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||The interplay of essentialism and modal logic is a major topic in the logic and metaphysics of modality. Quine 1953 argued that quantified modal logic (QML) entails essentialism, the view that an object can have a property essentially, independently of how it is referred to. Since he found essentialism to be unintelligible, Quine concluded by modus tollens that QML should be rejected. Kripke 1963 and Marcus 1967 have contributed to the rehabilitation of QML by showing how it can be made sense of within a suitable semantic framework. Others, such as Parsons 1969 and McKay 1975, have argued that QML is not committed to the thesis of essentialism in the way Quine thought. Now that the intelligibility of QML is no longer at issue, a central problem in the contemporary debate is whether the notion of essence can be understood in modal terms. A classical modalist analysis of essence is due to Moore 1919: x is essentially P iff x is necessarily P (or, in conditional form: iff x is necessarily P, if existent). This reduction of essence to pure QML has been found wanting by Fine 1994. As a consequence, the Moorean definition has been mostly abandoned (but see Cowling 2013). Some proposals have emerged that attempt to understand essence by means of revisions or extensions of standard QML. Zalta 2006 and Wildman 2013 have proposed to reduce essence to a combination of modal and non-modal notions. Correia 2007 has put forward an analysis of essence carried out in a modal logic which is more fine-grained that standard QML. Fine 1995, 2000 has formulated a quantified intensional logic for the notion of essence.
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- John Robert Baker (1978). Essentialism and the Modal Semantics of J. Hintikka. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (1):81-91.
- John Robert Baker (1973). Quantified Modal Logic and the Problem of Essentialism. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
- Cleverson Bastos & Paulo de Oliveira (2011). Quine E O “pecado” Da Lógica Modal. Episteme NS: Revista Del Instituto de Filosofía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela 31 (1):1-17.
- Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller, CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic. (I) Toward a Theory of Sorts.
- Alexander Bird (2006). Potency and Modality. Synthese 149 (3):447-52.
- Baruch A. Brody (1972). De Re and de Dicto Interpretations of Modal Logic or a Return to an Aristotelean Essentialism. Philosophia 2 (1-2):117-136.
- Howard Burdick (1993). Non-Essentialistic Modal Logic or Meaning and Necessity Revisited. Philosophia 22 (1-2):87-93.
- Howard Burdick (1982). A Logical Form for the Propositional Attitudes. Synthese 52 (2):185 - 230.
- Fabrice Correia (2007). (Finean) Essence and (Priorean) Modality. Dialectica 61 (1):63–84.
- Horacio Costa (2012). Quantified Modal Logic. Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 2.
- M. J. Cresswell (2010). Predicate Wormism a Quinean Account of de Re Modality. Logique Et Analyse 212:449-464.
- W. Stephen Croddy (1988). Quine Against Essentialism and Quantified Modal Logic. Logique Et Analyse 31 (123-124):317-328.
- Kit Fine (2000). Semantics for the Logic of Essence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (6):543-584.
- Kit Fine (1995). The Logic of Essence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (3):241 - 273.
- Kit Fine (1994). Essence and Modality. Philosophical Perspectives 8:1-16.
- Frederic B. Fitch (1967). A Theory of Logical Essences. The Monist 51 (1):104-109.
- Vicky Ruth Vicklund Franks (1982). The Definite Description and Quine's Formal Attack on Quantified Modal Logic. Dissertation, University of Washington
- Dagfinn Føllesdal (2004). Referential Opacity and Modal Logic. Routledge.
- Dagfinn Føllesdal (1968). Quine on Modality. Synthese 19 (1-2):147 - 157.
- Alessandro Giordani (2013). A New Semantics for Systems of Logic of Essence. Studia Logica (3):1-30.
- Dominic Gregory (2011). Iterated Modalities, Meaning and A Priori Knowledge. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (3).
- Lars Gundersen (1995). The Problem of Transworld Identity. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 30.
- Reina Hayaki (2006). Contingent Objects and the Barcan Formula. Erkenntnis 64 (1):75 - 83.
- Reina Hayaki (2002). Actualism and Quantified Modal Logic. Dissertation, Princeton University
- Philip V. Kargopoulos (1984). Realism, Relativism and Reference. University Microfilms International.
- Daniel Michael Kervick (1997). The Logic of Contingent Existence. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
- Antti Keskinen (2013). Quine on Objects and De Re Modality. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 8 (2):4-17.
- Leonard Linsky (1971). Reference and Modality. London,Oxford University Press.
- Joao Marcos (2005). Logics of Essence and Accident. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 34 (1):43-56.
- Ruth Barcan Marcus (1967). Essentialism in Modal Logic. Noûs 1 (1):91-96.
- Ruth Barcan Marcus (1961/1993). Modalities: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
- Ruth Barcan Marcus, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Diana Raffman & Nicholas Asher (eds.) (1995). Modality, Morality, and Belief: Essays in Honor of Ruth Barcan Marcus. Cambridge University Press.
- Thomas J. McKay (1975). Essentialism in Quantified Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (4):423 - 438.
- Thomas James Mckay (1974). Essentialism and Quantified Modal Logic: Quine's Argument and Kripke's Semantics. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
- Christopher Menzel (forthcoming). Logic, Essence, and Modality — A Critical Review of Hale's Necessary Beings. Philosophia Mathematica 23.
- Christopher Menzel (2000). Review of J. Copeland (Ed.), Logic and Reality: Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 109 (2):281-286.
- Robert Michels (2013). Metaphysical Modality and Essentiality. Dissertation, University of Geneva
- Ulrich Nortmann (2002). The Logic of Necessity in Aristotle--An Outline of Approaches to the Modal Syllogistic, Together with a General Account of de Dicto - and de Re -Necessity. History and Philosophy of Logic 23 (4):253-265.
- Manuel Perez Otero (1996). Verdad Necesaria Versus Teorema de Lógica Modal (Necessary Truth Versus Theorem of Modal Logic). Theoria 11 (1):185-201.
- S. H. Parker (1976). Essential Properties and Possible Worlds. Philosophia 6 (2):317-320.
- Terence Parsons (1969). Essentialism and Quantified Modal Logic. Philosophical Review 78 (1):35-52.
- Terence Parsons (1967). Grades of Essentialism in Quantified Modal Logic. Noûs 1 (2):181-191.
- Richard Patterson (1990). Conversion Principles and the Basis of Aristotle's Modal Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (2):151-172.
- Robert John Pauw (1980). The Ontological Foundations of Quantified Tense and Modal Logic. Dissertation, Cornell University
- M. Perrick & H. de Swart (1993). Quantified Modal Logic, Reference and Essentialism. Logique Et Analyse 143 (143-144):219-231.
- Alvin Plantinga (1992). The Nature of Necessity. Clarendon Press.
- Lawrence R. Poncinie (1980). The Semantics of Contemporary Essentialism. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago
- W. V. O. Quine (1953). Three Grades of Modal Involvement. In Journal of Symbolic Logic. North-Holland Publishing Co. 168-169.
- Dwayne Raymond (2011). Polarity and Inseparability: The Foundation of the Apodictic Portion of Aristotle's Modal Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (3):193-218.
- Jun Ren (1994). Two Modal Paradoxes and Their Solutions. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
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