. Jonathan Cole (2001). Empathy Needs a Face. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):5-7.
    The importance of the face is best understood, it is suggested, from the effects of visible facial difference in people. Their experience reflects the ways in which the face may be necessary for the interpersonal relatedness underlying such 'sharing' mind states as empathy. It is proposed that the face evolved as a result of several evolutionary pressures but that it is well placed to assume the role of an embodied representation of the increasingly refined inner states of mind that developed (...)
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  43. Bridget Cooper (2010). In Search of Profound Empathy in Learning Relationships: Understanding the Mathematics of Moral Learning Environments. Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):79-99.
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  44. Amy Coplan (2011). Will the Real Empathy Please Stand Up? A Case for a Narrow Conceptualization. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):40-65.
    A longstanding problem with the study of empathy is the lack of a clear and agreed upon definition. A trend in the recent literature is to respond to this problem by advancing a broad and all-encompassing view of empathy that applies to myriad processes ranging from mimicry and imitation to high-level perspective taking. I argue that this response takes us in the wrong direction and that what we need in order to better understand empathy is a narrower conceptualization, not a (...)
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  45. Garrett Cullity (2004). Sympathy, Discernment, and Reasons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):37–62.
    According to "the argument from discernment", sympathetic motivation is morally faulty, because it is morally undiscriminating. Sympathy can incline you to do the right thing, but it can also incline you to do the wrong thing. And if so, it is no better as a reason for doing something than any other morally arbitrary consideration. The only truly morally good form of motivation--because the only morally non-arbitrary one--involves treating an action's rightness as your reason for performing it. This paper attacks (...)
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  46. Andrew S. Cunningham (2004). The Strength of Hume's “Weak” Sympathy. Hume Studies 30 (2):237-256.
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  47. Justin D'Arms (2011). Empathy, Approval, and Disapproval in Moral Sentimentalism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):134-141.
    This discussion explores the moral psychology and metaethics of Michael Slote's Moral Sentimentalism. I argue that his account of empathy has an important lacuna, because the sense in which an empathizer feels the same feeling that his target feels requires explanation, and the most promising candidates are unavailable to Slote. I then argue that the (highly original) theory of moral approval and disapproval that Slote develops in his book is implausible, both phenomenologically and for the role it accords to empathy. (...)
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  48. Anya Daly (2014). Primary Intersubjectivity: Empathy, Affective Reversibility, 'Self-Affection' and the Primordial 'We'. Topoi 33 (1):227-241.
    The arguments advanced in this paper are the following. Firstly, that just as Trevarthen’s three subjective/intersubjective levels, primary, secondary, and tertiary, mapped out different modes of access, so too response is similarly structured, from direct primordial responsiveness, to that informed by shared pragmatic concerns and narrative contexts, to that which demands the distantiation afforded by representation. Secondly, I propose that empathy is an essential mode of intentionality, integral to the primary level of subjectivity/intersubjectivity, which is crucial to our survival as (...)
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  49. J. C. Daniel (1984). `Sympathy' or `Empathy'? Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (2):103-103.
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  50. Stephen Darwall (2011). Being With. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):4–24.
    What is it for two or more people to be with one another or together? And what role do empathic psychological processes play, either as essential constituents or as typical elements? As I define it, to be genuinely with each other, persons must be jointly aware of their mutual openness to mutual relating. This means, I argue, that being with is a second-personal phenomenon in the sense I discuss in The Second-Person Standpoint. People who are with each other are in (...)
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