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Epigenetic Inheritance has traditionally been called Lamarckian Evolution, the inheritance of an acquired trait. Defined broadly as any heritable variation that is not linked to a difference in coding of the nuclear DNA, epigenetic inheritance can be inclusive of any other possible heritable factors (e.g.: changes to chromatin in germ-line cells, inherited differences in mitochondrial DNA or in the egg’s cytoplasm, different ecological conditions, different internal symbiotic bacteria, ecological niches and even distinct cultural influences). Any papers that examine non-genomic sources of inheritance are included herein.  

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  1. Alexander V. Badyaev (2013). Defining Epigenetics in Deterministic Terms. Bioscience 63 (3):224-227.
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  2. Gillian Barker (1993). Models of Biological Change: Implications of Three Cases of "Lamrckian" Change. In Perspectives in Ethology 10: Behavior and Evolution. 229-248.
  3. Mary M. Bartley (1992). Darwin and Domestication: Studies on Inheritance. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 25 (2):307 - 333.
    While Wallace disagreed with Darwin that domesticates provided a great deal of useful information on wild populations,71 Darwin continued to draw on his domesticated animals and plants to inform him on the workings of his theory. Unlike Wallace, his exposure to natural populations was extremely limited after his return from the Beagle voyage. By the 1850s, he had settled into a life at Down House and was becoming more and more withdrawn from London scientific circles. He turned to his network (...)
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  4. Stephen G. Brush (2002). How Theories Became Knowledge: Morgan's Chromosome Theory of Heredity in America and Britain. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):471 - 535.
    T. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges published their comprehensive treatise "The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity" in 1915. By 1920 Morgan's "Chromosome Theory of Heredity" was generally accepted by geneticists in the United States, and by British geneticists by 1925. By 1930 it had been incorporated into most general biology, botany, and zoology textbooks as established knowledge. In this paper, I examine the reasons why it was accepted as part of a series (...)
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  5. Michael Bulmer (1999). The Development of Francis Galton's Ideas on the Mechanism of Heredity. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):263 - 292.
    Galton greeted Darwin's theory of pangenesis with enthusiasm, and tried to test the assumption that the hereditary particles circulate in the blood by transfusion experiments on rabbits. The failure of these experiments led him to reject this assumption, and in the 1870s he developed an alternative theory of heredity, which incorporated those parts of Darwin's theory that did not involve the transportation of hereditary particles throughout the system. He supposed that the fertilized ovum contains a large number of hereditary elements, (...)
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  6. Werner Callebaut (2006). Conference Report: Epigenetic Developments. Biological Theory 1 (1):108-109.
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  7. Charles Dupras, Vardit Ravitsky & Bryn Williams-Jones (2012). Epigenetics and the Environment in Bioethics. Bioethics.
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  8. Ann Ehrenhofer‐Murray, Hemmo Meyer & Wolfgang Nellen (2013). Coal Mining Meets Chromatin Research: Digging for Mechanisms in Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression. Bioessays 35 (2):141-144.
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  9. Scott F. Gilbert (1991). Epigenetic Landscaping: Waddington's Use of Cell Fate Bifurcation Diagrams. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):135-154.
    From the 1930s through the 1970s, C. H. Waddington attempted to reunite genetics, embryology, and evolution. One of the means to effect this synthesis was his model of the epigenetic landscape. This image originally recast genetic data in terms of embryological diagrams and was used to show the identity of genes and inducers and to suggest the similarities between embryological and genetic approaches to development. Later, the image became more complex and integrated gene activity and mutations. These revised epigenetic landscapes (...)
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  10. Sander Gliboff (1998). Evolution, Revolution, and Reform in Vienna: Franz Unger's Ideas on Descent and Their Post-1848 Reception. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 31 (2):179 - 209.
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  11. James Griesemer (1998). Turning Back to Go Forward. A Review of Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution, the Lamarckian Dimension, by Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb. Biology and Philosophy 13 (1):103-112.
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  12. Paul Griffiths (2003). Beyond the Baldwin Effect: James Mark Baldwin's 'Social Heredity', Epigenetic Inheritance, and Niche Construction. In Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew (eds.), Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered. Mit Press. 193--215.
