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  1. Edward Abplanalp, Background Environmental Justice: An Extension of Rawls's Political Liberalism.
    This dissertation extends John Rawls’s mature theory of justice out to address the environmental challenges that citizens of liberal democracies now face. Specifically, using Rawls’s framework of political liberalism, I piece together a theory of procedural justice to be applied to a constitutional democracy. I show how citizens of pluralistic democracies should apply this theory to environmental matters in a four stage contracting procedure. I argue that, if implemented, this extension to Rawls’s theory would secure background environmental justice. I explain (...)
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  2. Janet S. Adams, Armen Tashchian & Ted H. Shore (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 29 (3):199-211.
    This study investigated effects of codes of ethics on perceptions of ethical behavior. Respondents from companies with codes of ethics (n = 465) rated role set members (top management, supervisors, peers, subordinates, self) as more ethical and felt more encouraged and supported for ethical behavior than respondents from companies without codes (n = 301). Key aspects of the organizational climate, such as supportiveness for ethical behavior, freedom to act ethically, and satisfaction with the outcome of ethical problems were impacted by (...)
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  3. Robin Attfield (2011). Schmidtz on Species Egalitarianism. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):139 - 141.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 139-141, June 2011.
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  4. Derek Bell (2004). Environmental Justice and Rawls' Difference Principle. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):287-306.
    It is widely acknowledged that low-income and minority communities in liberal democratic societies suffer a disproportionate burden of environmental hazards. Is “environmental injustice” a necessary feature of liberal societies or is its prevalence due to the failure of existing liberal democracies to live up to liberal principles of justice? One leading version of liberalism, John Rawls’ “justice as fairness,” can be “extended” to accommodate the concerns expressed by advocates of environmental justice. Moreover, Rawlsian environmental justice has some significant advantages over (...)
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  5. Derek Bell (2004). Environmental Justice and Rawls' Difference Principle. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):287-306.
    It is widely acknowledged that low-income and minority communities in liberal democratic societies suffer a disproportionate burden of environmental hazards. Is “environmental injustice” a necessary feature of liberal societies or is its prevalence due to the failure of existing liberal democracies to live up to liberal principles of justice? One leading version of liberalism, John Rawls’ “justice as fairness,” can be “extended” to accommodate the concerns expressed by advocates of environmental justice. Moreover, Rawlsian environmental justice has some significant advantages over (...)
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  6. Brian Berkey (2014). State Action, State Policy, and the Doing/Allowing Distinction. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):147-149.
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  7. Andrew Brook (2011). Spent Fuel An Extra Problem: A Canadian Initiative. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):301 - 306.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 301-306, October 2011.
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  8. Thom Brooks, Climate Change and Negative Duties.
    It is widely accepted by the scientific community and beyond that human beings are primarily responsible for climate change and that climate change has brought with it a number of real problems. These problems include, but are not limited to, greater threats to coastal communities, greater risk of famine, and greater risk that tropical diseases may spread to new territory. In keeping with J. S. Mill's 'Harm Principle', green political theorists often respond that if we are contributing a harm to (...)
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  9. J. Baird Callicott (1989). Book Review:Environmental Justice. Peter S. Wenz. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (1):197-.
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  10. W. S. K. Cameron (2005). Can We Afford the Tough Love of Liberals? Environmental Philosophy 2 (1):30-43.
    In two shocking articles that appeared in 1968 and 1974, Garrett Hardin argued that the population explosion was producing a “tragedy of the commons.” Since we lack an effective method of sharing common resources, the strong incentive for individuals to appropriate them selfishly would soon lead to their collapse. To mitigate this danger, Hardin proposed a “lifeboat ethic”: less populated and -polluted Western countries should deny food aid to developing nations, where it would save lives only to increase population pressure, (...)
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  11. Simon Caney (2014). Two Kinds of Climate Justice: Avoiding Harm and Sharing Burdens. Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (4):125-149.
  12. Simon Caney (2014). Climate Change, Intergenerational Equity and the Social Discount Rate. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (4):320-342.
    Climate change is projected to have very severe impacts on future generations. Given this, any adequate response to it has to consider the nature of our obligations to future generations. This paper seeks to do that and to relate this to the way that inter-generational justice is often framed by economic analyses of climate change. To do this the paper considers three kinds of considerations that, it has been argued, should guide the kinds of actions that one generation should take (...)
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  13. Simon Caney (2012). Just Emissions. Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (4):255-300.
    This paper examines what would be a fair distribution of the right to emit greenhouse gases. It distinguishes between views that treat the distribution of this right on its own (Isolationist Views) and those that treat it in conjunction with the distribution of other goods (Integrationist Views). The most widely held view treats adopts an Isolationist approach and holds that emission rights should be distributed equally. This paper provides a critique of this 'equal per capita' view, and the isolationist assumptions (...)
