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Subcategories:History/traditions: Empiricism
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  1. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2008). Desgabets: Rationalist or Cartesian Empiricist? In Jon Miller (ed.), Topics in Early Modern Philosophy of Mind (Springer).
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  2. Robert L. Armstrong (1970). Metaphysics and British Empiricism. Lincoln,University of Nebraska Press.
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  3. Robert Audi (2000). Philosophical Naturalism at the Turn of the Century. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:27-45.
    This paper examines the nature and varieties of philosophical naturalism. A central question it pursues is whether there is any unifying conception of naturalism and, if so, whether it is substantive or methodological. Another question addressed is the extent to which naturalism is motivated by or depends on empiricism. The paper explores the connection between naturalism and scientific method---often taken as central in defining it---and critically discusses naturalistic positions in metaphysics (including philosophical theology), epistemology, and ethics. Given the ambitions of (...)
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  4. Bruce Aune, An Empiricist Theory of Knowledge.
    The A Priori, Universality, and Necessity 23 Axioms and Primitive Rules of Inference 26 General Doubts about Intuitive Knowledge 28 Logical Truths and Rules of Inference 32 Alleged Self-evident Factual Truths 36 Three Final Examples, Two Old and One New 40 An Indirect Argument for Rationalism 43..
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  5. Bruce Aune (1970). Rationalism, Empiricism, and Pragmatism: An Introduction. New York,Random House.
  6. Alexander Bird (2007). Underdetermination and Evidence. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
    I present an argument that encapsulates the view that theory is underdetermined by evidence. I show that if we accept Williamson's equation of evidence and knowledge, then this argument is question-begging. I examine ways of defenders of underdetermination may avoid this criticism. I also relate this argument and my critique to van Fraassen's constructive empiricism.
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  7. Michel Bitbol (2007). Materialism, Stances, and Open-Mindedness. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  8. H. G. Callaway (1996). Review: Carl R. Hausman, Charles S. Peirce's Evolutionary Philosophy. [REVIEW] Dialectica 50 (No. 2):153-161.
    Carl Hausman is a former editor of The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, a revival of one of the first American philosophy journals, where Peirce published some of his early work; and Hausman has devoted a good deal of his career to Peirce scholarship. He interprets Peirce’s thought “as a fallibilistic foundationalism that affirms a unique realism according to which what is real is a dynamic, evolving extramental condition.” The theme is an interesting one partly in view of the many recent (...)
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  9. H. G. Callaway (1981). Semantic Theory and Language: A Perspective (Reprinted in Callaway 2008, Meaning Without Analyticity). Proceedings of the Southwestern Philosophical Association; Philosophical Topics 1981 (summer):93-103.
    Chomsky’s conception of semantics must contend with both philosophical skepticism and contrary traditions in linguistics. In “Two Dogmas” Quine argued that “...it is non-sense, and the root of much non-sense, to speak of a linguistic component and a factual component in the truth of any individual statement.” If so, it follows that language as the object of semantic investigation cannot be separated from collateral information. F. R. Palmer pursues a similar contention in his recent survey of issues in semantic theory: (...)
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  10. Laurence Carlin (2009). The Empiricists: A Guide for the Perplexed. Continuum.
    Introduction: The empiricists and their context -- Empiricism and the empiricists -- The intellectual background to the early modern empiricists -- Martin Luther and the Reformation -- Aristotelian cosmology and the scientific revolution -- Aristotelian/scholastic hylomorphism and the rise of mechanism -- The Royal Society of London -- Francis Bacon (1561-1626) -- The natural realm : the idols of the mind -- Idols of the tribe -- Idols of the cave -- Idols of the marketplace -- Idols of the theatre (...)
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  11. Albert Casullo (2000). Is Empiricism Coherent? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:61-74.
    In recent years empiricism has come under attack. Some argue that the view is incoherent and conclude, on that basis, that some knowledge is a priori. Whatever the merits of such arguments against empiricism, they cannot be parlayed into an argument in support of the a priori unless the latter is not open to those arguments. My primary contention is that the a priori is open to the arguments offered against empiricism. Hence, they do not advance the case for the (...)
