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Subcategories:History/traditions: Empiricism
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  1. S. C. A. (1974). Empiricism and Sociology. Review of Metaphysics 28 (1):131-132.
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  2. Sean Allen-Hermanson (2008). Desgabets: Rationalist or Cartesian Empiricist? In Jon Miller (ed.), Topics in Early Modern Philosophy of Mind (Springer).
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  3. Robert Almeder (1997). Carnap and Quine on Empiricism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 14 (3):349 - 364.
    In this paper I discuss the naturalism of Carnap and Quine. I examine Quine's naturalized epistemology and argue that Carnap's naturalism is considerably more attractive.
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  4. David M. Armstrong (1988). Discussion: Reply to Van Fraassen. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66:224-229.
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  5. Robert L. Armstrong (1970). Metaphysics and British Empiricism. Lincoln,University of Nebraska Press.
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  6. Robert Audi (2000). Philosophical Naturalism at the Turn of the Century. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:27-45.
    This paper examines the nature and varieties of philosophical naturalism. A central question it pursues is whether there is any unifying conception of naturalism and, if so, whether it is substantive or methodological. Another question addressed is the extent to which naturalism is motivated by or depends on empiricism. The paper explores the connection between naturalism and scientific method---often taken as central in defining it---and critically discusses naturalistic positions in metaphysics (including philosophical theology), epistemology, and ethics. Given the ambitions of (...)
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  7. Bruce Aune, An Empiricist Theory of Knowledge.
    The A Priori, Universality, and Necessity 23 Axioms and Primitive Rules of Inference 26 General Doubts about Intuitive Knowledge 28 Logical Truths and Rules of Inference 32 Alleged Self-evident Factual Truths 36 Three Final Examples, Two Old and One New 40 An Indirect Argument for Rationalism 43..
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  8. Bruce Aune (1970). Rationalism, Empiricism, and Pragmatism: An Introduction. New York,Random House.
  9. A. Bain (1889). The Empiricist Position. Mind 14 (55):369-392.
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  10. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2009). Review of Bas C. Van Fraassen: Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 106 (11).
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  11. Alexander Bird (2007). Underdetermination and Evidence. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
    I present an argument that encapsulates the view that theory is underdetermined by evidence. I show that if we accept Williamson's equation of evidence and knowledge, then this argument is question-begging. I examine ways of defenders of underdetermination may avoid this criticism. I also relate this argument and my critique to van Fraassen's constructive empiricism.
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  12. Michel Bitbol (2007). Materialism, Stances, and Open-Mindedness. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
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  13. Sandy C. Boucher (2014). What is a Philosophical Stance? Paradigms, Policies and Perspectives. Synthese 191 (10):2315-2332.
    Since van Fraassen first put forward the suggestive idea that many philosophical positions should be construed as ‘stances’ rather than factual beliefs, there have been various attempts to spell out precisely what a philosophical stance might be, and on what basis one should be adopted. In this paper I defend a particular account of stances, the view that they are pragmatically justified perspectives or ways of seeing the world, and compare it to some other accounts that have been offered. In (...)
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  14. Douglas Bridges (1998). Constructive Truth in Practice. In H. G. Dales & Gianluigi Oliveri (eds.), Truth in Mathematics. Oxford University Press, Usa. 53--69.
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  15. H. S. Broudy (1984). Review of Beyond Empiricism. [REVIEW] Tradition and Discovery 12 (2):22-28.
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  16. Otávio Bueno (1999). What is Structural Empiricism? Scientific Change in an Empiricist Setting. Erkenntnis 50 (1):55-81.
    In this paper a constructive empiricist account of scientific change is put forward. Based on da Costa's and French's partial structures approach, two notions of empirical adequacy are initially advanced (with particular emphasis on the introduction of degrees of empirical adequacy). Using these notions, it is shown how both the informativeness and the empirical adequacy requirements of an empiricist theory of scientific change can then be met. Finally, some philosophical consequences with regard to the role of structures in this context (...)
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  17. T. E. Burke (1987). Objectivity, Empiricism and Truth. Philosophical Books 28 (4):216-217.
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  18. H. G. Callaway (1996). Review: Carl R. Hausman, Charles S. Peirce's Evolutionary Philosophy. [REVIEW] Dialectica 50 (No. 2):153-161.
    Carl Hausman is a former editor of The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, a revival of one of the first American philosophy journals, where Peirce published some of his early work; and Hausman has devoted a good deal of his career to Peirce scholarship. He interprets Peirce’s thought “as a fallibilistic foundationalism that affirms a unique realism according to which what is real is a dynamic, evolving extramental condition.” The theme is an interesting one partly in view of the many recent (...)
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  19. H. G. Callaway (1981). Semantic Theory and Language: A Perspective (Reprinted in Callaway 2008, Meaning Without Analyticity). Proceedings of the Southwestern Philosophical Association; Philosophical Topics 1981 (summer):93-103.
    Chomsky’s conception of semantics must contend with both philosophical skepticism and contrary traditions in linguistics. In “Two Dogmas” Quine argued that “...it is non-sense, and the root of much non-sense, to speak of a linguistic component and a factual component in the truth of any individual statement.” If so, it follows that language as the object of semantic investigation cannot be separated from collateral information. F. R. Palmer pursues a similar contention in his recent survey of issues in semantic theory: (...)
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  20. Laurence Carlin (2009). The Empiricists: A Guide for the Perplexed. Continuum.
    Introduction: The empiricists and their context -- Empiricism and the empiricists -- The intellectual background to the early modern empiricists -- Martin Luther and the Reformation -- Aristotelian cosmology and the scientific revolution -- Aristotelian/scholastic hylomorphism and the rise of mechanism -- The Royal Society of London -- Francis Bacon (1561-1626) -- The natural realm : the idols of the mind -- Idols of the tribe -- Idols of the cave -- Idols of the marketplace -- Idols of the theatre (...)
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  21. Rudolf Carnap (1938). Empiricism and the Language of Science. Synthese 3 (12):33 - 35.
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  22. Albert Casullo (2000). Is Empiricism Coherent? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:61-74.
    In recent years empiricism has come under attack. Some argue that the view is incoherent and conclude, on that basis, that some knowledge is a priori. Whatever the merits of such arguments against empiricism, they cannot be parlayed into an argument in support of the a priori unless the latter is not open to those arguments. My primary contention is that the a priori is open to the arguments offered against empiricism. Hence, they do not advance the case for the (...)
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  23. Philip Catton (2004). Constructive Criticism. In Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.), Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
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  24. Anjan Chakravatty (2007). Six Degrees of Speculation : Metaphysics in Empirical Contexts. In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
    Metaphysical inquiry often exemplifies characteristics that do not meet with approval in the estimations of empiricists. Most distasteful to them, it seems, is a perceived distance between many of the speculations of metaphysics − about things such as causation, laws of nature, and unobservable stuff more generally − and the sorts of investigations they take to constitute proper empirical inquiry. Like any over-arching movement in the history of philosophy, empiricism has recognized different interlocutors at different times, but it appears that (...)
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  25. Silvio Seno Chibeni (2010). Realismo científico empirista. Principia 1 (2):255-270.
    In his influential criticism of scientific realism, Bas van Fraassen assumes that this doctrine is incompatible with empiricism, according to which the sole ultimate basis of knowledge is experience. This claim has been generally accepted in the contemporary literature in philosophy of science. Thus, the very distinction between scientific realism and empiricism is often forgotten, the term 'empiricism' being now widely used to designate a range of anti-realist positions, such as van Fraassen's "constructive empiricism". In this paper it is argued, (...)
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  26. Simona Chiodo (2011). Io Non Cerco, Trovo: Un Empirismo Contemporaneo. Bollati Boringhieri.
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  27. Gordon Haddon Clark (1994). Lord God of Truth and Concerning the Teacher. Trinity Foundation.
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  28. Jesús Coll Mármol (2007). Conceptual Schemes and Empiricism. Theoria 22 (2):153-165.
    This paper is an examination and evaluation of McDowell’s criticisms of Davidson’s views on conceptual schemes and empiricism. I will argue that McDowell does not understand the real nature of Davidson’s arguments against the scheme-content dualism and that his new empiricist proposal fails to solve all the problems that old empiricism has traditionally raised. This is so because Davidson does not try to reject only a certain conception of experience by rejecting the dualism of scheme and content, but a way (...)
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  29. Patrick J. Connolly (2015). Newton and Empiricism (Eds. Biener and Schliesser). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (2):334-336.
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  30. Richard Creath (1988). The Pragmatics of Observation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:149 - 153.
    To assess van Fraassen's anti-realism, I examine observation and its relation to judging. I argue that the boundary of observability is determined pragmatically, because observing depends on the context of inquiry and because the 'able' in 'observable' implicitly involves human interests and concerns. Thus, observability is like van Fraassen's notions of simplicity and explanation. While a non-pragmatic notion of observability can be devised, then virtually any event is potentially observable. Consequently, van Fraassen's attempt to divide empirical adequacy from the pragmatic (...)
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  31. Richard Creath (1985). Taking Theories Seriously. Synthese 62 (3):317 - 345.
    This paper defends scientific realism, the doctrine that we should interpret theories as being just as ontologically committing as beliefs at the observational level. I examine the character of observation to show that the difference in interpretation suggested by anti-realists is unwarranted. Second, I discuss Wilfrid Sellars'' approach to the issue. Finally, I provide a detailed study of recent work by Bas van Fraassen. While van Fraassen''s work is the focus of the paper, the conclusions are far broader: That a (...)
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  32. Karin de Boer (2011). Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles. European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  33. Herman C. D. G. De Regt (2006). To Believe in Belief. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):21-39.
