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Epistemology

Edited by Matthew McGrath (University of Missouri, Columbia)
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  1. added 2014-12-20
    Cecilia Tohaneanu (1998). Epistemologia istoriei. Între mitul faptelor şi mitul semnificaţiilor. Editura Stiintifica.
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  2. added 2014-12-19
    Christian List, Social Choice Theory. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Social choice theory is the study of collective decision processes and procedures. It is not a single theory, but a cluster of models and results concerning the aggregation of individual inputs (e.g., votes, preferences, judgments, welfare) into collective outputs (e.g., collective decisions, preferences, judgments, welfare). Central questions are: How can a group of individuals choose a winning outcome (e.g., policy, electoral candidate) from a given set of options? What are the properties of different voting systems? When is a voting system (...)
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  3. added 2014-12-17
    Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson (forthcoming). The Semantic Neighborhood of Intellectual Humility. Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence.
    Intellectual humility is an interesting but underexplored disposition. The claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker expresses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both synonyms and antonyms of ‘intellectual humility’. We present a thesaurus-based method to map the semantic space (...)
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  4. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel & Matthias Kettner (1996). Systemrationalität? In Karl-Otto Apel & Matthias Kettner (eds.), Die eine Vernunft und die vielen Rationalitäten. Suhrkamp. 349-372.
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  5. added 2014-12-17
    Andreas Dorschel (1993). Gefühl Als Argument? In Andreas Dorschel, Matthias Kettner, Wolfgang Kuhlmann & Marcel Niquet (eds.), Transzendentalpragmatik. Ein Symposion für Karl-Otto Apel. Suhrkamp. 167-186.
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  6. added 2014-12-14
    Andreas Dorschel (2006). Einwände gegen das Vergleichen. Ein Versuch, sie zu beantworten. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 113 (1).
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  7. added 2014-12-12
    Nicholas Maxwell (forthcoming). Can Scientific Method Help Us Create a Wiser World? In N. Dalal, A. Intezari & M. Heitz (eds.), Practical Wisdom in the Age of Technology: Insights, Issues and Questions for a New Millennium. Ashgate.
    Two great problems of learning confront humanity: (1) learning about the universe, and about ourselves as a part of the universe, and (2) learning how to make progress towards as good a world as possible. We solved the first problem when we created modern science in the 17th century, but we have not yet solved the second problem. This puts us in a situation of unprecedented danger. Modern science and technology enormously increase our power to act, but not our power (...)
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  8. added 2014-12-12
    Lisa Bortolotti (2014). Irrationality. Polity Press.
    We talk about irrationality when behaviour defies explanation or prediction, when decisions are driven by emotions or instinct rather than by reflection, when reasoning fails to conform to basic principles of logic and probability, and when beliefs lack coherence or empirical support. Depending on the context, agents exhibiting irrational behaviour may be described as foolish, ignorant, unwise or even insane. -/- In this clear and engaging introduction to current debates on irrationality, Lisa Bortolotti presents the many facets of the concept (...)
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  9. added 2014-12-12
    Amber L. Griffioen (2014). (Ad-)Ventures in Faith: A Critique of Bishop's Doxastic Venture Model. Religious Studies:1-17.
    While some philosophical models reduce religious faith to either mere belief or affect, more recent accounts have begun to look at the volitional component of faith. In this spirit, John Bishop has defended the notion of faith as a ‘doxastic venture’. In this article, I consider Bishop's view in detail and attempt to show that his account proves on the one hand too permissive and on the other too restrictive. Thus, although the doxastic-venture model offers certain advantages over other prominent (...)
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  10. added 2014-12-11
    Lisa Bortolotti (forthcoming). Epistemic Benefits of Elaborated and Systematised Delusions in Schizophrenia. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this paper I ask whether elaborated and systematised delusions emerging in the context of schizophrenia have the potential for epistemic innocence. I define epistemic innocence as the status of those cognitions that have significant epistemic benefits that could not be attained otherwise. In particular, I propose that a cognition is epistemically innocent if it delivers some significant epistemic benefit to a given agent at a given time; and if alternative cognitions delivering the same epistemic benefit are unavailable to that (...)
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  11. added 2014-12-11
    Peter Slezak (2014). Appraising Constructivism in Science Education. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. 1023-1055.