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  13. Janine F. Guespin-Michel, Gilles Bernot, Jean Paul Comet, Annabelle Mérieau, Adrien Richard, Christian Hulen & Benoit Polack (2004). Epigenesis and Dynamic Similarity in Two Regulatory Networks in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (4).
    Mucoidy and cytotoxicity arise from two independent modifications of the phenotype of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contribute to the mortality and morbidity of cystic fibrosis. We show that, even though the transcriptional regulatory networks controlling both processes are quite different from a molecular or mechanistic point of view, they may be identical from a dynamic point of view: epigenesis may in both cases be the cause of the acquisition of these new phenotypes. This was highlighted by the identity of (...)
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  14. David Haig (2007). Weismann Rules! OK? Epigenetics and the Lamarckian Temptation. Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):415-428.
    August Weismann rejected the inheritance of acquired characters on the grounds that changes to the soma cannot produce the kind of changes to the germ-plasm that would result in the altered character being transmitted to subsequent generations. His intended distinction, between germ-plasm and soma, was closer to the modern distinction between genotype and phenotype than to the modern distinction between germ cells and somatic cells. Recently, systems of epigenetic inheritance have been claimed to make possible the inheritance of acquired characters. (...)
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  15. Bernhard Horsthemke (2012). Waddington's Epigenetic Landscape and Post‐Darwinian Biology. Bioessays 34 (8):711-712.
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  16. Sui Huang (2012). The Molecular and Mathematical Basis of Waddington's Epigenetic Landscape: A Framework for Post‐Darwinian Biology? Bioessays 34 (2):149-157.
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  17. Eva Jablonka (2004). The Evolution of the Peculiarities of Mammalian Sex Chromosomes: An Epigenetic View. Bioessays 26 (12):1327-1332.
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  18. Eva Jablonka, Marjori Matzke, Denis Thieffry & Linda Van Speybroeck (2002). The Genome in Context: Biologists and Philosophers on Epigenetics. Bioessays 24 (4):392-394.
  19. Jonathan Kaplan (2008). Evolutionary Innovations and Developmental Resources: From Stability to Variation and Back Again. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):861-873.
    Will a synthesis of developmental and evolutionary biology require a focus on the role of nongenetic resources in evolution? Nongenetic variation may exist but be hidden because the phenotypes are stable (developmentally canalized) under certain background conditions. In this case, those differences may come to play important roles in evolution when background conditions change. If this is so, then a focus on the way that developmental resources are made reliable, and the ways in which reliability fails, may prove to be (...)
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  20. Yuzuru Kato & Hiroyuki Sasaki (2005). Imprinting and Looping: Epigenetic Marks Control Interactions Between Regulatory Elements. Bioessays 27 (1):1-4.
    Gene regulation involves various cis-regulatory elements that can act at a distance. They may physically interact each other or with their target genes to exert their effects. Such interactions are beginning to be uncovered in the imprinted Igf2/H19 domain.1 The differentially methylated regions (DMRs), containing insulators, silencers and activators, were shown to have physical contacts between them. The interactions were changeable depending on their epigenetic state, presumably enabling Igf2 to move between an active and a silent chromatin domain. The study (...)
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  21. Evelyn Fox Keller (1998). Structures of Heredity. Review of Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb, Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution, the Lamarckian Dimension. Biology and Philosophy 13 (1):113-118.
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  22. Gavin Kelsey (2011). Epigenetics and the Brain: Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals New Depths to Genomic Imprinting. Bioessays 33 (5):362-367.
  23. Ehud Lamm (2014). The Genome as a Developmental Organ. Journal of Physiology 592 (11):2237-2244.
    This paper applies the conceptual toolkit of Evolutionary Developmental Biology (evo‐devo) to the evolution of the genome and the role of the genome in organism development. This challenges both the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, the dominant view in evolutionary theory for much of the 20th century, and the typically unreflective analysis of heredity by evo‐devo. First, the history of the marginalization of applying system‐thinking to the genome is described. Next, the suggested framework is presented. Finally, its application to the evolution of (...)
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  24. Ehud Lamm, Inheritance Systems. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition).