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  14. Simon Caney (2011). Justice and the Duties of the Advantaged: A Defence. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (4):543-552.
    In a recent paper in this journal I argued that the distribution of the burdens involved in combating climate change should be determined by a combination of a particular version of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and a particular version of the Ability to Pay Principle. Carl Knight has presented three objections to my analysis. In what follows, I argue that he largely misinterprets my arguments.
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  15. Simon Caney (2009). Climate Change and the Future: Discounting for Time, Wealth, and Risk. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (2):163-186.
    This paper examines explore the issues of intergenerational equity raised by climate change. A number of different reasons have been suggested as to why current generations may legitimately favor devoting resources to contemporaries rather than to future generations. These - either individually or jointly - challenge the case for combating climate change. In this paper, I distinguish between three different kinds of reason for favoring contemporaries. I argue that none of these arguments is persuasive. My answer in each case appeals (...)
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  16. Peter F. Cannavó (2008). Defining Environmental Justice: Theories, Movements, and Nature - by David Schlosberg. Ethics and International Affairs 22 (3):336-338.
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  17. Avner de-Shalit (2004). Book Review: Kristin Shrader-Frechette. Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [REVIEW] Ethics and the Environment 9 (1):140-144.
  18. Avner de-Shalit (2004). Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy (Review). Ethics and the Environment 9 (1):140-144.
  19. Geert Demuijnck (2004). Environmental Free-Riding and the Limited Scope of Interactive Justice. Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):61-71.
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  20. Michael D. Doan (2014). Climate Change and Complacency. Hypatia 29 (3):634-650.
    In this paper I engage interdisciplinary conversation on inaction as the dominant response to climate change, and develop an analysis of the specific phenomenon of complacency through a critical-feminist lens. I suggest that Chris Cuomo's discussion of the “insufficiency” problem and Susan Sherwin's call for a “public ethics” jointly point toward particularly promising harm-reduction strategies. I draw upon and extend their work by arguing that extant philosophical accounts of complacency are inadequate to the task of sorting out what it means (...)
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  21. Robert Melchior Figueroa & Gordon Waitt (2008). Cracks in the Mirror: (Un)Covering the Moral Terrains of Environmental Justice at Ulu R U-Kata Tju T a National Park. Ethics, Place and Environment 11 (3):327 – 349.
    The authors' aim is to provide a more complete picture of a non-anthropocentric relational ethics by addressing the failure to account for environmental justice. They argue that environmental ethics is always more than how discourses are layered over place, by situating moral agency through the body's affective repertoire of being-in-the-world. Empirical evidence for their argument is drawn from self-reflexive accounts of young Americans travelling to Ulu r u-Kata Tju t a National Park, Northern Territory, Australia as part of a study-group. (...)
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  22. Greta Gaard (2010). Reproductive Technology, or Reproductive Justice?: An Ecofeminist, Environmental Justice Perspective on the Rhetoric of Choice. Ethics and the Environment 15 (2):103-129.
    When I opened the Minneapolis StarTribune one Sunday morning, hoping for thirty (or even ten) minutes of quiet reading before my toddler woke up, the headline “Miracles for Sale” caught my eye (2007). Introduced by a photo of a mother and baby, and followed by the story of that same happy “older” (age 36) mother who now has two children by egg donation, the article profiled a 24-year-old artist and antique dealer who feels “one of her eggs goes to waste (...)
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  23. Stephen M. Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue (2010). Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. OUP USA.
    This collection gathers a set of seminal papers from the emerging area of ethics and climate change. Topics covered include human rights, international justice, intergenerational ethics, individual responsibility, climate economics, and the ethics of geoengineering. Climate Ethics is intended to serve as a source book for general reference, and for university courses that include a focus on the human dimensions of climate change. It should be of broad interest to all those concerned with global justice, environmental science and policy, and (...)
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  24. James Garvey (2011). Climate Change and Causal Inefficacy: Why Go Green When It Makes No Difference? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 69:157-174.
    Reflection on personal choices and climate change can lead to the thought that nothing an individual does can possibly make a difference to the planet’s future. So why bother going green? This is a version of the problem of causal inefficacy, and it is a particular problem for those with consequentialist leanings. Voters and vegetarians are consulted for help, and a suggestive thought about consistency is pursued. Consequentialist arguments for governmental action are shored up with reflection on consistency, and, hopefully, (...)
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  25. James Garvey (2010). Climate Change. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):50-51.
    If it’s correct to think that the West does wrong by doing nothing despite having the room to reduce emissions and the capacity to do so, then it’s correct to think that we’re doing wrong too, in our everyday lives. Your emissions might be as much as 20 times more than others in the world; you might be doing as much as 20 times the damage to the planet compared to other people. The bulbs are not enough.