    Two varieties of constructivism are distinguished. In part 1, the psychological or “radical” constructivism of von Glasersfeld is discussed. Despite its dominant influence in science education, radical constructivism has been controversial, with challenges to its principles and practices. In part 2, social constructivism is discussed in the sociology of scientific knowledge. Social constructivism has not been primarily concerned with education but has the most direct consequences in view of its challenge to the most fundamental, traditional assumptions in the philosophy of (...)
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  12. added 2014-12-11
    Peter Lipton (2009). Understanding Without Explanation. In H. W. de Regt, S. Leonelli & K. Eigner (eds.), Scientific Understanding: Philosophical Perspectives. University of Pittsburgh Press. 43-63.
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  13. added 2014-12-10
    Ru Ye (forthcoming). Fumerton's Puzzle for Theories of Rationality. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    Richard Foley has presented a puzzle purporting to show that all attempts in trying to find a sufficient condition of rationality are doomed. The puzzle rests on two plausible assumptions. The first is a level-connecting principle: if one rationally believes that one's belief that p is irrational, then one's belief that p is irrational. The second is a claim about a structural feature shared by all promising sufficient conditions of rationality: for any such condition, it is possible that one's belief (...)
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  14. added 2014-12-09
    Rachel McKinnon (forthcoming). Norms of Assertion: Truth, Lies, and Warrant. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book is about the norms of the speech act of assertion. This is a topic of lively contemporary debate primarily carried out in epistemology and philosophy of language. Suppose that you ask me what time an upcoming meeting starts, and I say, “4 p.m.” I’ve just asserted that the meeting starts at 4 p.m. Whenever we make claims like this, we’re asserting. The central question here is whether we need to know what we say, and, relatedly, whether what we (...)
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  15. added 2014-12-08
    Jon Altschul (2014). Epistemic Deontologism and Role-Oughts. Logos and Episteme 3:245-263.
    William Alston’s argument against epistemological deontologism rests upon two key premises: first, that we lack a suitable amount of voluntary control with respect to our beliefs, and, second, the principle that “ought” implies “can.” While several responses to Alston have concerned rejecting either of these two premises, I argue that even on the assumption that both premises are true, there is room to be made for deontologism in epistemology. I begin by offering a criticism of Richard Feldman’s invaluable work on (...)
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  16. added 2014-12-08
    Pedro Karczmarczyk, Gassmann Carlos, Acosta Jazmín Anahí, Rivera Silvia, Cuervo Sola Manuel, Torrano Andrea & Abeijón Matías (2013). Aproximaciones a la epistemología francesa. In Karczmarczyk Pedro (ed.), Estudios de epistemología, X. Instituto de epistemología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. 1-164.
    Aproximaciones a la escuela francesa de epistemología Los problemas que dominan a la epistemología pueden contextualizarse históricamente como una forma de racionalidad filosófica. La filosofía se ha presentado a lo largo de la historia como un discurso en el que sus diversos componentes (metafísica, ontología, gnoseología, ética, lógica, etc.) se mostraron unidos en el molde de la ?unidad del saber?. En este marco unitario alguna de las formas del saber filosófico detenta usualmente una posición dominante. El énfasis colocado en la (...)
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  17. added 2014-12-08
    Georg Brun (2012). Rival Logics, Disagreement and Reflective Equilibrium. In C. Jaeger W. Loeffler (ed.), Epistemology: Contexts, Values, Disagreements (Proceedings of the 34th International Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium). 355-368.
    Two challenges to the method of reflective equilibrium have been developed in a dispute between Michael D. Resnik and Stewart Shapiro: because the method itself involves logical notions, it can neither be specified in a logic-neutral way nor can it allow logical pluralism. To analyse and answer these claims, an explicit distinction is introduced between judgements held prior to the process of mutual adjustments and judgements in agreement with the systematic principles, which result from the process. It is then argued (...)
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  18. added 2014-12-08
    Hilla Jacobson-Horowitz (2010). . Normativity Without Reflectivity: On the Beliefs and Desires of Non-Reflective Creatures. Philosophical Psychology 23:75-93.
    The view (held, e.g., by Davidson) that the having of beliefs and desires presupposes the having of reflective capacities is sometimes supported by appealing to the idea that the concept of belief is a concept of a mental state which involves a normative aspect: beliefs can be “successful” or “unsuccessful” from the perspective of their possessors, and sometimes discarded in light of their “failure.” This naturally invites the idea that believers must be capable of reflecting on their beliefs. Desires presuppose (...)
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  19. added 2014-12-08
    Georg Brun (2009). Wer hat ein Problem mit irrationalen Präferenzen? Entscheidungstheorie und Überlegungsgleichgewicht. Studia Philosophica 68:11-41.
    Decision theory explicates norms of rationality for deriving preferences from preferences and beliefs. Empirical studies have found that actual preferences regularly violate these norms, launching a debate on whether this shows that subjects are prone to certain forms of irrationality or that decision theory needs to be revised. It has been claimed that such a revision is necessitated by the fact that normative uses of decision theory must be justified by a reflective equilibrium. The paper discusses three points. First, the (...)
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  20. added 2014-12-05
    Krista Lawlor (forthcoming). Precis of Assurance. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
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  21. added 2014-12-05
    Krista Lawlor (forthcoming). Reply to Leite, Turri and Gerken. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
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  22. added 2014-12-04
    John Schwenkler (forthcoming). Tradition as Transmission: A Partial Defence. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4).
    This paper is part of a symposium on Linda Zagzebski's EPISTEMIC AUTHORITY (Oxford, 2012).
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  23. added 2014-12-04
    J. Adam Carter & Duncan Pritchard (2013). Knowledge‐How and Epistemic Luck. Noûs 48 (4).
    Reductive intellectualists hold that knowledge-how is a kind of knowledge-that. For this thesis to hold water, it is obviously important that knowledge-how and knowledge-that have the same epistemic properties. In particular, knowledge-how ought to be compatible with epistemic luck to the same extent as knowledge-that. It is argued, contra reductive intellectualism, that knowledge-how is compatible with a species of epistemic luck which is not compatible with knowledge-that, and thus it is claimed that knowledge-how and knowledge-that come apart.
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  24. added 2014-12-03
    Billy Dunaway & John Hawthorne (forthcoming). Scepticism. In William J. Abraham Frederick D. Aquino (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Epistemology of Theology. Oxford University Press.
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  25. added 2014-12-03
    Timothy Williamson (2011). Knowledge First Epistemology. In Sven Bernecker & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology. Routledge. 208-218.
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  26. added 2014-12-02
    Christoph Jäger (2004). Epistemic Deontology, Doxastic Voluntarism, and the Principle of Alternate Possibilities. In Winfried Löffler and Paul Weingartner (ed.), Knowledge and Belief. ÖBV. 217-227.
  27. added 2014-12-02
    Christoph Jäger (2003). Wittgenstein Über Gewissheit Und Religiösen Glauben. In Florian Uhl and Artur R. Boelderl (ed.), Die Sprachen der Religion. 221-256.
  28. added 2014-11-29
    Tim Kenyon & Guillaume Beaulac (2014). Critical Thinking Education and Debiasing. Informal Logic 34 (4):341-363.
    There are empirical grounds to doubt the effectiveness of a common and intuitive approach to teaching debiasing strategies in critical thinking courses. We summarize some of the grounds before suggesting a broader taxonomy of debiasing strategies. This four-level taxonomy enables a useful diagnosis of biasing factors and situations, and illuminates more strategies for more effective bias mitigation located in the shaping of situational factors and reasoning infrastructure—sometimes called “nudges” in the literature. The question, we contend, then becomes how best to (...)
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  29. added 2014-11-29
    Frieder Vogelmann (2014). Kraft, Widerständigkeit, Historizität Überlegungen zu einer Genealogie der Wahrheit. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (6):1062–1086.
    Does truth have a history? Whereas Bernard William denies it and only allows a history of truthfulness, I defend the possibility of a critical history or genealogy of truth. Because a trifling relativistic historicization of truth leads to a paradoxically a-historic and pacifistic conception of truth, one must first establish the methodological concepts with which a genealogy of truth can avoid both problems. Three first steps towards such concepts can be found in some of Michel Foucault’s lectures, which lead the (...)
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  30. added 2014-11-28
    Luca Moretti, Evidence of Expert's Evidence is Evidence.
    John Hardwig has notoriously argued that evidence that an expert has evidence for a hypothesis P is not evidence for P. In this paper I use Shogenji-Roche's theorem of transitivity of incremental confirmation to show that Hardwig's thesis is false.