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  12. Anjan Chakravatty (2007). Six Degrees of Speculation : Metaphysics in Empirical Contexts. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
    Metaphysical inquiry often exemplifies characteristics that do not meet with approval in the estimations of empiricists. Most distasteful to them, it seems, is a perceived distance between many of the speculations of metaphysics − about things such as causation, laws of nature, and unobservable stuff more generally − and the sorts of investigations they take to constitute proper empirical inquiry. Like any over-arching movement in the history of philosophy, empiricism has recognized different interlocutors at different times, but it appears that (...)
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  13. Simona Chiodo (2011). Io Non Cerco, Trovo: Un Empirismo Contemporaneo. Bollati Boringhieri.
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  14. Gordon Haddon Clark (1994). Lord God of Truth and Concerning the Teacher. Trinity Foundation.
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  15. Jesús Coll Mármol (2007). Conceptual Schemes and Empiricism. Theoria 22 (2):153-165.
    This paper is an examination and evaluation of McDowell’s criticisms of Davidson’s views on conceptual schemes and empiricism. I will argue that McDowell does not understand the real nature of Davidson’s arguments against the scheme-content dualism and that his new empiricist proposal fails to solve all the problems that old empiricism has traditionally raised. This is so because Davidson does not try to reject only a certain conception of experience by rejecting the dualism of scheme and content, but a way (...)
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  16. Karin de Boer (2011). Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  17. John Dewey (1927). Half-Hearted Naturalism. Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):57-64.
    I am not equipped with capacities which fit one for the office of a lexicographical autocrat, and I shall make no attempt to tell what naturalism must or should signify. But I may take advantage of the opportunity to say what empirical naturalism, or naturalistic empiricism, means to me. I can not hope to offer anything new, or anything which I have not said many times already. But perhaps by concentrating on this point I may make the tenor of my (...)
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  18. R. Ferrell (2003). Hume Reads Freud: Empiricism as Rhetorical Event. Critical Horizons 4 (2):265-280.
    The two competitive currents in French philosophy initiated by Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze tackle the difference between empiricism and idealism in contrary motion. In Derrida, the move is toward a critique of representation. In Deleuze, it is toward recovery of the real. Nevertheless, this paper nominates their meeting in a kind of 'radical empiricism'. Both Derrida and Deleuze engage with empiricism at certain points in their work, although many who go by that label would be surprised to hear it.
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  19. Bas C. Van Fraassen (2000). The False Hopes of Traditional Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):253 - 280.
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  20. Peter A. French & Howard K. Wettstein (eds.) (2007). Philosophy and the Empirical. Blackwell Pub. Inc..
    This collection of essays focuses on a current issue of central important in contemporary philosophy, the relationship between philosophy and empirical studies. Explores in detail a range of examples which demonstrate how the older paradigm – philosophy as conceptual analysis – is giving way to a more varied set of models of philosophical work Each of the featured papers is a previously unpublished contribution by a major scholar.
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  21. R. G. Frey (1981). Against Empiricism: On Education, Epistemology and Value. Philosophical Books 22 (4):254-256.
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  22. Don Garrett & Edward Barbanell (eds.) (1997). Encyclopedia of Empiricism. Greenwood Press.
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  23. Tamar Szabó Gendler (2001). Empiricism, Rationalism and the Limits of Justification. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):641–648.
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  24. Thomas Gil (2009). Kritik des Empirismus. Wehrhahn.
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  25. Richard A. S. Hall (2011). Review: H.G. Callaway, Memories and Portraits: Explorations in American Thought. [REVIEW] Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 47 (4):534-537.
    The modus operandi of this book is contextual—throughout he demonstrates how ideas emerge from or are inspired by particular environments. And the need to put philosophical ideas in their larger historical and cultural context so as to fully understand them is, as will be illustrated below, a facet of his philosophical method. Another of its facets is fallibilism, a deep commitment to subjecting all theories and concepts (in any field) to incessant scrutiny, testing, correction, and clarification. This suggests that a (...)
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  26. R. F. Holland (1980). Against Empiricism: On Education, Epistemology, and Value. Barnes & Noble Books.
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  27. Brenda Jubin (1977). 'The Spatial Quale': A Corrective to James's Radical Empiricism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 15 (2):212-216.
    "Space," William James confessed, "is [both] a direfully difficult subject [and the] driest of subjects.'" Nonetheless, convinced that most previous accounts of space were either incoherent or mythological, he set out to describe space as it is actually experienced. His first effort, "The Spatial Quale," appeared in The Journal of Speculative Philosophy in 1879. 2 This article is historically important; as Ralph Barton Perry notes, "his peculiar view of the amplitude and eonnectedness of experience seems to have begun with the (...)