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  26. Axel Gosseries (1998). L'éthique environnementale aujourd'hui. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 96 (3):395-426.
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  27. Larry O. Gostin (2007). Global Climate Change: The Roberts Court and Environmental Justice. Hastings Center Report 37 (5):10-11.
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  28. Troy W. Hartley (1995). Environmental Justice: An Environmental Civil Rights Value Acceptable to All World Views. Environmental Ethics 17 (3):277-289.
    In accordance with environmental injustice, sometimes called environmental racism, minority communities are disproportionately subjected to a higher level of environmental risk than other segments of society. Growing concern over unequal environmental risk and mounting evidence of both racial and economic injustices have led to a grass-roots civil rights campaign called the environmental justice movement. The environmental ethics aspects of environmental injustice challenge narrow utilitarian views and promote Kantian rights and obligations. Nevertheless, an environmentaljustice value exists in all ethical world views, (...)
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  29. Mick Hillman (2004). The Importance of Environmental Justice in Stream Rehabilitation. Ethics, Place and Environment 7 (1 & 2):19 – 43.
    New forms of river management have emerged following widespread recognition of the environmental damage caused by attempts to harness and control rivers for navigation, consumptive water use and power generation. A dominant top-down engineering-based paradigm is being challenged by catchment-framed, ecosystem-based approaches which claim to place greater emphasis on participation and equity. However, there has been limited attention given to examining these claims, and principles of justice are frequently left unarticulated or embedded in what is still presented as an essentially (...)
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  30. Vittorio Hösle (2012). Why Does the Environmental Problem Challenge Ethics and Political Philosophy? Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):279-292.
    This essay discusses the challenges that the problem of environmental destruction represents for both ethics and political philosophy. It defends universalism as the only ethical theory capable of dealing adequately with the issue, but recognizes three limitations of it: First, its strong anthropocentrism (as in Kant); second, the meta-ethics of rational egoism (Spinoza and Hobbes); and, third, the reduction of ethics to symmetric relations in the mores of modernity. With regard to political philosophy, universalism rejects the idea that consensus is (...)
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  31. Ramona Cristina Ilea (2009). Intensive Livestock Farming: Global Trends, Increased Environmental Concerns, and Ethical Solutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):153-167.
    By 2050, global livestock production is expected to double—growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector—with most of this increase taking place in the developing world. As the United Nation’s four-hundred-page report, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options , documents, livestock production is now one of three most significant contributors to environmental problems, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution, and increased health problems. The paper draws on the UN report as well as a flurry of other (...)
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  32. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship has begun (...)
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  33. Tvrtko Jolic (2014). Climate Change and Human Moral Enhancement. In Mladen Domazet & Dinka Marinovic Jerolimov (eds.), Sustainability Perspectives from the European Semi-periphery. Institute for social research. 79-91.
    In this article I discuss a recent proposal according to which human beings are in need of moral enhancement by novel biomedical means in order to reduce the risk of catastrophes that could threaten the very possibility of continued human existence on this planet. I raise two objections to this proposal. The first objection claims that the idea that human beings could be morally enhanced by altering our emotional psychological inclinations, such as altruism, is misguided. In the line with Kantian (...)
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  34. Leonard Kahn (2012). Voluntary Human Engineering, Climate Change, and N-Person Prisoners Dilemmas. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):241 - 243.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 15, Issue 2, Page 241-243, June 2012.
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  35. Eric Katz (1989). Peter Wenz: Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 11 (3):269-275.
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  36. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  37. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  38. Carl Knight (forthcoming). Moderate Emissions Grandfathering. Environmental Values.
    Emissions grandfathering holds that a history of emissions strengthens an agent’s claim for future emission entitlements. Though grandfathering appears to have been influential in actual emission control frameworks, it is rarely taken seriously by philosophers. This article presents an argument for thinking this an oversight. The core of the argument is that members of countries with higher historical emissions are typically burdened with higher costs when transitioning to a given lower level of emissions. According to several appealing views in political (...)
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  39. Carl Knight (2013). What is Grandfathering? Environmental Politics 22 (3):410-427.
    Emissions grandfathering maintains that prior emissions increase future emission entitlements. The view forms a large part of actual emission control frameworks, but is routinely dismissed by political theorists and applied philosophers as evidently unjust. A sympathetic theoretical reconsideration of grandfathering suggests that the most plausible version is moderate, allowing that other considerations should influence emission entitlements, and be justified on instrumental grounds. The most promising instrumental justification defends moderate grandfathering on the basis that one extra unit of emission entitlements from (...)
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  40. Carl Knight (2011). Climate Change and the Duties of the Disadvantaged: Reply to Caney. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (4):531-542.