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  31. added 2014-11-26
    Wesley H. Holliday (2013). Response to Egré and Xu. In Johan van Benthem Fenrong Liu (ed.), Logic Across the University: Foundations and Applications. College Publications. 39-46.
    In this note, I respond to comments by Paul Egré and Xu Zhaoqing on my “Epistemic Closure and Epistemic Logic I: Relevant Alternatives and Subjunctivism” (Journal of Philosophical Logic).
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  32. added 2014-11-24
    Jeremy Wanderer (2014). Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (5):771-775.
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  33. added 2014-11-20
    Franz Dietrich, Christian List & Richard Bradley, A Unified Characterization of Belief-Revision Rules.
    This paper characterizes several belief-revision rules in a unified framework: Bayesian revision upon learning some event, Jeffrey revision upon learning new probabilities of some events, Adams revision upon learning some new conditional probabilities, and 'dual-Jeffrey' revision upon learning a new conditional probability function. Despite their differences, these revision rules can be characterized in terms of the same two axioms: responsiveness, which requires that revised beliefs incorporate what has been learnt, and conservativeness, which requires that beliefs on which the learnt input (...)
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  34. added 2014-11-20
    Clayton Littlejohn, A Note Concerning Conciliationism and Self-Defeat: A Reply to Matheson.
    A reply to Matheson on conciliationism and the self-defeat objection. I argue that the problems that Matheson discusses derive from his evidentialist assumptions, not from conciliationism.
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  35. added 2014-11-19
    Markus Seidel (forthcoming). Changing Society by Scientific Investigations? The Unexpected Shared Ground Between Early Sociology of Knowledge and the Vienna Circle. Foundations of Science:1-12.
    In this paper, I show that there are important but hitherto unnoticed similarities between key figures of the Vienna Circle and early defenders of sociology of knowledge. The similarities regard their stance on potential implications of the study of science for political and societal issues. I argue that notably Otto Neurath and Karl Mannheim are concerned with proposing a genuine political philosophy of science that is remarkably different from today’s emerging interest in the relation between science and society in philosophy (...)
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  36. added 2014-11-19
    Martin Montminy & Wes Skolits (2014). Defending the Coherence of Epistemic Contextualism. Episteme 11 (3).
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  37. added 2014-11-18
    Kevin Reuter, Lara Kirfel, Raphael Van Riel & Luca Barlassina (2014). The Good, the Bad, and the Timely: How Temporal Order and Moral Judgment Influence Causal Selection. Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-10.
    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent (...)
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  38. added 2014-11-17
    Diego E. Machuca (forthcoming). Again on Sextus on Persuasiveness and Equipollence. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    This paper engages with Svavar Svavarsson’s recent essay, “Sextus Empiricus on Persuasiveness and Equipollence,” arguing against both (i) his interpretation of whether two rival arguments appear equipollent to the Pyrrhonist because he himself is equally persuaded by both of them, and (ii) his interpretation of the way in which the argument from possible disagreement is supposed to induce suspension of judgment in the Pyrrhonist. In so doing, I aim to dispel some serious misunderstandings regarding key aspects of the Pyrrhonist’s skeptical (...)
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  39. added 2014-11-15
    Jose L. Zalabardo (2014). Precis of Scepticism and Reliable Belief. Teorema 33 (3):88-91.
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  40. added 2014-11-15
    Jose L. Zalabardo (2014). Replies to My Critics. Teorema 33 (3):181-202.
    Replies to contributions to a symposium on the book, Scepticism and Reliable Belief.
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  41. added 2014-11-15
    Jose L. Zalabardo (2014). Inference and Scepticism. In Elia Zardini & Dylan Dodd (eds.), Scepticism and Perceptual Justification. Oxford University Press.
    I focus on a family of inferences that are intuitively incapable of producing knowledge of their conclusions, although they appear to satisfy sufficient conditions for inferential knowledge postulated by plausible epistemological theories. They include Moorean inferences and inductive-bootstrapping inferences. I provide an account of why these inferences are not capable of producing knowledge. I argue that the reason why these inferences fail to produce knowledge of their conclusions is that inferential knowledge requires that the subject is more likely to believe (...)
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  42. added 2014-11-14
    Francois-Igor Pris (2014). The problem of access in the theory of epistemological disjunctivism. Mind (10):1-25.