    Organisms inherit various kinds of developmental information and cues from their parents. The study of inheritance systems is aimed at identifying and classifying the various mechanisms and processes of heredity, the types of hereditary information that is passed on by each, the functional interaction between the different systems, and the evolutionary consequences of these properties. We present the discussion of inheritance systems in the context of several debates. First, between proponents of monism about heredity (gene-centric views), holism about heredity (Developmental (...)
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  25. Ehud Lamm (2010). Genes Versus Genomes: The Role of Genome Organization in Evolution. Dissertation, Tel Aviv University
    Recent and not so recent advances in our molecular understanding of the genome make the once prevalent view of the genome as a passive container of genetic information (i.e., genes) untenable, and emphasize the importance of the internal organization and re-organization dynamics of the genome for both development and evolution. While this conclusion is by now well accepted, the construction of a comprehensive conceptual framework for studying the genome as a dynamic system, capable of self-organization and adaptive behavior is still (...)
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  26. Ehud Lamm (2009). Conceptual and Methodological Biases in Network Models. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1178:291-304.
    Many natural and biological phenomena can be depicted as networks. Theoretical and empirical analyses of networks have become prevalent. I discuss theoretical biases involved in the delineation of biological networks. The network perspective is shown to dissolve the distinction between regulatory architecture and regulatory state, consistent with the theoretical impossibility of distinguishing a priori between “program” and “data”. The evolutionary significance of the dynamics of trans-generational and inter-organism regulatory networks is explored and implications are presented for understanding the evolution of (...)
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  27. Ehud Lamm & Eva Jablonka (2008). The Nurture of Nature: Hereditary Plasticity in Evolution. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):305 – 319.
    The dichotomy between Nature and Nurture, which has been dismantled within the framework of development, remains embodied in the notions of plasticity and evolvability. We argue that plasticity and evolvability, like development and heredity, are neither dichotomous nor distinct: the very same mechanisms may be involved in both, and the research perspective chosen depends to a large extent on the type of problem being explored and the kinds of questions being asked. Epigenetic inheritance leads to transgenerationally extended plasticity, and developmentally-induced (...)
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  28. Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka (2013). Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity. Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. (...)
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  29. Frank Lyko & Renato Paro (1999). Chromosomal Elements Conferring Epigenetic Inheritance. Bioessays 21 (10):824-832.
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  30. John S. Mattick, Paulo P. Amaral, Marcel E. Dinger, Tim R. Mercer & Mark F. Mehler (2009). RNA Regulation of Epigenetic Processes. Bioessays 31 (1):51-59.
    There is increasing evidence that dynamic changes to chromatin, chromosomes and nuclear architecture are regulated by RNA signalling. Although the precise molecular mechanisms are not well understood, they appear to involve the differential recruitment of a hierarchy of generic chromatin modifying complexes and DNA methyltransferases to specific loci by RNAs during differentiation and development. A significant fraction of the genome-wide transcription of non-protein coding RNAs may be involved in this process, comprising a previously hidden layer of intermediary genetic information that (...)
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  31. Adrian J. McNairn & David M. Gilbert (2003). Epigenomic Replication: Linking Epigenetics to DNA Replication. Bioessays 25 (7):647-656.
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  32. Shanshan Pang & Sean P. Curran (2012). Longevity and the Long Arm of Epigenetics: Acquired Parental Marks Influence Lifespan Across Several Generations. Bioessays 34 (8):652-654.
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  33. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Epigenetic is Back! Cell Cycle 2 (1):34-35.
    Back in 1942, C.H. Waddington proposed a new mechanism of evolutionary change, which he termed “genetic assimilation”.1,2 The idea was that certain environmental or genetic factors can disrupt the normally canalized (i.e., stable) course of development of living organisms. This disruption may then generate phenotypic variation that could allow a population to persist in a novel or stressful environment until new mutations would eventually let natural selection fix (“assimilate”) the advantageous phenotypic variants.
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  34. Massimo Pigliucci (2002). Buffer Zone. Nature 417 (598):599.
    Living organisms are caught between a hammer and an anvil, evolutionarily speaking. On the one hand, they need to buffer the influences of genetic mutations and environmental stresses if they are to develop normally and maintain a coherent and functional form. On the other, stabiliz- ing one’s development too much may mean not being able to respond at all to changes in the environment and starting down the primrose path to extinction. On page 618 of this issue, Queitsch et al.1 (...)
