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Summary The epistemology of religion covers the varied epistemological questions that may be posed concerning religious belief; it thus lies at the intersection of epistemology and philosophy of religion. Traditional issues include the rationality of religious belief/disbelief, the nature of evidence for and against theism, whether and under what circumstances knowledge of God (if there is one) is possible, the roles of religious experience or revelation or testimony in supporting religious belief, whether arguments or evidence are needed to ground religious belief (see 'reformed epistemology'), the nature of 'faith' (in both religious and non-religious contexts), and the epistemological consequences of disagreement on religious questions.
Key works A handful of philosophers have been most important in shaping the recent literature on the rationality of religious belief: see especially the collection edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983), and book-length treatments Plantinga 1967, Swinburne 1993, Swinburne 1996, Plantinga 2000, Alston 1991, plus the collections Wolterstorff 2010 and VanArragon & Clark 2011. For criticism see Mackie 1982Sobel 2004Schellenberg 2007. For recent work on faith, see  Buchak 2012Howard-Snyder 2013, and Buchak 2014; and for discussions of disagreement and religious belief, see Oppy 2010Thurow 2012, and Frances 2015. For important historical considerations, see Coakley 2009 and Coakley 2013.
Introductions Clark 2004, Forrest 2008Dastmalchian 2013, Smith 2014, and Dunaway & Hawthorne forthcoming
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  1. Jan A. Aertsen (2005). Aquinas and the Human Desire for Knowledge. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):411-430.
    This essay examines Aquinas’s analysis of the human desire to know, which plays a central role in his thought. (I.) This analysis confronts him with the Aristotelian tradition: thus, the desire for knowledge is a “natural” desire. (II.) It also confronts him with the Augustinian tradition, which deplores a non-virtuous desire in human beings that is called “curiosity.” (III.) Aquinas connects the natural desire with the Neoplatonic circle motif: principle and end are identical. The final end of the desire to (...)
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  2. Cyril Alington (1936). Can We Believe in God? London, Rich & Cowan, Ltd..
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  3. William P. Alston (1964). Psychoanalytic Theory and Theistic Belief. In Charles Taliaferro & Paul J. Griffiths (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Blackwell. 123-140.
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  4. William P. Alston & Thomas D. Senor (1995). The Rationality of Belief & the Plurality of Faith Essays in Honor of William P. Alston. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  5. Leonard Angel (2005). Compositional Science and Religious Philosophy. Religious Studies 41 (2):125-143.
    Religious thought often assumes that the principle of physical causal completeness (PCC) is false. But those who explicitly deny or doubt PCC, including William Alston, W. D. Hart, Tim Crane, Paul Moser and David Yandell, Charles Taliaferro, Keith Yandell, Dallas Willard, William Vallicella, Frank Dilley, and, recently, David Chalmers, have ignored not only the explicit but also the implicit grounds for acceptance of PCC. I review the explicit grounds, and extend the hitherto implicit grounds, which together constitute a greater challenge (...)
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  6. Robert Audi (1991). Faith, Belief, and Rationality. Philosophical Perspectives 5:213-239.
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  7. F. E. B. (1959). Calvin's Doctrine of the Knowledge of God. Review of Metaphysics 13 (2):359-359.
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  8. Luciano Baccari (2005). Miracolo E Legge Naturale. Urbaniana University Press.
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  9. John Baillie (1922). The True Ground of Theistic Belief. Hibbert Journal 21:44.
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  10. Ramsden Balmforth (1939). " A Challenge to Novelists." A Reply to Dr Lyttelton. Hibbert Journal 38:115.
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  11. Earl E. Barrett (1965). A Christian Perspective of Knowing. Kansas City, Mo.,Beacon Hill Press.
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  12. Anthony Baxter (1993). Knowledge, and Our Position Regarding God. Heythrop Journal 34 (2):137–159.
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  13. Frederick Beiser (2005). Schleiermacher's Ethics. In Jacqueline Mariña (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Friedrich Schleiermacher. Cambridge University Press. 53--71.
