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Epistemology

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  1. Craig French (2012). Visual Perception as a Means of Knowing. Dissertation, UCL
    This thesis falls into two parts, a characterizing part, and an explanatory part. In the first part, I outline some of the core aspects of our ordinary understanding of visual perception, and how we regard it as a means of knowing. What explains the fact that I know that the lemon before me is yellow is my visual perception: I know that the lemon is yellow because I can see it. Some explanations of how one knows specify that in virtue (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
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  2. Andreas Speer (2011). Illumination and Certitude. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (1):127-141.
    The paper aims to relocate Bonaventure within the paradigm shift towards the Aristotelian conception of philosophy, which also had a deep impact on theology.But the standard narratives of a mere antagonism overlook to what extend the meeting of both the Aristotelian and the Augustinian tradition led to a mutualinfluence and transformation. This is especially true in epistemological matters, as I will show in this paper dealing with the central question of the foundation ofknowledge and its certainty. The paper focusses on (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
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  3. Finn Spicer (2008). Knowledge and the Heuristics of Folk Epistemology. In Vincent Hendricks (ed.), New Waves in Epistemology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list |
     
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  4. Stuart F. Spicker (1987). An Introduction to the Medical Epistemology of Georges Canguilhem: Moving Beyond Michel Foucault. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (4):397-411.
    Although American philosophers and physicians are generally familiar with the writings of Claude Bernard (1813–1878), especially his Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865), the medicial epistemology of Georges Canguilhem, born in 1904, is virtually unknown in English speaking nations. Although indebted to Bernard for his conception of the methods to be employed in the acquisition of medical knowledge, Canguilhem radically reformulates Bernard's concepts of ‘disease’, ‘health’, ‘illness’, and ‘pathology’. Contemporary exhortations to medical professionals and medical students that they (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
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  5. Stephen Spielman (1986). Book Review:Epistemology and Inference Henry E. Kyburg, Jr. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 53 (1):149-.
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
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  6. Wolfgang Spohn, Carnap Versus Quine, or Aprioristic Versus Naturalized Epistemology, or a Lesson From Dispositions.
    In his influential paper "Epistemology Naturalized" Quine argues that Carnap's failure to define disposition predicates and his subsequent preference for reduction sentences naturally lead to an entirely naturalized epistemology. This conclusion is too hasty, I object. Applying the account of dispositional predicates developed in No. 26 I defend Carnap's aprioristic epistemology against Quine's attacks.
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list |
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  7. Chandra Sripada & Alvin Goldman (2005). Simulation and the Evolution of Mindreading. In António Zilhão (ed.), Evolution, Rationality, and Cognition: A Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century. Routledge.
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
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    Export citation  
  8. J. E. R. Staddon (2004). Scientific Imperialism and Behaviorist Epistemology. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):231 - 242.
    E.O. Wilson and B.F. Skinner have argued for an evolutionary ethics that allows what ought to be to be derived from what is—ethics from science. Evolution is inherently unpredictable, however, and some practices whose benefits cannot be proved might nevertheless turn out to be good for the survival of a culture or the race. Other practices that seem to be good might turn out to be bad. Consequently, the evolutionary argument implies that a successful culture will believe some things that (...)
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  9. Kent Staley & Aaron Cobb (2011). Internalist and Externalist Aspects of Justification in Scientific Inquiry. Synthese 182 (3):475-492.
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  10. Robert Stalnaker (2004). Comments on “From Contextualism to Contrastivism”. Philosophical Studies 119 (1-2):105-117.
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  11. Robert Stalnaker (2002). Epistemic Consequentialism: Robert Stalnaker. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):153–168.
    [Philip Percival] I aim to illuminate foundational epistemological issues by reflecting on 'epistemic consequentialism'-the epistemic analogue of ethical consequentialism. Epistemic consequentialism employs a concept of cognitive value playing a role in epistemic norms governing belief-like states that is analogous to the role goodness plays in act-governing moral norms. A distinction between 'direct' and 'indirect' versions of epistemic consequentialism is held to be as important as the familiar ethical distinction on which it is based. These versions are illustrated, respectively, by cognitive (...)
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  12. Tobias Starzak (2012). Papineau's Theoretical Rationality and the Anthropological Difference. Philosophia 40 (3):473-482.