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  43. added 2014-11-13
    Fabrice Teroni (2014). Emotions et connaissance. In Jean-Marie Chevalier Benoît Gautier (ed.), Connaître: Questions de philosophie contemporaine. Ithaque.
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  44. added 2014-11-12
    Jose L. Zalabardo (forthcoming). Epistemic Disjunctivism and the Evidential Problem. Analysis.
    I argue that Epistemic Disjunctivism doesn’t sustain a successful anti-sceptical strategy. I contend, in particular, that the treatment of scepticism that Duncan Pritchard puts forward on behalf of Epistemic Disjunctivism is unsatisfactory.
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  45. added 2014-11-11
    Lisa Bortolotti (2014). The Epistemic Innocence of Motivated Delusions. Consciousness and Cognition.
    Delusions are defined as irrational beliefs that compromise good functioning. However, in the empirical literature, delusions have been found to have some psychological benefits. One proposal is that some delusions defuse negative emotions and protect one from low self-esteem by allowing motivational influences on belief formation. In this paper I focus on delusions that have been construed as playing a defensive function (motivated delusions) and argue that some of their psychological benefits can convert into epistemic ones. Notwithstanding their epistemic costs, (...)
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  46. added 2014-11-11
    Jeffrey Dunn (2014). Inferential Evidence. American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):203-213.
    Consider: -/- The Evidence Question: When, and under what conditions does an agent have proposition E as evidence (at t)? -/- Timothy Williamson's (2000) answer to this question is the well-known E = K thesis: -/- E = K: E is a member of S's evidence set at t iff S knows E at t. -/- I will argue that this answer is inconsistent with the version of Bayesianism that Williamson advocates. This is because E = K allows an agent (...)
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  47. added 2014-11-10
    Pedro Karczmarczyk (2007). El problema del límite según Hegel. Revista Eletrônica Estudos Hegelianos 4 (6):1-20.
    Resumen: En este trabajo examino la concepción hegeliana del límite intentando clarificar sus principales características.Comienzo ubicando la filosofía hegeliana en el contexto filosófico más general del idealismo alemán, entendiendoeste movimiento como aquel comprometido en el proyecto de proporcionar una deducción trascendental de loabsoluto. Dado este contexto, procedo a examinar las críticas de Hegel a a la filosofía de Kant, principalmente en la“introducción a la Fenomenología del espíritu . El artículo concluye evaluando la adecuación de la elucidación deltratamiento hegeliano del problema (...)
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  48. added 2014-11-09
    Pedro Karczmarczyk (2013). Wittgenstein, Winch, Kripkenstein y la posibilidad de la crítica. Cuadernos de Filosofía 30:07-37.
    The present paper deals with the consequences Kripke’s interpretation of Wittgenstein’s private language argument has for political and social thought. We will show this is particularly important because it challenges the framework where ordinarily is located the discussion of the political and social relevance of Wittgenstein’s thought. Classical discussion has been concerned mainly with the role of communitary agreement, its relativistic or conservative consequences, the room for criticism and disagreement that it leaves, etc. We discern in classical reading a commitment (...)
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  49. added 2014-11-05
    Valeria Giardino (2014). Geometria, ragionamento e scommesse. In University of Urbino © Isonomia – Epistemologica (ed.), Mettere a fuoco il mondo. 36-46.
    Poiché i miei interessi di ricerca si concentrano sul rapporto tra spazio e rappresentazione, nel presente articolo commenterò un lavoro di Achille C. Varzi pubblicato nel 2008 e intitolato, nella sua versione italiana, «Configurazioni, regole e inferenze». Accennerò anche a un secondo articolo scritto da Varzi e Massimo Warglien e pubblicato nel 2003, intitolato «The Geometry of Negation». Mi rivolgerò poi alla psicologia sperimentale, collegando alcuni aspetti delle osservazioni di Varzi a un articolo di Johnson- Laird del 2005 intitolato «The (...)
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  50. added 2014-11-05
    John Corcoran (2007). 2007. Notes on the Founding of Logics and Metalogic: Aristotle, Boole, and Tarski. Eds. C. Martínez Et Al. Current Topics in Logic and Analytic Philosophy / Temas Actuales de Lógica y Filosofía Analítica. Imprenta Univeridade Santiago de Compostela. In C. Martínez (ed.), Current Topics in Logic and Analytic Philosophy /. 145-178.
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