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  14. John Bishop (2007). How a Modest Fideism May Constrain Theistic Commitments: Exploring an Alternative to Classical Theism. Philosophia 35 (3-4):387-402.
    On the assumption that theistic religious commitment takes place in the face of evidential ambiguity, the question arises under what conditions it is permissible to make a doxastic venture beyond one’s evidence in favour of a religious proposition. In this paper I explore the implications for orthodox theistic commitment of adopting, in answer to that question, a modest, moral coherentist, fideism. This extended Jamesian fideism crucially requires positive ethical evaluation of both the motivation and content of religious doxastic ventures. I (...)
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  15. Julius Seelye Bixler (1942). The Problem of Religious Knowledge. Philosophical Review 51 (6):574-586.
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  16. William T. Blackstone (1963). The Problem of Religious Knowledge. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,Prentice-Hall.
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  17. Tomas Bogardus (2013). Erratum To: Disagreeing with the (Religious) Skeptic. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (1):19-19.
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  18. John Boli & David V. Brewington (2007). Religious Organizations1. In Peter Beyer & Lori G. Beaman (eds.), Religion, Globalization and Culture. Brill. 6--203.
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  19. Harold Augustus Bosley (1939). The Quest of Religious Certainty. New York, Willett, Clark & Company.
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  20. Robert Brecher (1976). Knowledge, Belief, and the Sophisticated Theodicist. Heythrop Journal 17 (2):178–183.
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  21. G. Briintrup & R. Tacelli (1999). Many Kinds of Rational Theistic Belief. In G. Bruntrup & R. K. Tacelli (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Kluwer. 19--21.
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  22. G. Briintrup & R. Tacelli (1999). The Rationality of Theistic Belief and the Concept of Truth. In G. Bruntrup & R. K. Tacelli (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Kluwer. 19--39.
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  23. Alan Brown (1998). Belief and Unbelief a Christian Response to the Challenge of Scepticism. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  24. C. Delisle Burns (1914). What is Religious Knowledge? International Journal of Ethics 24 (3):253-265.
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  25. J. Oliver Buswell (1960). A Christian View of Being and Knowing. Grand Rapids, Zondervan Pub. House.
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  26. Peter A. Carmichael (1949). Limits of Religious Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10 (1):53-64.
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  27. C. Cesa (1986). The Historical Role of Schleiermacher. Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana 6 (3):462-464.
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  28. M. J. Charlesworth (1975). The Problem of Religious Language. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35 (4):591-593.
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  29. Jb Chethimattam (1984). Religious Monograms and Mantras. Journal of Dharma 9 (2):142-149.
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  30. Joseph T. Clark (1952). Epilogue to the Evidence. Philosophical Studies of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 3:60-60.
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  31. Stephen R. L. Clark (2013). Dougherty Evidentialism and its Discontents . Pp. Xii + 335. £45.00 . ISBN 978 0 19 956350 0. Clark & VanArragon Evidence and Religious Belief . Pp. X + 214. £35.00 , £24.94 . ISBN 9780 19 960371 8. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 49 (1):134-139.
    Book Reviews STEPHEN R. L. CLARK, Religious Studies , FirstView Article.
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  32. John B. Cobb Jr (2009). Truth, "Faith", and 9/11. In Matthew J. Morgan (ed.), The Impact of 9/11 on Religion and Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  33. Arthur B. Cody (1969). On the Difference It Makes. Inquiry 12 (1-4):394 – 405.
    Man's belief in God is often contrasted with man's disbelief, Atheism; but the nature of human belief is contrastable with the nature of the belief of demons. A point of contrast lies in the consequences of the different sort of reasons men and demons must be understood to have. One consequence has to do with the vision of the world, seeing the world as God's creation, which men are expected to achieve and demons are not. The logic of the ?seeing (...)
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  34. Quentin Colgan (1991). On Reasoning About That Than Which Only One Being Can Be Thought Greater. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 65:99-105.