    A common view in philosophy is that the way human beings reason is not only gradually better, but that our way of reasoning is fundamentally distinctive. Findings in the psychology of reasoning challenge the traditional view according to which human beings reason in accordance with the laws of logic and probability theory, but rather suggest that human reasoning consists in the application of domain specific rules of thumb similar to those that we ascribe to some intelligent non-human animals as well. (...)
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  13. L. P. Steffe (2010). Consequences of Rejecting Constructivism: “Hold Tight and Pedal Fast”. Commentary on Slezak's “Radical Constructivism: Epistemology, Education and Dynamite”. Constructivist Foundations 6 (1):112-119.
    Purpose: One of my goals in the paper is to investigate why realists reject radical constructivism (RC) as well as social constructivism (SC) out of hand. I shall do this by means of commenting on Peter Slezak’s critical paper, Radical Constructivism: Epistemology, Education and Dynamite. My other goal is to explore why realists condemn the use of RC and SC in science and mathematics education for no stated reason, again by means of commenting on Slezak’s paper. Method: I restrict my (...)
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  14. Nico Stehr & Reiner Grundmann (eds.) (2005). Knowledge: Critical Concepts. Routledge.
    This five volume collection brings together a carefully selected array of contributions from a variety of disciplines. Featuring essays from philosophers who have investigated the foundations of knowledge, and addressing different forms of knowledge in society such as common sense and practical knowledge, this collection also discusses the role of knowledge in economic process and gives attention to the role of expert knowledge in political decision making. Including a collection of articles from the sociology of knowledge and science, the set (...)
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  15. Warren E. Steinkraus (1984). Berkeley, Epistemology, and Science. Idealistic Studies 14 (3):183-192.
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  16. Harald Stelzer (2008). Challenging Cultural Relativism From a Critical-Rationalist Ethical Perspective. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:401-407.
    This paper is based on the assumption that critical rationalism represents a middle position between absolutist and relativistic positions because it rejects all attempts of ultimate justification as well as basic relativistic claims. Even though the critical-rationalist problem-solving-approach based on the method of trial and error leads to an acknowledgment of the plurality of theories and moral standards, it must not be confused with relativism. The relativistic claims of the incommensurability of cultures and the equality of all views of the (...)
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  17. Nathan Stemmer (1987). The Hempel and Goodman Paradoxes: A Reply to Adler. Behaviorism 15 (2):165-166.
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  18. Dermot Moran Stephen Voss (ed.) (2007). Epistemology. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy. Vol. 6. The Philosophical Society of Turkey.
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  19. Christopher L. Stephens (2001). When is It Selectively Advantageous to Have True Beliefs? Sandwiching the Better Safe Than Sorry Argument. Philosophical Studies 105 (2):161-189.
    Several philosophers have argued that natural selection will favor reliable belief formation; others have been more skeptical. These traditional approaches to the evolution of rationality have been either too sketchy or else have assumed that phenotypic plasticity can be equated with having a mind. Here I develop a new model to explore the functional utility of belief and desire formation mechanisms, and defend the claim that natural selection favors reliable inference methods in a broad, but not universal, range of circumstances.
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  20. Robert Stern (2004). Coherence as a Test for Truth. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):296–326.
    This paper sets out to demonstrate that a contrast can be drawn between coherentism as an account of the structure of justification, and coherentism as a method of inquiry. Whereas the former position aims to offer an answer to the ‘regress of justification’ problem, the latter position claims that coherence plays a vital and indispensable role as a criterion of truth, given the fallibility of cognitive methods such as perception and memory. It is argued that ‘early’ coherentists like Bradley and (...)
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  21. Matthias Steup (2013). Is Epistemic Circularity Bad? Res Philosophica 90 (2):215-235.
    Is it possible to argue that one’s memory is reliable without using one’s memory? I argue that it is not. Since it is not, it is impossible to defend the reliability ofone’s memory without employing reasoning that is epistemically circular. Hence, if epistemic circularity is vicious, it is impossible to succeed in producing a cogent argument for the reliability of one’s memory. The same applies to any other one of one’s cognitive faculties. I further argue that, if epistemic circularity is (...)
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  22. Todd Stewart (2007). Topical Epistemologies. Metaphilosophy 38 (1):23–43.