    Take the following version of scientific realism: we have good reason to believe that (some of the) current scientific theories tell us something specific about the underlying, i.e. unobservable, structures of the world, for instance that there are electrons with a certain electric charge, or that there are viruses that cause certain diseases. Popper, the rationalist, would not have adhered to the proposed formulation of scientific realism in terms of the rationality of existential beliefs concerning unobservables. Popper did not believe (...)
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  34. C. F. Delaney (1978). Basic Propositions, Empiricism and Science. In Joseph Pitt (ed.), The Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars: Queries and Extensions. D. Reidel. 41--55.
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  35. Daniel Dennett (2009). 19.1 The Three Stances. In Ansgar Beckermann & Brian P. McLaughlin (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press. 339.
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  36. Michael Detlefsen (1998). Constructive Existence Claims. In Matthias Schirn (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Clarendon Press. 1998--307.
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  37. John Dewey (1927). Half-Hearted Naturalism. Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):57-64.
    I am not equipped with capacities which fit one for the office of a lexicographical autocrat, and I shall make no attempt to tell what naturalism must or should signify. But I may take advantage of the opportunity to say what empirical naturalism, or naturalistic empiricism, means to me. I can not hope to offer anything new, or anything which I have not said many times already. But perhaps by concentrating on this point I may make the tenor of my (...)
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  38. Jude P. Dougherty (2012). Cultural Revolution in Berlin. Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):648-650.
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  39. Jennifer Nag El (2000). The Empiricist Conception of Experience. Philosophy 75:345.
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  40. Herbert Feigl (1958). Critique of Intuition According to Scientific Empiricism. Philosophy East and West 8 (1/2):1-16.
  41. R. Ferrell (2003). Hume Reads Freud: Empiricism as Rhetorical Event. Critical Horizons 4 (2):265-280.
    The two competitive currents in French philosophy initiated by Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze tackle the difference between empiricism and idealism in contrary motion. In Derrida, the move is toward a critique of representation. In Deleuze, it is toward recovery of the real. Nevertheless, this paper nominates their meeting in a kind of 'radical empiricism'. Both Derrida and Deleuze engage with empiricism at certain points in their work, although many who go by that label would be surprised to hear it.
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  42. Jeff Foss (1991). On Saving the Phenomena and the Mice: A Reply to Bourgeois Concerning Van Fraassen's Image of Science. Philosophy of Science 58 (2):278-287.
    In the fusillade he lets fly against Foss (1984), Bourgeois (1987) sometimes hits a live target. I admit that I went beyond the letter of van Fraassen's The Scientific Image (1980), making inferences and drawing conclusions which are often absurd. I maintain, however, that the absurdities must be charged to van Fraassen's account. While I cannot redress every errant shot of Bourgeois, his essay reveals the need for further discussion of the concepts of the phenomena and the observables as used (...)
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  43. Bas C. Van Fraassen (2000). The False Hopes of Traditional Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):253 - 280.
    After Hume, attempts to forge an empiricist epistemology have taken three forms, which I shall call the First, Middle, and Third Way. The First still attempts an a priori demonstration that our cognitive methods satisfy some criterion of adequacy. The Middle Way is pursued under the banners of naturalism and scientific realism, and aims at the same conclusion on non-apriori grounds. After arguing that both fail, I shall describe the general characteristics of the Third Way, an alternative epistemology suitable for (...)
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  44. Peter A. French & Howard K. Wettstein (eds.) (2007). Philosophy and the Empirical. Blackwell Pub. Inc..
    This collection of essays focuses on a current issue of central important in contemporary philosophy, the relationship between philosophy and empirical studies. Explores in detail a range of examples which demonstrate how the older paradigm – philosophy as conceptual analysis – is giving way to a more varied set of models of philosophical work Each of the featured papers is a previously unpublished contribution by a major scholar.
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  45. R. G. Frey (1981). Against Empiricism: On Education, Epistemology and Value. Philosophical Books 22 (4):254-256.
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  46. Michael Friedman (1982). The Scientific Image by Bas C. Van Fraassen. Journal of Philosophy 79 (5):274-283.
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  47. Carlo Gabbani & Marc Lange (2010). On Bas van Fraassen's Scientific Representation. Iris 2 (3):245-256.
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  48. Don Garrett & Edward Barbanell (eds.) (1997). Encyclopedia of Empiricism. Greenwood Press.
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  49. Tamar Szabó Gendler (2001). Empiricism, Rationalism and the Limits of Justification. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):641–648.
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  50. Michel Ghins (forthcoming). Representing and Measuring: Discussing van Fraassen’s Views. Metascience:1-5.
    Representation and models have been the focus of considerable interest in philosophy of science for several decades. But the publication in 2008 of Bas van Fraassen’s important book Scientific representation: Paradoxes of perspective gave a novel and strong impetus to the study of their role in the dynamic of scientific knowledge, as attested by the growing quantity of papers and conferences related to representation. In science, knowing necessarily involves representing—phenomena at least and perhaps more for the scientific realist—by means of (...)
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