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  1. Joanna Odrowa˛Z. -Sypniewska (2001). Quantum Indiscernibility Without Vague Identity. Analysis 61 (269):65–69.
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  2. Peter M. Ainsworth (2007). Untangling Entanglement. Foundations of Physics 37 (1):144-158.
    In this paper recent work that attempts to link quantum entanglement to (i) thermodynamic energy, (ii) thermodynamic entropy and (iii) information is reviewed. With respect to the first two links the paper is essentially expository. The final link is elaborated on: it is argued that the value of the entanglement of a bipartite system in a pure state is equal to the value of the irreducible uncertainty (i.e. irreducibly missing information) about its subsystems and that this suggests that entanglement gives (...)
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  3. Valia Allori (2013). Review of "Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?&Quot; by Franck Laloë. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Review.
  4. Piotr Badzia̧g, Ingemar Bengtsson, Adán Cabello, Helena Granström & Jan-Åke Larsson (2011). Pentagrams and Paradoxes. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):414-423.
    Klyachko and coworkers consider an orthogonality graph in the form of a pentagram, and in this way derive a Kochen-Specker inequality for spin 1 systems. In some low-dimensional situations Hilbert spaces are naturally organised, by a magical choice of basis, into SO(N) orbits. Combining these ideas some very elegant results emerge. We give a careful discussion of the pentagram operator, and then show how the pentagram underlies a number of other quantum “paradoxes”, such as that of Hardy.
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  5. Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto (2012). Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States? Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states be interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According to some works, the degrees of freedom (and the tool of quantum partitions) of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizable and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom (or quantum partitions), even if mathematically justified introduces an epistemic element, not (...)
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  6. Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto (2012). Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States? Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states be interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According to some works, the degrees of freedom (and the tool of quantum partitions) of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizable and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom (or quantum partitions), even if mathematically justified introduces an epistemic element, not (...)
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  7. Eric Cator & Klaas Landsman (2014). Constraints on Determinism: Bell Versus Conway–Kochen. Foundations of Physics 44 (7):781-791.
    Bell’s Theorem from Physics 36:1–28 (1964) and the (Strong) Free Will Theorem of Conway and Kochen from Notices AMS 56:226–232 (2009) both exclude deterministic hidden variable theories (or, in modern parlance, ‘ontological models’) that are compatible with some small fragment of quantum mechanics, admit ‘free’ settings of the archetypal Alice and Bob experiment, and satisfy a locality condition akin to parameter independence. We clarify the relationship between these theorems by giving reformulations of both that exactly pinpoint their resemblance and their (...)
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  8. Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara, Roberto Giuntini, Antonio Ledda, Roberto Leporini & Giuseppe Sergioli (2010). Entanglement as a Semantic Resource. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1494-1518.
    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits (quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters (qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special (...)
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  9. Rob Clifton (2002). The Subtleties of Entanglement and its Role in Quantum Information Theory. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S150-S167.
    My aim in this paper is a modest one. I do not have any particular thesis to advance about the nature of entanglement, nor can I claim novelty for any of the material I shall discuss. My aim is simply to raise some questions about entanglement that spring naturally from certain developments in quantum information theory and are, I believe, worthy of serious consideration by philosophers of science. The main topics I discuss are different manifestations of quantum nonlocality, entanglement-assisted communication, (...)
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  10. John G. Cramer, Decryption and Quantum Computing: Seven Qubits and Counting.
    Alternate View Column AV-112 Keywords: quantum mechanics entangled states computer computing 7 qubits prime number factoring Schor algorithm NMR nuclear magnetic resonance fast parallel decryption coherence wave-function collapse many-worlds transactional interpretation Published in the June-2002 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine ; This column was written and submitted 12/19/2001 and is copyrighted ©2001 by John G. Cramer.
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  11. Michael E. Cuffaro, On the Significance of the Gottesman-Knill Theorem.
    According to the Gottesman-Knill theorem, quantum algorithms utilising operations chosen from a particular restricted set are efficiently simulable classically. Since some of these algorithms involve entangled states, it is commonly concluded that entanglement is not sufficient to enable quantum computers to outperform classical computers. It is argued in this paper, however, that what the Gottesman-Knill theorem shows us is only that if we limit ourselves to the Gottesman-Knill operations, we will not have used the entanglement with which we have been (...)
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  12. Michael E. Cuffaro, On the Necessity of Entanglement for the Explanation of Quantum Speedup.
    Of the many and varied applications of quantum information theory, perhaps the most fascinating is the sub-field of quantum computation. In this sub-field, computational algorithms are designed which utilise the resources available in quantum systems in order to compute solutions to computational problems with, in some cases, exponentially fewer resources than any known classical algorithm. While the fact of quantum computational speedup is almost beyond doubt, the source of quantum speedup is still a matter of debate. In this paper I (...)
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  13. Michael E. Cuffaro (2013). On the Physical Explanation for Quantum Computational Speedup. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario
    The aim of this dissertation is to clarify the debate over the explanation of quantum speedup and to submit, for the reader's consideration, a tentative resolution to it. In particular, I argue, in this dissertation, that the physical explanation for quantum speedup is precisely the fact that the phenomenon of quantum entanglement enables a quantum computer to fully exploit the representational capacity of Hilbert space. This is impossible for classical systems, joint states of which must always be representable as product (...)
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  14. Michael E. Cuffaro & Wayne C. Myrvold (2013). On the Debate Concerning the Proper Characterization of Quantum Dynamical Evolution. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1125-1136.
    There has been a long-standing and sometimes passionate debate between physicists over whether a dynamical framework for quantum systems should incorporate not completely positive (NCP) maps in addition to completely positive (CP) maps. Despite the reasonableness of the arguments for complete positivity, we argue that NCP maps should be allowed, with a qualification: these should be understood, not as reflecting ‘not completely positive’ evolution, but as linear extensions, to a system’s entire state space, of CP maps that are only partially (...)
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  15. Luke Fenton-Glynn & Thomas Kroedel (2013). Relativity, Quantum Entanglement, Counterfactuals, and Causation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt040.
    We investigate whether standard counterfactual analyses of causation (CACs) imply that the outcomes of space-like separated measurements on entangled particles are causally related. Although it has sometimes been claimed that standard CACs imply such a causal relation, we argue that a careful examination of David Lewis’s influential counterfactual semantics casts doubt on this. We discuss ways in which Lewis’s semantics and standard CACs might be extended to the case of space-like correlations. 1 Introduction2 Measurement Outcomes and Counterfactual Analyses of Causation3 (...)
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  16. Daniel I. Fivel (1999). Multiparticle Entanglement. Foundations of Physics 29 (4):561-570.
    It is shown that completely entangled two-particle quantum states are simultaneous eigenstates of a large set of commuting, nonlocal observables, a characterization that generalizes to multiparticle systems. This leads to a nonstatistical proof of the Bell-EPR no-hidden-variable theorem for two-particle systems and to a family of multiparticle generalizations of the three-particle system of Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger.
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  17. N. G. (1995). Examining the Compatibility of Special Relativity and Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 26 (3):325-331.
  18. Dieter Gernert (2011). Distance and Similarity Measures in Generalised Quantum Theory. Axiomathes 21 (2):303-313.
    A summary of recent experimental results shows that entanglement can be generated more easily than before, and that there are improved chances for its persistence. An eminent finding of Generalised Quantum Theory is the insight that the notion of entanglement can be extended, such that, e.g., psychological or psychophysical problem areas can be included, too. First, a general condition for entanglement to occur is given by the term ‘common prearranged context’. A formalised treatment requires a quantitative definition of the similarity (...)
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  19. G. C. Ghirardi, A. Rimini & T. Weber (1988). The Puzzling Entanglement of Schrödinger's Wave Function. Foundations of Physics 18 (1):1-27.
    A brief review of the conceptual difficulties met by the quantum formalism is presented. The main attempts to overcome these difficulties are considered and their limitations are pointed out. A recent proposal based on the assumption of the occurrence of a specific type of wave function collapse is discussed and its consequences for the above-mentioned problems are analyzed.
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  20. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2002). Making Quantum Theory Compatible with Realism. Foundations of Science 7 (1-2):11-47.
    After a brief account of theway quantum theory deals with naturalprocesses, the crucial problem that such atheory meets, the measurement or, better, themacro-objectification problem is discussed.The embarrassing aspects of the occurrence ofentangled states involving macroscopic systemsare analyzed in details. The famous example ofSchroedinger's cat is presented and it ispointed out how the combined interplay of thesuperposition principle and the ensuingentanglement raises some serious difficultiesin working out a satisfactory quantum worldview, agreeing with our definiteperceptions. The orthodox solution to themacro-objectification problem, i.e. (...)