    What is the point of developing an epistemology for a topic—for example, morality? When is it appropriate to develop the epistemology of a topic? For many topics—for example, the topic of socks—we see no need to develop a special epistemology. Under what conditions, then, does a topic deserve its own epistemology? I seek to answer these questions in this article. I provide a criterion for deciding when we are warranted in developing an epistemological theory for a topic. I briefly apply (...)
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  23. Todd Stewart (2004). Review: The Concept of Belief and Evidentialism. [REVIEW] Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):269 - 272.
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  24. S. Stich (2006). Review: Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgement. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (458):390-393.
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  25. Kenneth W. Stikkers (2003). Transaction, Development, and Capacity: Commentary on 'Toward a Transactional Theory of Decision Making'. Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (2):157-160.
    The author fundamentally agrees with Mousavi's and Garrison's criticisms of Herbert Simon's version of rational choice theory, underscoring three central points of their analysis: 1) rational choice theory's naïve assumption that consumer preferences are given and fixed, rather than transactionally formed; 2) the truncated notion of 'rationality' assumed by Simon, and other rational choice theories generally; and 3) the impoverished philosophical anthropology assumed by Simon, and the notion of homo economicus generally. The author's only significant disagreement with Mousavi and Garrison (...)
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  26. Fredrik Stjernberg (2009). Restricting Factiveness. Philosophical Studies 146 (1):29 - 48.
    In discussions of Fitch’s paradox, it is usually assumed without further argument that knowledge is factive, that if a subject knows that p, then p is true. It is argued that this common assumption is not as well-founded as it should be, and that there in fact are certain reasons to be suspicious of the unrestricted version of the factiveness claim. There are two kinds of reason for this suspicion. One is that unrestricted factiveness leads to paradoxes and unexpected results, (...)
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  27. P. F. Strawson (1957). Professor Ayer's "The Problem of Knowledge". Philosophy 32 (123):302 - 314.
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  28. Avrum Stroll (1984). Some Different Ways That Things Stand Fast for Us. Grazer Philosophische Studien 22:69-89.
    Foundationalism, the idea that there is a basic kind of knowledge which is ground-level and hence beyond proof or justification, is one of the oldest themes in philosophy. It has been held by such great philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Wittgenstein and Moore inter alia\ but exactly what they mean by "foundationalism" is seldom carefully or fully articulated. This paper attempts to give such an explication. It holds that a foundationalist theory must satisfy at least nine conditions, vagueness, stratification, (...)
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  29. Avrum Stroll (1967). Epistemology. New York, Harper & Row.
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  30. Barry Stroud (2011). Epistemology, the History of Epistemology, Historical Epistemology. Erkenntnis 75 (3):495-503.
    A brief discussion of the ways in which awareness of and sensitivity to the history of philosophy can contribute to epistemology even if epistemology is understood as a distinctively philosophical and not primarily historical enterprise.
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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
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     Knowledge
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     Coherentism
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    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
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     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
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     Self-Knowledge
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     Epistemic Injustice
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  31. Herlinde Studer (1981). Conditions of Knowledge. Grazer Philosophische Studien 14:97-111.
    Since Edmund L. Gettier's famous paper a series of counterexamples has been raised against the traditional analysis of knowledge in terms of justified true belief. Some of these (not only Gettier-type) counterexamples can be ruled out by adding a fourth condition to the traditional account which demands a causal connection between the belief of a person and the fact the person believes. This causal connection is specified in a particular way so that counterexamples put forward against causal accounts of knowledge (...)
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    Epistemological Sources
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     Intuition
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     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
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     Epistemic Norms
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     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
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  32. Karsten R. Stueber (2012). Understanding Versus Explanation? How to Think About the Distinction Between the Human and the Natural Sciences. Inquiry 55 (1):17 - 32.
    Abstract This essay will argue systematically and from a historical perspective that there is something to be said for the traditional claim that the human and natural sciences are distinct epistemic practices. Yet, in light of recent developments in contemporary philosophy of science, one has to be rather careful in utilizing the distinction between understanding and explanation for this purpose. One can only recognize the epistemic distinctiveness of the human sciences by recognizing the epistemic centrality of reenactive empathy for our (...)
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     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties<