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  1. Ralph R. Acampora (1994). Using and Abusing Nietzsche for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 16 (2):187-194.
    Max Hallman has put forward an interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy according to which Nietzsche is a prototypical deep ecologist. In reply, I dispute Hallman’s main interpretive claim as well as its ethical and exegetical corollaries. I hold that Nietzsche is not a “biospheric egalitarian,” but rather an aristocratically individualistic “high humanist.” A consistently naturalistic transcendentalist, Nietzsche does submit a critique of modernity’s Christian-inflected anthropocentrism (pace Hallman), and yet—in his later work—he endorses exploitation in the quest for nobility (contra Hallman). I (...)
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  2. Randall E. Auxier (1999). Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism. Environmental Ethics 21 (1):97-100.
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  3. Donato Bergandi (ed.) (2013). The Structural Links Between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics: The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Springer.
    Abstract - Evolutionary, ecological and ethical studies are, at the same time, specific scientific disciplines and, from an historical point of view, structurally linked domains of research. In a context of environmental crisis, the need is increasingly emerging for a connecting epistemological framework able to express a common or convergent tendency of thought and practice aimed at building, among other things, an environmental policy management respectful of the planet’s biodiversity and its evolutionary potential. -/- Evolutionary biology, ecology and ethics: at (...)
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  4. Daniel C. Fouke (2012). Blameworthy Environmental Beliefs. Environmental Ethics 34 (2):115-134.
    Thomas Hill famously argued that what really bothers us about environmental degradation is best discovered by asking “What kind of person would do such a thing?” Beliefs, some of which are blameworthy, are among the things that define what kind of person one is. What we care about is reflected in whether one’s epistemic practices align with one’s core moral convictions and common standards of decency. Our moral sensitivities are reflected in what we attend to and reflect upon. What we (...)
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  5. Jacob Metcalf (2008). Intimacy Without Proximity: Encountering Griz as a Companion Species. Environmental Philosophy 5 (2):99-128.
    Using grizzly-human encounters as a case study, this paper argues for a rethinking of the differences between humans and animals within en- vironmental ethics. A diffractive approach that understands such dif- ferences as an effect of specific material and discursive arrangements (rather than as pre-settled and oppositional) would see ethics as an interrogation of which arrangements enable flourishing, or living and dying well. The paper draws on a wide variety of human-grizzly encoun- ters in order to describe the species as (...)
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  6. Matthew Pianalto (2013). Humility and Environmental Virtue Ethics. In Michael Austin (ed.), Virtues in Action: New Essays in Applied Virtue Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
Conservation Ethics
  1. E. M. Adams (1972). Ecology and Value Theory. Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):3-6.
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  2. Nick Agar (2003). GM Food, Risk, and Taste. Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):599-606.
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  3. Joseph Agassi, The Brundtland Report, P.
    Why are the efforts at coordination so feeble? Unless we face this question, we may never see progress. The answer is not hard to find. Decisions on matters of life and death are awesome; decisions on some awesome questions are guided by accepted laws, rules or customs; other awesome questions are open. Obviously, having to decide on an open, awesome question is a hardship in every possible manner: intellectually and practically, legally and morally, socially and psychologically. People are reluctant to (...)
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  4. G. M. Aitken (1998). Extinction. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  5. Peter S. Alagona (2012). A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (4):651 - 680.
    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding (...)
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  6. G. Albrecht, C. R. McMahon, Dmjs Bowman & C. J. A. Bradshaw (2009). Convergence of Culture, Ecology, and Ethics: Management of Feral Swamp Buffalo in Northern Australia. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):361-378.
    This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, (...)
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  7. Glenn Albrecht, Clive R. McMahon, David M. J. S. Bowman & Corey J. A. Bradshaw (2009). Convergence of Culture, Ecology, and Ethics: Management of Feral Swamp Buffalo in Northern Australia. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):361-378.
    This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, (...)
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  8. Garland E. Allen (2013). “Culling the Herd”: Eugenics and the Conservation Movement in the United States, 1900–1940. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):31-72.
    While from a late twentieth- and early twenty-first century perspective, the ideologies of eugenics (controlled reproduction to eliminate the genetically unfit and promote the reproduction of the genetically fit) and environmental conservation and preservation, may seem incompatible, they were promoted simultaneously by a number of figures in the progressive era in the decades between 1900 and 1950. Common to the two movements were the desire to preserve the “best” in both the germ plasm of the human population and natural environments (...)
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  9. Christine Angelini, Andrew H. Altieri, Brian R. Silliman & Mark D. Bertness (2011). Interactions Among Foundation Species and Their Consequences for Community Organization, Biodiversity, and Conservation. BioScience 61 (10):782-789.
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  10. Babette Babich (2011). On Mitchell and on Glazebrook on Βίος. In Pol Vandevelde (ed.), Supplement to the 2011 Proceedings of the Heidegger Circle.
    Commentary on Andrew Mitchell and Patricia Glazebrook on plants and agriculture in the context of Heidegger's own reflections on botany and technology in which I discuss, bees, cell phone radiation, the relatively complex but fairly obvious sociological dynamics of science and powerful commercial interests (capital), and mantid copulation.
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  11. Nathaniel F. Barrett (2011). The Promise and Peril of Ecological Restoration: Why Ritual Can Make a Difference 1. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 32 (2):139 - 155.
    Writing in 1992, biologist E. O. Wilson prophesied, "Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm. The next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology." 2 This statement has become the rallying cry for advocates of ecological restoration, an emerging international environmental movement focused on the renewal of damaged or destroyed ecosystems. 3 The benefits promised by ecological restoration are manifold. In addition to its primary ecological goals of replenished biodiversity and improved ecosystem functioning, (...)
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  12. Timothy M. Beardsley (2013). An Edit Too Far. BioScience 63 (5):315-315.
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  13. Erzsébet Beliczay (2009). State Budget and Environment Protection. World Futures 65 (5):356-364.
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  14. M. Bensenane, A. Moussaoui & P. Auger (forthcoming). On the Optimal Size of Marine Reserves. Acta Biotheoretica.
    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include (...)
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  15. J. Baird Callicott (1979). Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community. Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
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  16. Jane Carruthers (2008). Conservation and Wildlife Management in South African National Parks 1930s-1960s. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):203 - 236.
    In recent decades conservation biology has achieved a high position among the sciences. This is certainly true of South Africa, a small country, but the third most biodiverse in the world. This article traces some aspects of the transformation of South African wildlife management during the 1930s to the 1960s from game reserves based on custodianship and the "balance of nature" into scientifically managed national parks with a philosophy of "command and control" or "management by intervention." In 1910 the four (...)
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  17. John P. Clark, Em Memoria Chico Mendes.
    On December 22, 1988, Chico Mendes, the leader of the struggle to preserve the Amazonian rainforest, stepped out of the back door of his house and was assassinated. Chico was a seringueiro, a rubber tapper who collects latex from the trees of the forest. He had a vision of the people of the rainforest living in balance with the natural world, supporting their communities through harvesting the natural, renewable forest products in a sustainable manner. It was for this vision that (...)
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  18. with James P. Collins (2012). A Practical Ethics for Ecologists and Biodiversity Managers. In Ben A. Minteer (ed.), Refounding Environmental Ethics: Pragmatism, Principle, and Practice. Temple University Press.
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  19. Mark Colyvan, James Justus & Helen M. Regan, The Natural Environment is Valuable but Not Infinitely Valuable.
    It has been argued in the conservation literature that giving conservation absolute priority over competing interests would best protect the environment. Attributing infinite value to the environment or claiming it is ‘priceless’ are two ways of ensuring this priority (e.g. Hargrove 1989; Bulte and van Kooten 2000; Ackerman and Heinzerling 2002; McCauley 2006; Halsing and Moore 2008). But such proposals would paralyse conservation efforts. We describe the serious problems with these proposals and what they mean for practical applications, and we (...)
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  20. Mark Cowell (1993). Ecological Restoration and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):19-32.
    Restoration ecology has recently emerged as a branch of scientific ecology that challenges many of the traditional tenets of environmentalism. Because the restoration of ecosystems, “applied ecology,” has the potential to advance theoretical understanding to such an extent that scientists can extensively manipulate the environment, it encourages increasingly active human participation within ecosystemsand could inhibit the preservation of areas from human influences. Despite the environmentally dangerous possibilities that this form of science and technology present, restoration offers an attractive alternative for (...)