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  28. James Ladyman (2007). The Epistemology of Constructive Empiricism. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  29. Jules David Law (1993). The Rhetoric of Empiricism: Language and Perception From Locke to I.A. Richards. Cornell University Press.
    Introduction EMPIRICISM DOES NOT stand in very high repute among literary theorists these days. Regarded generally as a discredited philosophical paradigm ...
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  30. Peter Lipton (2007). Accepting Contradictions. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  31. John Locke, George Berkeley & David Hume (eds.) (1974/1990). The Empiricists. Anchor Books/Doubleday.
    This volume includes the major works of the British Empiricists, philosophers who sought to derive all knowledge from experience. All essays are complete except that of Locke, which Professor Richard Taylor of Brown University has skillfully abridged.
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  32. Sebastian Lutz, Criteria of Empirical Significance: A Success Story.
    The sheer multitude of criteria of empirical significance has been taken as evidence that the pre-analytic notion being explicated is too vague to be useful. I show instead that a significant number of these criteria—by Ayer, Popper, Przełęcki, Suppes, and David Lewis, among others—not only form a coherent whole, but also connect directly to the theory of definition, the notion of empirical content as explicated by Ramsey sentences, and the theory of measurement; two criteria by Carnap and Sober are trivial, (...)
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  33. Ernan McMullin (2007). Taking an Empirical Stance. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  34. Jon Miller (ed.) (2008). Topics in Early Modern Philosophy of Mind (Springer). Springer Verlag.
    Some of these authors have “mixed” views: for example, MacKenzie (and perhaps Arbini) ... Topics in Early Modern Philosophy of Mind, Studies in the History ..
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  35. Harold Morick (1972). Challenges to Empiricism. Belmont, Calif.,Wadsworth Pub. Co..
    Carnap, R. Empiricism, semantics, and ontology.--Quine, W. V. Two dogmas of empiricism. Meaning and translation.--Sellars, W. Empiricism and the philosophy of mind.--Putnam, H. Brains and behaviour.--Popper, K. R. Science: conjectures and refutations.--Feyerabend, P. K. Science without experience. How to be a good empiricist--a plea for tolerance in matters epistemological.--Kuhn, T. S. Incommensurability and paradigms.--Hesse, M. Duhem, Quine and a new empiricism.--Chomsky, N. Recent contributions to the theory of innate ideas.--Putnam, H. The innateness hypothesis and explanatory models in linguistics.--Goodman, N. The (...)
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  36. Eric S. Nelson (2007). Empiricism, Facticity, and the Immanence of Life in Dilthey. Pli 18:108-128.
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  37. Tore Nordenstam (1972). Empiricism and the Analytic-Synthetic Distinction. Oslo ...,Universitetsforlaget; Stockholm ..., Läromedelsförlaget.
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  38. Rod O'Donnell (1990). The Epistemology of J. M. Keynes. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (3):333-350.
    This paper has two objectives, neither previously attempted in the published literature—first, to outline J. M. Keynes's theory of knowledge in some detail, and, secondly, to justify the contention that his epistemology is a variety of rationalism, and not, as many have asserted, a form of empiricism. Keynes's attitude to empirical data is also analysed as well as his views on prediction and theory choice. 1This paper is partly based on ideas initially advanced in O'Donnell [1982], a revised and expanded (...)
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  39. Philip Percival (2007). An Empiricist Critique of Constructive Empiricism : The Aim of Science. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  40. Stephen Priest (1990). The British Empiricists: Hobbes to Ayer. Viking Penguin.
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  41. Kaisa Puhakka (1992). Discovery as Seeing: Lessons From Radical Empiricism and Meditative Practice. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 12 (1):48-58.
    Suggests that genuine discovery in the context of qualitative research implies a distance between what is seen in the phenomenological sense and what has already been described. The ingenuity of William James's descriptions of hitherto undescribed aspects of everyday experience are rooted in an openness to seeing that characterizes his "radical empiricism." James was a pathfinder and explorer who did introspection and discovered the phenomena of transitive consciousness. The concepts of seeing as the mode of discovery, problematics of the intentionality (...)
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  42. W. V. Quine (1974/1973). The Roots of Reference. Lasalle, Ill.,Open Court.
    Our only channel of information about the world is the impact of external forces on our sensory surfaces. So says science itself. There is no clairvoyance. How, then, can we have parlayed this meager sensory input into a full-blown scientific theory of the world? This is itself a scientific question. The pursuit of it, with free use of scientific theory, is what I call naturalized epistemology. The Roots of Reference falls within that domain. Its more specific concern, within that domain, (...)
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  43. Nicholas Rescher (1982). Empirical Inquiry. Rowman and Littlefield.
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  44. Alan Richardson (2011). But What Then Am I, This Inexhaustible, Unfathomable Historical Self? Or, Upon What Ground May One Commit Empiricism? Synthese 178 (1):143 - 154.
    This essay examines the perspective from which Bas van Fraassen, in his book, The Empirical Stance, explains the project of empiricism. I argue that this perspective is a robustly transcendental perspective, which suggests that the tradition of empiricism lacks the resources to explain itself. I offer an alternative history of epistemic voluntarism in twentieth-century philosophy to the history van Fraassen himself provides, one that finds the novelty in van Fraassen's own views to be precisely his reintroduction of the knowing mind (...)
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  45. Alan W. Richardson (2003). Conceiving, Experiencing, and Conceiving Experiencing: Neo-Kantianism and the History of the Concept of Experience. [REVIEW] Topoi 22 (1):55-67.
    It is often claimed that epistemological thought divides around the issue of the place of experience in knowledge: While empiricists argue that experience is the only legitimate source of knowledge, rationalists find other such sources. The trouble with such accounts is not that they are wrong, but that they are incomplete. On occasion, epistemological differences run deeper, raising the very notion of experience as an issue for epistemology. This paper looks at two epistemological debates which concerned not simply the place (...)
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  46. Robert J. Roth (1993). British Empiricism and American Pragmatism: New Directions and Neglected Arguments. Fordham University Press.
    This volume contributes to the remarkable resurgence in interest for American pragmatism and its proponents by focusing on the influence of British empiricism, ...
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  47. Bertrand Russell (1996). A Fresh Look at Empiricism: 1927-42. Routledge.
    During the period covered by this volume, Bertrand Russell first retired from and them resumed his philosophical career. In 1927 he published two philosophy books, The Analysis of Matter and An Outline of Philosophy. His next book in academic philosophy, An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, was not published until 1940. Yet, Russell published many essays and popular books between 1927 and 1946, mostly to finance the running of Beacon Hill School, and his growing family. Those years also saw his (...)
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  48. Alfred Schramm (1998-1999). Metaphysics, Carnap's Remedy and Mach's Science. Philosophia Scientiae 3 (2):109 - 120.
    Starting from the question of whether Ernst Mach's well-known notion of "Elemente" (elements) must lead to the verdict that the arch-anti-metaphysician himself may be justly accused of holding an essantially metaphysical position, the idea of metaphysical neutrality is explained in Section I. Section II deals with Quine's verdict on abstract entities, among which Mach's elements would have to be counted if there were no way out of the Quinean test. Such a way out, it is proposed in section III, is (...)
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  49. Michael J. Shaffer & Jason A. Warnick (2004). Bursting Bealer's Bubble: How the Starting Points Argument Begs the Question of Foundationalism Against Quine. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):87-106.
    In his 1993 article George Bealer offers three separate arguments that are directed against the internal coherence of empiricism, specifically against Quine’s version of empiricism. One of these arguments is the starting points argument (SPA) and it is supposed to show that Quinean empiricism is incoherent. We argue here that this argument is deeply flawed, and we demonstrate how a Quinean may successfully defend his views against Bealer’s SPA. Our defense of Quinean empiricism against the SPA depends on showing (1) (...)
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  50. Allard Tamminga & Sander Verhaegh (2013). Katz's Revisability Paradox Dissolved. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):771-784.
    Quine's holistic empiricist account of scientific inquiry can be characterized by three constitutive principles: *noncontradiction*, *universal revisability* and *pragmatic ordering*. We show that these constitutive principles cannot be regarded as statements within a holistic empiricist's scientific theory of the world. This claim is a corollary of our refutation of Katz's [1998, 2002] argument that holistic empiricism suffers from what he calls the Revisability Paradox. According to Katz, Quine's empiricism is incoherent because its constitutive principles cannot themselves be rationally revised. Using (...)
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