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  35. Luis Ramírez-Trejo & Linda Van Speybroeck (2010). Epigenetics: A Survey on Unorthodox InheritanceEpigeneticsC. David Allis , Thomas Jenuwein , Danny Reinberg , Eds Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2007 (X+502 Pp; $158.00; ISBN-13: 978-0-87969-724-2)EpigeneticsJörg Tost , Ed Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press, 2008 (Xi+404+A3 Pp; $300.00; ISBN 978-1-0044555-23-3). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 5 (1):96-99.
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  36. Kenneth Reisman (2007). Is Culture Inherited Through Social Learning? Biological Theory 2 (3):300-306.
    In this article I challenge the widely held assumption that human culture is inherited by means of social learning. First, I address the distinction between “social” learning and “individual” learning. I argue that most cultural ideas are not acquired by one form of learning or the other, but from a hybrid of both. Second, I discuss how individual learning can interact with niche construction. I argue that these processes collectively provide a non-social route for learned ideas to be inherited and (...)
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  37. Shirley A. Roe (1979). Rationalism and Embryology: Caspar Friedrich Wolff's Theory of Epigenesis. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):1 - 43.
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  38. Alex Rosenberg (2006). Is Epigenetic Inheritance a Counterexample to the Central Dogma? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (4):549 - 565.
    This paper argues that nothing that has been discovered in the increasingly complex delails of gene regulation has provided any grounds to retract or qualify Crick's version of the central dogma. In particular it defends the role of the genes as the sole bearers of information, and argues that the mechanism of epigenetic modification of the DNA is but another vindication of Crick's version of the central dogma. The paper shows that arguments of C.K. Waters for the distinctive causual role (...)
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  39. Chris Sinha (2006). Epigenetics, Semiotics, and the Mysteries of the Organism. Biological Theory 1 (2):112-115.
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  40. Justin E. H. Smith (2006). Imagination and the Problem of Heredity in Mechanist Embryology. In , The Problem of Animal Generation in Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  41. Philipp A. Steffen, João P. Fonseca & Leonie Ringrose (2012). Epigenetics Meets Mathematics: Towards a Quantitative Understanding of Chromatin Biology. Bioessays 34 (10):901-913.
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  42. Karola Stotz (2006). Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in the Central Dogma. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (4):533 - 548.
    The paper argues against the central dogma and its interpretation by C. Kenneth Waters and Alex Rosenberg. I argue that certain phenomena in the regulation of gene expression provide a break with the central dogma, according to which sequence specificity for a gene product must be template derived. My thesis of 'molecular epigenesis' with its three classes of phenomena, sequence 'activation', 'selection', and 'creation', is exemplified by processes such as transcriptional activation, alternative cis- and trans-splicing, and RNA editing. It argues (...)
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  43. J. A. Weir (1968). Agassiz, Mendel, and Heredity. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):179 - 203.
  44. Adam S. Wilkins (2007). Evolution Beyond Neodarwinism, Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioural, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life (2005). Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb. MIT Press, Cambridge. X + 462 Pp. ISBN: 0‐262‐10107‐6. [REVIEW] Bioessays 29 (1):101-103.
  45. Adam S. Wilkins (1997). Meeting Report: Epigenetics: Ciba Foundation Symposium, June 24‐26, 1997. Bioessays 19 (10):933-935.
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  46. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2001). August Weismann on Germ-Plasm Variation. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):517-555.
    August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation was inherited. An irony, which is in tension with much of the standard twentieth-century history of biology, thus exists – Weismann was not a Weismannian. I distinguish three (...)
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  47. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2000). Darwin on Variation and Heredity. Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):425-455.
    Darwin’s ideas on variation, heredity, and development differ significantly from twentieth-century views. First, Darwin held that environmental changes, acting either on the reproductive organs or the body, were necessary to generate variation. Second, heredity was a developmental, not a transmissional, process; variation was a change in the developmental process of change. An analysis of Darwin’s elaboration and modification of these two positions from his early notebooks (1836–1844) to the last edition of the /Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication/ (1875) (...)
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  48. David W. Zeh, Jeanne A. Zeh & Yoichi Ishida (2009). Transposable Elements and an Epigenetic Basis for Punctuated Equilibria. Bioessays 31 (7):715-726.
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