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  21. A. Cunningham (2000). Science and Religion in the Thirteenth Century Revisited: The Making of St Francis the Proto-Ecologist - Part 1: Creature Not Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (4):613-643.
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  22. James S. Diana, Hillary S. Egna, Thierry Chopin, Mark S. Peterson, Ling Cao, Robert Pomeroy, Marc Verdegem, William T. Slack, Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso & Felipe Cabello (2013). Responsible Aquaculture in 2050: Valuing Local Conditions and Human Innovations Will Be Key to Success. BioScience 63 (4):255-262.
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  23. R. Shannon Duval (1989). Conservation Ethics and the Japanese Intellectual Tradition. Environmental Ethics 11 (3):197-214.
    A systematic philosophy that presupposes an ecocentric world view, rather than a homocentric or egocentric world view, can be a viable resource for investigating issues in environmental philosophy and conservation ethics. Generally speaking, the Japanese philosophical and religious tradition represents a commitment to ecocentrism. This philosophical orientation is in concert with the world view of manynaturalists. We explore one example of ecocentrism by unveiling the crosscultural connection between the naturalistic philosophy of Louis Agassiz, a nineteenth-century French-American biologist, and the early (...)
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  24. Mark Ereshefsky (2007). Where the Wild Things Are: Environmental Preservation and Human Nature. Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):57-72.
    Environmental philosophers spend considerable time drawing the divide between humans and the rest of nature. Some argue that humans and our actions are unnatural. Others allow that humans are natural, but maintain that humans are nevertheless distinct. The motivation for distinguishing humans from the rest of nature is the desire to determine what aspects of the environment should be preserved. The standard view is that we should preserve those aspects of the environment outside of humans and our influence. This paper (...)
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  25. Melissa M. Foley, Matthew H. Armsby, Erin E. Prahler, Margaret R. Caldwell, Ashley L. Erickson, John N. Kittinger, Larry B. Crowder & Phillip S. Levin (2013). Improving Ocean Management Through the Use of Ecological Principles and Integrated Ecosystem Assessments. BioScience 63 (8):619-631.
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  26. Mary C. Freeman (2013). Environmental Flows: Saving Rivers in the Third Millennium. BioScience 63 (6):499-500.
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  27. Mary C. Freeman (2013). Training the Next Generation of River Warriors. BioScience 63 (6):499-500.
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  28. Mark Greene (2011). On the Origin of Species Notions and Their Ethical Limitations. In Tom L. Beauchamp & R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press. 577-602.
    I argue that defenders of general duties of species preservation are faced with an impossible task. I distinguish derivative from non-derivative value and argue that the derivative value of species can yield only limited and contingent duties of preservation. There can be no general duty of species preservation unless all species have non-derivative value. Ongoing controversy over the ’species’ notion has not deterred some from claiming settled authority for whatever notion appears most conducive to their favored account of species value. (...)
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  29. Noah Greenwald, Dominick A. Dellasala & John W. Terborgh (2013). Nothing New in Kareiva and Marvier. BioScience 63 (4):241-241.
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  30. William Grove-Fanning (2010). Biodiversity Loss, the Motivational Gap, and the Failure of Conservation Education. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):119-130.
    While the precipitous decline of biodiversity threatens life-sustaining processes and vast segments of the human population, concern about its loss remains extremely shallow. Nearly all motivational campaigns falsely assume that upon appreciating the relevant information, people will be sufficiently motivated to do something. But rational argumentation is doomed to fail, for there exists a motivational gap between a comprehension of the crisis and action taken based upon such knowledge. The origin of the gap lies neither in the quantity and quality (...)
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  31. Alastair S. Gunn (1991). The Restoration of Species and Natural Environments. Environmental Ethics 13 (4):291-310.
    My aims in this article are threefold. First, I evaluate attempts to drive a wedge between the human and the natural in order to show that destroyed natural environments and extinct species cannot be restored; next, I examine the analogy between aesthetic value and the value of natural environments; and finally, I suggest briefly a different set of analogies with such human associations as families and cultures. My tentative conclusion is that while the recreation of extinct species may be logically (...)
