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  1. Roman Altshuler (2014). The Value of Nonhuman Nature: A Constitutive View. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):469-485.
    A central question of environmental ethics remains one of how best to account for the intuitions generated by the Last Man scenarios; that is, it is a question of how to explain our experience of value in nature and, more importantly, whether that experience is justified. Seeking an alternative to extrinsic views, according to which nonhuman entities possess normative features that obligate us, I turn to constitutive views, which make value or whatever other limits nonhuman nature places on action dependent (...)
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  2. Chrisoula Andreou (2012). Add to Cart: Environmental ‘Amenities’ and Cost-Benefit Analysis. In Michael O'Rourke and Matthew H. Slater William P. Kabasenche (ed.), The Environment, vol. 9 of Topics in Contemporary Philosophy.
    This chapter discusses the utility of cost-benefit analysis in decision making, specifically environmental decision making. For the purposes of the discussion here, it uses a type of CBA that incorporates two controversial characteristics, namely, the assumption of comparability and the willingness-to-pay measure. The chapter aims to show that the recognition of a well motivated holistic decision-making strategy can shed light on debates regarding CBA. This strategy is concerned with patterns of choices rather than individual ones, and corresponds with two familiar (...)
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  3. Patrik Baard (2016). Cautiously Utopian Goals : Philosophical Analyses of Climate Change Objectives and Sustainability Targets. Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    In this thesis, the framework within which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved or approached is analyzed. Sustainable development and climate change are areas in which goals have tobe set despite uncertainties. The analysis is divided into the normative motivations for setting such goals, what forms of goals could be set given the empirical and normative uncertainties, and how tomanage doubts regarding achievability or values after a goal has been set. Paper I discusses a set of questions that moral (...)
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  4. Patrik Baard (2015). Adaptive Ideals and Aspirational Goals: The Utopian Ideals and Realist Constraints of Climate Change Adaptation. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (4):739-757.
    There is a growing need to implement anticipatory climate change adaptation measures, particularly in vulnerable sectors, such as in agriculture. However, setting goals to adapt is wrought with several challenges. This paper discusses two sets of challenges to goals of anticipatory adaptation, of empirical and normative character. The first set of challenges concern issues such as the extent to which the climate will change, the local impacts of such changes, and available adaptive responses. In the second set of uncertainties are (...)
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  5. Patrik Baard (2015). Change of Plans? Environmental Philosophy 12 (2):185-204.
    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management, as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted (...)
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  6. Jonathan Beever & Nicolae Morar (2016). Bioethics and the Challenge of the Ecological Individual. Environmental Philosophy 13 (2):215-238.
  7. Donato Bergandi (2001). Biodiversité. In Gilbert Hottois & Jean-Noël Missa (eds.), Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique. Médecine, environnement, biotechnologie. De Boeck Université 104-112.
  8. Donato Bergandi & Patrick Blandin (2012). De la protection de la nature au développement durable : Genèse d'un oxymore éthique et politique. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 1 (1):103-142.
    Le concept de développement durable s’enracine dans l’histoire des mouvements de préservation de la nature et de conservation des ressources naturelles et de leurs relations avec les sciences de la nature, en particulier l’écologie. En tant que paradigme sociétal, à la fois écologique, politique et économique, il se présente comme un projet politique idéal applicable à l’ensemble des sociétés, qui prétend dépasser l’opposition entre ces deux visions profondément divergentes des relations homme‑nature. L’analyse des textes internationaux pertinents permet de dégager les (...)
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  9. Pierfrancesco Biasetti (2015). From Beauty to Love. Environmental Philosophy 12 (2):139-160.
    In this paper, I set myself what many people would consider an unfeasible task: finding a Kantian way to an environmental moral theory. The paper is divided in four parts. In the first part I show why looking at Kant’s moral theory in order to build an environmental theory is like trying to get blood out of a stone. I then show how it should be, instead, possible to build an environmental theory by bridging Kant’s account of aesthetic value with (...)
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  10. Donald W. Bruckner (2015). Strict Vegetarianism is Immoral. In Ben Bramble & Fischer Bob (eds.), The Moral Complexities of Eating Meat. Oxford University Press 30-47.
    The most popular and convincing arguments for the claim that vegetarianism is morally obligatory focus on the extensive, unnecessary harm done to animals and to the environment by raising animals industrially in confinement conditions (factory farming). I outline the strongest versions of these arguments. I grant that it follows from their central premises that purchasing and consuming factoryfarmed meat is immoral. The arguments fail, however, to establish that strict vegetarianism is obligatory because they falsely assume that eating vegetables is the (...)
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  11. Douglas Jon Buege (1993). Intrinsic Value, Organic Unity and Environmental Philosophy: Grounding Our Values. Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    By arguing that current theories of ontology and intrinsic value in environmental ethics are inadequate in informing a truly ecological ethic, I show that new theories need to be developed if environmental philosophers are going to be able to address environmental policy issues. I offer an ecologically-informed ontology that fulfills the need for an adequate ontology by identifying the various beings that should be considered by an environmental ethic. This ontology includes various ecological entities, e.g., ecosystems, bioregions and populations, as (...)
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  12. J. Baird Callicott (1995). Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 3 (5).
  13. Saurabh Chandra (2013). Water Conservation & the National Water Policy (2012). SOCRATES 1 (1):58-79.
    Earth and every living organism on this planet require water for survival and without water there would be no life. Drinking water should be clean that means it should be free from micro-organisms, free from harmful chemical and other pollutants. Consuming unsafe drinking water may lead to several water borne diseases, and other long term and chronic health problems. Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and (...)
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  14. Stephen R. L. Clark (1999). Book Reviews : Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking, by Clare Palmer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. 243 Pp. Hb. 35. ISBN 0-19-826952-. [REVIEW] Studies in Christian Ethics 12 (2):89-91.
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  15. Forrest Clingerman, Brian Treanor, Martin Drenthen & David Utsler (eds.) (2013). Interpreting Nature. Fordham University Press.
    The twentieth century saw the rise of hermeneutics, the philosophical interpretation of texts, and eventually the application of its insights to metaphorical “texts” such as individual and group identities. It also saw the rise of modern environmentalism, which evolved through various stages in which it came to realize that many of its key concerns—“wilderness” and “nature” among them—are contested territory that are viewed differently by different people. Understanding nature requires science and ecology to be sure, but it also requires a (...)
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  16. Mark Coeckelbergh (2015). Environmental Skill: Motivation, Knowledge, and the Possibility of a Non-Romantic Environmental Ethics. Routledge.
    Today it is widely recognized that we face urgent and serious environmental problems and we know much about them, yet we do very little. What explains this lack of motivation and change? Why is it so hard to change our lives? This book addresses this question by means of a philosophical inquiry into the conditions of possibility for environmental change. It discusses how we can become more motivated to do environmental good and what kind of knowledge we need for this, (...)
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  17. Ben Dixon (2016). Deriving Moral Considerability From Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal of the (...)
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  18. Ben Dixon (2016). Deriving Moral Considerability From Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal of the (...)
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  19. Martin Drenthen (2013). Landscapes Devoid of Meaning? A Reply to Nicole Note. Environmental Values 23 (1):17-23.
    Even though artists and philosophers sometimes succeed in finding words for the meaning that places can have for us, we can never fully identify the meaning that places have for us. Nicole Note is right in arguing (using the work of Arnold Burms) that the ineffable plays a key role in the meaningful relations we have with the world, and that the experience of meaning can only emerge if there is a real risk that it fails to appear. Therefore, meaning (...)
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  20. Martin Drenthen (2011). 'Reading Ourselves Through the Land: Landscape Hermeneutics and Ethics of Place'. In Forrest Clingerman Clingerman & Mark Dixon (eds.), 'Reading Ourselves Through the Land: Landscape Hermeneutics and Ethics of Place', In: F. Clingerman & M. Dixon : Placing Nature on the Borders of Religion, Philosophy, and Ethics. Ashgate
    In this text, I discuss the environmental education project "Legible Landscape ", which aims to teach inhabitants to read their landscape and develop a closer, more engaged relationship to place. I show that the project's semiotic perspective on landscape legibility tends to hamper the understanding of the moral dimension of reading landscapes, and argue that a hermeneutical perspective is better suited to acknowledge the way that readers and texts are intimately connected.
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  21. Martin Drenthen (1996). Het zwijgen van de natuur. Filosofie En Praktijk 17:187-199.
    Een respectvolle houding ten opzichte van de natuur houdt noodzakelijkerwijs ook een zekere distantie in. -/- ('The silence of nature') If we pretent to speak with nature's voice or in on nature's behalf we risk ventriloguising. A respectful attitude towards nature also requires acknowledging the distance between us and nature, recognize that nature does not speak. But nature's silence does have something to say to us. In this paper, I analyze the debate in Dutch environmental philosophy between moral realism of (...)
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  22. Kristian Skagen Ekeli & Espen Gamlund (2011). Reconsidering Approaches to Moral Status. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):361 - 375.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 361-375, October 2011.
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  23. R. Elliot (1992). Intrinsic Value, Naturalness and Environmental Obligation. Monist: An International Quarterly of General Philosophical Inquiry 75:138-160.
  24. Philippe Gagnon (2014). "Diversité et historique des mouvements écologiques en Amérique du Nord" [Diversity and origins of the ecological movements in North America]. Connaître: Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 40:76-89.
    The development of ecological thinking in North America has been conditioned by the imperative aiming at a valuation of the biotic community. Since the end of WWII, the US population was warned against the dangerous and violent alterations of nature. Many then found in theology an unforeseen ally. I review the roots of the tension which led to debates involving radical ecologism or its denial, and I aim at analyzing it philosophically.
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  25. Espen Gamlund (2011). Introduction to 'Confronting Environmental Values'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):307 - 312.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 307-312, October 2011.
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  26. Iñigo González-Ricoy (2015). Environmental Rights by Constitutional Means. In Marcello Di Paola & Daanika Kamal (eds.), Climate Change and Human Rights. Global Policy / Wiley-Blackwell
  27. Iñigo González-Ricoy (2015). Environmental Rights by Constitutional Means. In Marcello Di Paola & Daanika Kamal (eds.), Climate Change and Human Rights. Global Policy / Wiley-Blackwell
  28. Christopher Grau (2010). Moral Status, Speciesism, and Liao’s Genetic Account. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):387-96.
    This paper offers several criticisms of the account of rightholding laid out in S. Matthew Liao’s recent paper “The Basis of Human Moral Status.” I argue that Liao’s account both does too much and too little: it grants rightholder status to those who may not deserve it, and it does not provide grounds for offering such status to those who arguably do deserve it. Given these troubling aspects of his approach, I encourage Liao to abandon his “physical basis of moral (...)
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  29. Paul Haught (2013). Place, Narrative, and Virtue. Poligrafi 18 (69/70):73-97.
    This essay reexamines Holmes Rolston’s evocative notion of “storied residence” and evaluates it for its fitness for environmental virtue ethics. Environmental virtue ethics (or EVE) continues to garner attention among environmental philosophers, and recently Brian Treanor has argued for the indispensability of narrative approaches as part of that discourse. In this paper, I endorse this indispensability thesis generally, but I argue that narrative environmental virtue ethics must be supplemented either by “storied residence” or a similar environmentally, scientifically, culturally, and historically (...)
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  30. Leslie A. Howe (2008). Remote Sport: Risk and Self-Knowledge in Wilder Spaces. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 35 (1):1-16.
    Previous discussions on the value of sport in remote locations have concentrated on 1) environmental and process concerns, with the rejection of competition and goal-directed or use oriented activity, or 2) the value of risk and dangerous sport for self-affirmation. It is argued that the value of risk in remote sport is in self-knowledge rather than self-affirmation and that risk in remote sport, while enhancing certain kinds of experience, is not necessary. The value of remote sport is in offering the (...)
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  31. Jason Kawall (2008). On Behalf of Biocentric Individualism. Environmental Ethics 30 (1):69-88.
    Victoria Davion in “Itch Scratching, Patio Building, and Pesky Flies: Biocentric Individualism Revisited” takes biocentric individualism to task, focusing in particular on my paper, “Reverence for Life as a Viable Environmental Virtue.” Davion levels a wide-range of criticisms, and concludes that we humans would be better off putting biocentric individualism aside to focus on more important issues and positions. Worries raised by Davion can be defended by elaborating on the position laid out in the original paper, including a background normative (...)
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  32. Karyn L. Lai (2003). Conceptual Foundations for Environmental Ethics: A Daoist Perspective. Environmental Ethics 25 (3):247-266.
    The concepts dao and de in the Daodejing may be evoked to support a distinctive and plausible account of environmental holism. Dao refers to the totality of particulars, including the relations that hold between them, and the respective roles and functions of each within the whole. De refers to the distinctiveness of each particular, realized meaningfully only within the context of its interdependence with others, and its situatedness within the whole. Together, dao and de provide support for an ethical holism (...)
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  33. Jie Liu, Amarbayasgalan Dorjderem, Jinhua Fu, Xiaohui Lei & Darryl Macer (2011). Water Ethics and Water Resource Management. UNESCO.
    This book examines some possible ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas involving water. Existing problems in current water management practices are discussed in light of these principles. Transformation of human water ethics has the potential to be far more effective, cheaper and acceptable than some existing means of “regulation”, but transformation of personal and societal ethics need time because the changes to ethical values are slow.
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  34. J. Robert Loftis (2003). Three Problems for the Aesthetic Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):41-50.
    This essay takes a critical look at aesthetics as the basis for nature preservation, presenting three reasons why we should not rely on aesthetic foundations to justify the environmentalist program. First, a comparison to other kinds of aesthetic value shows that the aesthetic value of nature can provide weak reasons foraction atbest. Second, not everything environmentalists want to protect has positive aesthetic qualities. Attempts have been made to get around this problem by developing a reformist attitude towards natural aesthetics. I (...)
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  35. Gregory S. McElwain (2012). Religion and Dangerous Environmental Change: Transdisciplinary Perspectives on the Ethics of Climate and Sustainability. [REVIEW] Politics and Religion 5 (2):476-478.
  36. Katie McShane (2011). Neosentimentalism and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 33 (1):5-23.
    Neosentimentalism provides environmental ethics with a theory of value that might be particularly useful for solving many of the problems that have plagued the field since its early days. In particular, a neosentimentalist understanding of value offers us hope for making sense of (1) what intrinsic value might be and how we could know whether parts of the natural world have it; (2) the extent to which value is an essentially anthropocentric concept; and (3) how our understanding of value could (...)
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  37. Katie McShane (2008). Convergence, Noninstrumental Value and the Semantics of 'Love': Reply to Norton. Environmental Values 17 (1):15-21.
    Bryan Norton argues that my recent critique of anthropocentrism presupposes J. Baird Callicott's philosophically problematic distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value and that the problems that it raises for anthropocentrism in general are in fact only problems for strong anthropocentrism. I argue, first, that my own view does not presuppose Callicott's distinction, nor any claims about instrumental value, and second, that the problems it raises for anthropocentrism apply to weak and strong anthropocentrism alike.
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  38. Katie McShane (2007). Anthropocentrism Vs. Nonanthropocentrism: Why Should We Care? Environmental Values 16 (2):169-85.
    Many recent critical discussions of anthropocentrism have focused on Bryan Norton's 'convergence hypothesis': the claim that both anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric ethics will recommend the same environmentally responsible behaviours and policies. I argue that even if we grant the truth of Norton's convergence hypothesis, there are still good reasons to worry about anthropocentric ethics. Ethics legitimately raises questions about how to feel, not just about which actions to take or which policies to adopt. From the point of view of norms for (...)
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  39. Katie McShane (2007). Rolston's Theory of Value. In Christopher J. Preston and Wayne Ouderkirk (ed.), Nature, Value, Duty: Life on Earth with Holmes Rolston, III. Springer
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  40. Stephan Millett (2011). Aristotle’s Powers and Responsibility for Nature. Peter Lang.
    This book addresses what 'nature' is and humans' obligations toward the natural world. Beginning with ideas traced from Aristotle through some of the significant figures in European philosophy, the author shows that each living thing is a unique source of value. This value puts humans under an obligation and adopting an attitude of responsibility to living things is an essential part of what it means to be human.
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  41. Nicolae Morar, Ted Toadvine & Brendan J. M. Bohannan (2015). Biodiversity at Twenty-Five Years: Revolution Or Red Herring? Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):16-29.
  42. Onora O'Neill (1998). Kant on Duties Regarding Nonrational Nature. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):211–228.
    Kant's ethics, like others, has unavoidable anthropocentric starting points: only humans, or other 'rational natures', can hold obligations. Seemingly this should not make speciesist conclusions unavoidable: might not rational natures have obligations to the non-rational? However, Kant's argument for the unconditional value of rational natures cannot readily be extended to show that all non-human animals have unconditional value, or rights. Nevertheless Kant's speciesism is not thoroughgoing. He does not view non-rational animals as mere items for use. He allows for indirect (...)
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  43. Clare Palmer (2011). Place-Historical Narratives: Road—or Roadblock—to Sustainability? Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):345 - 359.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 345-359, October 2011.
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  44. Clare Palmer (ed.) (2007). Teaching Environmental Ethics. Brill.
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  45. Clare Palmer (2004). Response to Cobb and Menta. Process Studies 33 (1):46-70.
  46. Clare Palmer, Katie McShane & Ron Sandler (2014). Environmental Ethics. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39:419-442.
    Environmental ethics—the study of ethical questions raised by human relations with the nonhuman environment—emerged as an important subfield of philosophy during the 1970s. It is now a flourishing area of research. This article provides a review of the secular, Western traditions in the field. It examines both anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric claims about what has value, as well as divergent views about whether environmental ethics should be concerned with bringing about best consequences, respecting principles and rights, or embodying environmental virtues. The (...)
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  47. Erik Persson (2013). Interplanetär etik. In David Dunér (ed.), Extrema världar – Extremt liv. Pufendorfinstitutet 123-132.
    Hur bör vi bete oss mot livsformer som är väldigt annorlunda än vi? Spelar det någon roll att de är annorlunda? Spelar det någon roll hur annorlunda? Etiken sysslar med många olika frågor som alla har att göra med hur vi bör hantera det faktum att det vi gör (eller inte gör) påverkar andra än oss själv. En fråga för etiken gäller vad som gör en handling rätt. Är det till exempel effekterna av handlingen, avsikten med handlingen, eller ligger det (...)
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  48. Erik Persson (2013). Philosophical Aspects of Astrobiology. In David Dunér, Joel Pathermore, Erik Persson & Gustav Holmberg (eds.), The History and Philosophy of Astrobiology. Cambridge Scholars 29-48.
    During antiquity, the astronomical questions of the day and the methods used to formulate and answer them were clearly within the realm of philosophy. That changed most notably in the sixteenth century when Tycho Brahe turned astronomy into a modern empirical science by formulating (in principle) testable hypotheses, figuring out how to test them, building the proper instruments, and making – for that time – very accurate and systematic observations of the sky. These observations eventually led to the modern view (...)
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  49. Duncan Purves (2014). Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments and Anthropocentric Moral Attitudes. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):267-270.
    Anthropocentric indirect arguments , which call for specific policies or actions because of human benefits that are correlated with but not caused by benefits to the environment, are gaining increasing traction with those who take a pragmatic approach to environmental protection. I contend that nonanthropocentrists might remain justifiably uneasy about AIAs because such arguments fail to challenge prevailing speciesist moral attitudes. I close by considering whether Elliott can address this concern of nonanthropocentrists by appealing to the ability of AIAs to (...)
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  50. Leszek Pyra (2013). Powstanie i rozwój filozofii środowiskowej w USA na podstawie poglądów Johna Muira, Aldo Leopolda i J. Bairda Callicota. Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 3 (1):115-132.
    The Origin and Development of Environmental Philosophy in the US according to John Muir, Aldo Leopold and J. Baird Callicot. The publication refers to environmental philosophy, which is also called ecological philosophy or ecophilosophy. It shows in what way philosophical reflection on the environment has been shaped in the American tradition. In this context, the views of the thinkers listed below have been presented, analysed and evaluated. John Muir, an astute observer of wild nature, has been presented as an enthusiast (...)
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