    Discussions of where the costs of climate change adaptation and mitigation should fall often focus on the 'polluter pays principle' or the 'ability to pay principle'. Simon Caney has recently defended a 'hybrid view', which includes versions of both of these principles. This article argues that Caney's view succeeds in overcoming several shortfalls of both principles, but is nevertheless subject to three important objections: first, it does not distinguish between those emissions which are hard to avoid and those which are (...)
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  41. Juliana Maantay (2002). Zoning Law, Health, and Environmental Justice: What's the Connection? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):572-593.
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  42. Aaron Maltais (2008). Global Warming and the Cosmopolitan Political Conception of Justice. Environmental Politics 17 (4):592-609.
    Within the literature in green political theory on global environmental threats one can often find dissatisfaction with liberal theories of justice. This is true even though liberal cosmopolitans regularly point to global environmental problems as one reason for expanding the scope of justice beyond the territorial limits of the state. One of the causes for scepticism towards liberal approaches is that many of the most notable anti-cosmopolitan theories are also advanced by liberals. In this paper, I first explain why one (...)
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  43. Lukas Meyer & Dominic Roser (2010). Climate Justice and Historical Emissions. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (1):229-253.
    Climate change can be interpreted as a unique case of historical injustice involving issues of both intergenerational and global justice. We split the issue into two separate questions. First, how should emission rights be distributed? Second, who should come up for the costs of coping with climate change? We regard the first question as being an issue of pure distributive justice and argue on prioritarian grounds that the developing world should receive higher per capita emission rights than the developed world. (...)
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  44. Philemon Oyewole (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 29 (3):239 - 251.
    This paper presents a conceptual link among green marketing, environmental justice, and industrial ecology. It argues for greater awareness of environmental justice in the practice of green marketing. In contrast with the type of costs commonly discussed in the literature, the paper identified another type of costs, termed "costs with positive results," that may be associated with the presence of environmental justice in green marketing. A research agenda is finally suggested to determine consumers'' awareness of environmental justice, and their willingness (...)
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  45. Costas Panayotakis (2009). Defining Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 31 (3):317-319.
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  46. Ralph M. Perhac Jr (1999). Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):81-92.
    It is widely held that environmental risks which are distributed unequally along racial or socioeconomic lines are necessarily distributed unjustly. While disproportionality may result from the perpetration of procedural injustices—what might be termed environmental racism, the question I am concerned with is whether disproportionality, in and of itself, constitutes injustice. I examine this question from the perspective of three prominent theories of justice that largely capture the range of our intuitions about fairness and justice—utilitarianism, natural rights theory, and (Rawlsian) contractarianism. (...)
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  47. Roy W. Perrett (1998). Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 20 (4):377-391.
    The modern environmental movement has a tradition of respect for indigenous cultures and many environmentalists believe that there are important ecological lessons to be learned from studying the traditional life styles of indigenous peoples. More recently, however, some environmentalists have become more sceptical. This scepticism has been sharpened by current concerns with the cause of indigenous rights. Indigenous peoples have repeatedly insisted on their rights to pursue traditional practices or to develop their lands, even when the exercise of these rights (...)
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  48. Roy W. Perrett (1998). Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 20 (4):377-91.
    The modem environmental movement has a tradition of respect for indigenous cultures and many environmentalists believe that there are important ecological lessons to be learned from studying the traditional life styles of indigenous peoples. More recently, however, some environmentalists have become more sceptical. This scepticism has been sharpened by current concerns with the cause of indigenous rights. Indigenous peoples have repeatedly insisted on their rights to pursue traditional practices or to develop their lands, even when the exercise of these rights (...)
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  49. Evangelos D. Protopapadakis (2012). Climate Change: A Challenge for Ethics. In Walter Leal Filho Evangelos Manolas (ed.), English through Climate Change. Democritus University of Thrace. 167.
    Climate change – and its most dangerous consequence, the rapid overheating of the planet – is not the offspring of a natural procedure; instead, it is human-induced. It is only the aftermath of a specific pattern of conomic development, one that focuses mainly on economic growth rather than on quality of life and sustainability. Since climate change is a major threat not only to millions of humans, but also to numerous non-human species and other forms of life, as well as (...)
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  50. Matthew Rendall (forthcoming). Carbon Leakage and the Argument From No Difference. Environmental Values.
    Critics of carbon mitigation often appeal to what Jonathan Glover has called ‘the argument from no difference’: that is, ‘If I don’t do it, someone else will’. Yet even if this justifies continued high emissions by the industrialised countries, it cannot excuse business as usual. The North’s emissions might not harm the victims of climate change in the sense of making them worse off than they would otherwise be. Nevertheless, it receives benefits produced at the latter’s expense, with the result (...)
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