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  35. James Collins (1973). God Knowable and Unknowable. International Philosophical Quarterly 13 (3):452-454.
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  36. Daniel Cory (1954). God or the External World. Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):57-61.
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  37. M. B. Crowe (1953). Religious Faith, Language and Knowledge. Philosophical Studies 3:164-165.
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  38. H. A. D. (1973). Religion and Rationality. Review of Metaphysics 26 (4):761-762.
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  39. Charles T. Davis (2001). Hallett, Garth L. A Middle Way to God. Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):136-137.
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  40. Daniel Eaton & Timothy Pickavance (forthcoming). Wagering on Pragmatic Encroachment. In Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford.
    Lately, there has been an explosion of literature exploring the the relationship between one’s practical situation and one’s knowledge. Some involved in this discussion have suggested that facts about a person’s practical situation might affect whether or not a person knows in that situation, holding fixed all the things standardly associated with knowledge (like evidence, the reliability of one’s cognitive faculties, and so on). According to these “pragmatic encroachment” views, then, one’s practical situation encroaches on one’s knowledge. Though we won’t (...)
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  41. Christopher J. Eberle (1998). The Autonomy and Explanation of Mystical Perception. Religious Studies 34 (3):299-316.
    William Alston has articulated a powerful defence of the claim that mystical perception generates prima facie justified beliefs about God. At the heart of his defence is the claim that mystical perception is 'innocent until proven guilty'; that is, Alston claims that the practice of forming beliefs on the basis of putative perceptions of God should be accorded the same presumptive innocence we accord to other standard ways of forming beliefs like sense perception, memory and introspection. But Alston employs a (...)
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  42. Rem B. Edwards (1983). Matters of Faith and Matters of Principle. Review of Metaphysics 36 (4):956-958.
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  43. Leonard J. Eslick (1950). Nature, Knowledge, and God. New Scholasticism 24 (2):229-233.
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  44. N. Everitt (1998). Gellman, JI-Experience of God and the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Philosophical Books 39:215-216.
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  45. K. P. F. (1962). On Religious Maturity. Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):163-164.
  46. I. R. Fraser (1905). Does Christian Belief Require Metaphysics? Hibbert Journal 4:903.
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  47. Peter Geach (1992). The Meaning of 'God'—II. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 31:85-90.
    Holding God to be transcendent does not mean having to regard the grammar of the word ‘God’ as isolated or unique or inscrutable: and in speaking of grammar I use this word in its familiar sense, not in some ill-explained neo-Wittgensteinian sense. I want to make a methodological suggestion. When a sentence containing the word ‘God’ is puzzling, it may help to look at a grammatically possible replacement for the word. For example, if we wish to understand the statement that (...)
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  48. Jerome I. Gellman (1997). Experience of God an the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Cornell Up.
    Introduction i This work is a sustained argument for the rationality of belief in God based on the evidence that across various religions down through history people seem to have experienced God.1 If we conf1ne ourselves to rationality ...
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  49. Yehuda Gellman (2010). A Problem for the Christian Mystical Doxastic Practice. Philo 13 (1):23-28.
    William Alston has identified what he calls a “Christian Mystical Practice” as one of the many doxastic practices in which humans engage. He defends CMP as being as rational as other doxastic practices, including the sense perceptual practice, having its own input and output rules, and its own background overrider system. I argue that there seems to be a serious problem with Alston’s characterization of the overrider system for CMP. The presence of this problem threatens to damage Alston’s argument for (...)
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  50. Walter B. Gulick (2013). Religious Naturalism: A Framework of Interpretation and a Christian Version. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 34 (2):155-174.
    Religious naturalism takes very seriously the meanings inherent in both a scientific understanding of the world and a religious orientation to life well lived. It rejects—as implausible and incompatible with science— the supernaturalism that has dominated Western religious traditions. But can one or more of the varieties of religious naturalism satisfy the fundamental religious needs or yearnings for meaning that have typically been responded to within supernaturalistic worldviews? A challenge facing all types of religious naturalism, if any are to take (...)
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