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  21. Víctor Gómez Pin (1997). New Developments on Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics, Oviedo, julio de 1996. Theoria 12 (1):203-204.
  22. Elizabeth Gould & P. K. Aravind (2010). Isomorphism Between the Peres and Penrose Proofs of the BKS Theorem in Three Dimensions. Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1096-1101.
    It is shown that the 33 complex rays in three dimensions used by Penrose to prove the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem have the same orthogonality relations as the 33 real rays of Peres, and therefore provide an isomorphic proof of the theorem. It is further shown that the Peres and Penrose rays are just two members of a continuous three-parameter family of unitarily inequivalent rays that prove the theorem.
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  23. Stan Gudder (2010). Effect Algebras Are Not Adequate Models for Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1566-1577.
    We show that an effect algebra E possess an order-determining set of states if and only if E is semiclassical; that is, E is essentially a classical effect algebra. We also show that if E possesses at least one state, then E admits hidden variables in the sense that E is homomorphic to an MV-algebra that reproduces the states of E. Both of these results indicate that we cannot distinguish between a quantum mechanical effect algebra and a classical one. Hereditary (...)
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  24. Amit Hagar (2012). Veiled Realism? Review of B d'Espagnat's On Physics and Philosophy. [REVIEW] Physics in Perspective (x).
  25. Yuji Hasegawa (2012). Entanglement Between Degrees of Freedom in a Single-Particle System Revealed in Neutron Interferometry. Foundations of Physics 42 (1):29-45.
    Initially Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and later Bell shed light on the non-local properties exhibited by subsystems in quantum mechanics. Separately, Kochen and Specker analyzed sets of measurements of compatible observables and found that a consistent coexistence of these results is impossible, i.e., quantum indefiniteness of measurement results. As a consequence, quantum contextuality, a more general concept compared to non-locality, leads to striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. Here, we report neutron interferometric experiments which investigate entangled states in a (...)
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  26. James Hawthorne & Michael Silberstein (1995). For Whom the Bell Arguments Toll. Synthese 102 (1):99-138.
    We will formulate two Bell arguments. Together they show that if the probabilities given by quantum mechanics are approximately correct, then the properties exhibited by certain physical systems must be nontrivially dependent on thetypes of measurements performedand eithernonlocally connected orholistically related to distant events. Although a number of related arguments have appeared since John Bell's original paper (1964), they tend to be either highly technical or to lack full generality. The following arguments depend on the weakest of premises, and the (...)
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  27. Richard Healey, Holism and Nonseparability in Physics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    It has sometimes been suggested that quantum phenomena exhibit a characteristic holism or nonseparability, and that this distinguishes quantum from classical physics. One puzzling quantum phenomenon arises when one performs measurements of spin or polarization on certain separated quantum systems. The results of these measurements exhibit patterns of statistical correlation that resist traditional causal explanation. Some have held that it is possible to understand these patterns as instances or consequences of quantum holism or nonseparability. Just what holism and nonseparability are (...)
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  28. Richard Healey (2004). Gauge Theories and Holisms. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 35 (4):619-642.
    Those looking for holism in contemporary physics have focused their attention primarily on quantum entanglement. But some gauge theories arguably also manifest the related phenomenon of nonseparability. While the argument is strong for the classical gauge theory describing electromagnetic interactions with quantum “particles”, it fails in the case of general relativity even though that theory may also be formulated in terms of a connection on a principal fiber bundle. Anandan has highlighted the key difference in his analysis of a supposed (...)
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  29. Richard A. Healey (1991). Holism and Nonseparability. Journal of Philosophy 88 (8):393-421.
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  30. Joe Henson (2013). Non-Separability Does Not Relieve the Problem of Bell's Theorem. Foundations of Physics 43 (8):1008-1038.
    This paper addresses arguments that “separability” is an assumption of Bell’s theorem, and that abandoning this assumption in our interpretation of quantum mechanics (a position sometimes referred to as “holism”) will allow us to restore a satisfying locality principle. Separability here means that all events associated to the union of some set of disjoint regions are combinations of events associated to each region taken separately.In this article, it is shown that: (a) localised events can be consistently defined without implying separability; (...)
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  31. F. Herbut (2010). On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. II. Insight in the Real Random Delayed-Choice Erasure Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (3):301-312.
    It was pointed out in the first part of this study (Herbut in Found. Phys. 38:1046–1064, 2008) that EPR-type entanglement is defined by the possibility of performing any of two mutually incompatible distant, i.e., direct-interaction-free, measurements. They go together under the term ‘EPR-type disentanglement’. In this second part, quantum-mechanical insight is gained in the real random delayed-choice erasure experiment of Kim et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:1–5, 2000) by a relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach (explained in the first part). Finally, it is (...)
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  32. F. Herbut (2008). On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. I. The Micromaser Case and Delayed-Choice Quantum Erasure. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1046-1064.
    Delayed-choice erasure is investigated in two-photon two-slit experiments that are generalizations of the micromaser experiment of Scully et al. (Nature 351:111–116, 1991). Applying quantum mechanics to the localization detector, it is shown that erasure with delayed choice in the sense of Scully, has an analogous structure as simple erasure. The description goes beyond probabilities. The EPR-type disentanglement, consisting in two mutually incompatible distant measurements, is used as a general framework in both parts of this study. Two simple coherence cases are (...)
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  33. Karol Horodecki, Michał Horodecki, Pawel Horodecki & Jonathan Oppenheim (2005). Information Theories with Adversaries, Intrinsic Information, and Entanglement. Foundations of Physics 35 (12):2027-2040.
    There are aspects of privacy theory that are analogous to quantum theory. In particular one can define distillable key and key cost in parallel to distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. We present here classical privacy theory as a particular case of information theory with adversaries, where similar general laws hold as in entanglement theory. We place the result of Renner and Wolf—that intrinsic information is lower bound for key cost—into this general formalism. Then we show that the question of whether (...)
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  34. Don Howard, The Metaphysics of Entanglement and the Entanglement of Metaphysics.
    (STARS Conference, Cancún, January 2007).
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  35. Nick Huggett (1997). Identity, Quantum Mechanics and Common Sense. The Monist 80 (1):118-130.
  36. Florian Hulpke, Uffe V. Poulsen, Anna Sanpera, Aditi Sen, Ujjwal Sen & Maciej Lewenstein (2006). Unitarity as Preservation of Entropy and Entanglement in Quantum Systems. Foundations of Physics 36 (4):477-499.
    The logical structure of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and its relation to other fundamental principles of Nature has been for decades a subject of intensive research. In particular, the question whether the dynamical axiom of QM can be derived from other principles has been often considered. In this contribution, we show that unitary evolutions arise as a consequences of demanding preservation of entropy in the evolution of a single pure quantum system, and preservation of entanglement in the evolution of composite quantum (...)
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  37. Richard Jozsa & Noah Linden (2003). On the Role of Entanglement in Quantum-Computational Speed-Up. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 459:2011--2032.
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  38. A. Kalev, A. Mann & M. Revzen (2007). Local Hidden Variables Underpinning of Entanglement and Teleportation. Foundations of Physics 37 (1):125-143.
    Entangled states whose Wigner functions are non-negative may be viewed as being accounted for by local hidden variables (LHV). Recently, there were studies of Bell’s inequality violation (BIQV) for such states in conjunction with the well known theorem of Bell that precludes BIQV for theories that have LHV underpinning. We extend these studies to teleportation which is also based on entanglement. We investigate if, to what extent, and under what conditions may teleportation be accounted for via LHV theory. Our study (...)
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  39. Simon Kochen & E. P. Specker (1967). The Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 17:59--87.
  40. Frederick M. Kronz (1998). Nonseparability and Quantum Chaos. Philosophy of Science 65 (1):50-75.
    Conventional wisdom has it that chaotic behavior is either strongly suppressed or absent in quantum models. Indeed, some researchers have concluded that these considerations serve to undermine the correspondence principle, thereby raising serious doubts about the adequacy of quantum mechanics. Thus, the quantum chaos question is a prime subject for philosophical analysis. The most significant reasons given for the absence or suppression of chaotic behavior in quantum models are the linearity of Schrödinger’s equation and the unitarity of the time-evolution described (...)
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  41. Frederick M. Kronz (1991). Quantum Entanglement and Nonideal Measurements: A Critique of Margenau's Objections to the Projection Postulate. Synthese 89 (2):229 - 251.
    I defend the projection postulate against two of Margenau's criticisms. One involves two types of nonideal measurements, measurements that disturb and measurements that annihilate. Such measurements cannot be characterized using the original version of the projection postulate. This is one of the most interesting and powerful objections to the projection postulate since most realistic measurements are nonideal, in Margenau's sense. I show that a straightforward generalization of the projection postulate is capable of handling the more realistic kinds of measurements considered (...)
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  42. Franck Laloë (2012). Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics? Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction; 1. Historical perspective; 2. Present situation, remaining conceptual difficulties; 3. The theorem of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen; 4. Bell theorem; 5. More theorems; 6. Quantum entanglement; 7. Applications of quantum entanglement; 8. Quantum measurement; 9. Experiments, quantum reduction seen in real time; 10. Various interpretations; Conclusion; Appendices; Index.
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  43. D. J. Miller & Matt Farr, On the Possibility of Ontological Models of Quantum Mechanics.
    It is an unresolved question in quantum mechanics whether quantum states apply to individual quantum systems, or to ensembles of quantum systems. We show by way of a thought experiment that quantum states apply only to ensembles of quantum systems. A further unresolved question is whether quantum systems possess ontic states. If a quantum state is the state of an ensemble, as we claim, the answer to this question is that quantum states are not ontic. However, a notable recent result (...)
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  44. Matteo Morganti (2009). A New Look at Relational Holism in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):1027--1038.
    Teller argued that violations of Bell’s inequalities are to be explained by interpreting quantum entangled systems according to ‘relational holism’, that is, by postulating that they exhibit irreducible (‘inherent’) relations. Teller also suggested a possible application of this idea to quantum statistics. However, the basic proposal was not explained in detail nor has the additional idea about statistics been articulated in further work. In this article, I reconsider relational holism, amending it and spelling it out as appears necessary for a (...)
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  45. Wayne C. Myrvold (1997). The Decision Problem for Entanglement. In Robert S. Cohen, Michael Horne & John Stachel (eds.), Potentiality, Entanglement, and Passion-at-a-Distance: Quantum Mechanical Studies for Abner Shimony. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 177--190.
  46. Paul O'Hara (2003). Rotational Invariance and the Spin-Statistics Theorem. Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1349-1368.
    In this article, the rotational invariance of entangled quantum states is investigated as a possible cause of the Pauli exclusion principle. First, it is shown that a certain class of rotationally invariant states can only occur in pairs. This is referred to as the coupling principle. This in turn suggests a natural classification of quantum systems into those containing coupled states and those that do not. Surprisingly, it would seem that Fermi–Dirac statistics follows as a consequence of this coupling while (...)
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  47. T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.) (2002). Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer.
    Its interpretation, however, is as unsettled now as in the heroic days of Einstein and Bohr.This book focuses on quantum non-locality, the curious quantum ...
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  48. Martin Plenio, Entanglement Theory and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
    Entangled quantum systems can be harnessed to transmit, store, and manipulate information in a more efficient and secure way than possible in the realm of classical physics. Given this resource character of entanglement, it is an important problem to characterize ways to manipulate it and meaningful approaches to its quantification. This is the objective of entanglement theory.
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  49. Benni Reznik (2003). Entanglement From the Vacuum. Foundations of Physics 33 (1):167-176.
    We explore the entanglement of the vacuum of a relativistic field by letting a pair of causally disconnected probes interact with the field. We find that, even when the probes are initially non-entangled, they can wind up to a final entangled state. This shows that entanglement persists between disconnected regions in the vacuum. However the probe entanglement, unlike correlations, vanishes once the regions become sufficiently separated. The relation between entropy, correlations and entanglement is discussed.
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  50. Robert J. C. Spreeuw (1998). A Classical Analogy of Entanglement. Foundations of Physics 28 (3):361-374.
    A classical analogy of quantum mechanical entanglement is presented, using classical light beams. The analogy can be pushed a long way, only to reach its limits when we try to represent multiparticle, or nonlocal, entanglement. This demonstrates that the latter is of exclusive quantum nature. On the other hand, the entanglement of different degrees of freedom of the same particle might be considered classical. The classical analog cannot replace Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type experiments, nor can it be used to build a quantum (...)
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