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  32. Thomas Heyd (2000). Sacred Ecology: Traditional Knowledge and Resource Management. Environmental Ethics 22 (4):419-421.
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  33. Leslie A. Howe (2005). A Feminist Cosmology: Ecology, Solidarity, and Metaphysics (Review). Hypatia 20 (2):197-199.
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  34. Howard M. Huynh (2011). Pleistocene Re‐Wilding is Unsound Conservation Practice. Bioessays 33 (2):100-102.
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  35. Simon P. James (2006). Buddhism and the Ethics of Species Conservation. Environmental Values 15 (1):85 - 97.
    Efforts to conserve endangered species of animal are, in some important respects, at odds with Buddhist ethics. On the one hand, being abstract entities, species cannot suffer, and so cannot be proper objects of compassion or similar moral virtues. On the other, Buddhist commitments to equanimity tend to militate against the idea that the individual members of endangered species have greater value than those of less-threatened ones. This paper suggests that the contribution of Buddhism to the issue of species conservation (...)
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  36. Kurt Jax (2013). Saving Species and What It Means To Be Human. BioScience 63 (1):56-57.
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  37. Peter Kareiva & Michelle Marvier (2013). Shared Conservation Goals But Differing Views on How to Most Effectively Achieve Results: A Response From Kareiva and Marvier. BioScience 63 (4):242-243.
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  38. E. Kelman, R. S. Levy & Y. Levy (2001). Optimization of Solutions for the One Plant Protection Problem. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (1).
    Plant protection problems are simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with given initial conditions. The sensitivity and resistance of pathogen subpopulations to fungicide mixtures, fungicide weathering, plant growth, etc. are taken into consideration. The system of equations is solved numerically for each set of initial conditions and parameters of the disease and fungicide applications. Optimization algorithms were investigated and a computer program was developed for optimization of these solutions. 14 typical cases of the disease were simulated and optimized (...)
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  39. Robert Kirkman (1997). Why Ecology Cannot Be All Things to All People: The “Adaptive Radiation” of Scientific Concepts. Environmental Ethics 19 (4):375-390.
    On the basis of a model of the development of scientific concepts as analogous to the “adaptive radiation” of organisms, I raise questions concerning the speculative project of many environmental philosophers, especially insofar as that project reflects on the relationship between ecology (the science) and ecologism (the worldview or ideology). This relationship is often understood in terms of anopposition to the “modern” worldview, which leads to the identification of ecology as an ally or as a foe of environmental philosophy even (...)
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  40. Devra G. Kleiman & Anthony B. Rylands (2002). Edited Volumes-Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3-4):558-558.
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  41. Chris Klok, Remko Holtkamp, Rob van Apeldoorn, Marcel E. Visser & Lia Hemerik (2006). Analysing Population Numbers of the House Sparrow in the Netherlands with a Matrix Model and Suggestions for Conservation Measures. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (3).
    The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), formerly a common bird species, has shown a rapid decline in Western Europe over recent decades. In The Netherlands, its decline is apparent from 1990 onwards. Many causes for this decline have been suggested that all decrease the vital rates, i.e. survival and reproduction, but their actual impact remains unknown. Although the House Sparrow has been dominant in The Netherlands, data on life history characteristics for this bird species are scarce: data on reproduction are non-existent, (...)
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  42. Katica Knezović (2008). Plants Species Protection and'Moral Status' of Plants-an Ethical Inquiry. Disputatio Philosophica 10 (1):25-42.
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  43. Aaron Lercher (2006). Liberty of Ecological Conscience. Environmental Ethics 28 (3):315-322.
    Our concern for nonhuman nature can be justified in terms of a human right to liberty of ecological conscience. This right is analogous to the right to religious liberty, and is equally worthy of recognition as that fundamental liberty. The liberty of ecological conscience, like religious liberty, is a negative right against interference. Each ecological conscience supports a claim to protection of the parts of nonhuman nature that are current or potential sites of its active pursuit of natural value. If (...)
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  44. Noam Levin, Ayesha It Tulloch, Ascelin Gordon, Tessa Mazor, Nils Bunnefeld & Salit Kark (2013). Incorporating Socioeconomic and Political Drivers of International Collaboration Into Marine Conservation Planning. BioScience 63 (7):547-563.
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