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  1. Judith Andre (2013). Open Hope as a Civic Virtue. Social Philosophy Today 29:89-100.
    Hope as a virtue is an acquired disposition, shaped by reflection; as a civic virtue it must serve the good of the community. Ernst Bloch and Lord Buddha offer help in constructing such a virtue. Using a taxonomy developed by Darren Webb I distinguish open hope from goal-oriented hope, and use each thinker to develop the former. Bloch and Buddha are very different (and notoriously obscure; I do not attempt an exegesis). But they share a metaphysics of change, foundational for (...)
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  2. Julia Annas (2008). Virtue Ethics and the Charge of Egoism. In Paul Bloomfield (ed.), Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press.
  3. Robert B. Ashmore Jr (1977). Ewing on “Higher” Egoism. New Scholasticism 51 (4):513-523.
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  4. Charles M. Attree (1928). Egoism. The Monist 38 (4):549-568.
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  5. Kurt Baier (1990). Egoism. In Peter Singer (ed.), A Companion to Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  6. Kurt Baier (1973). Ethical Egoism and Interpersonal Compatibility. Philosophical Studies 24 (6):357-368.
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  7. J. E. Barnhart (1971). Egoism and Idealistic Freedom. Idealistic Studies 1 (2):120-127.
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  8. J. E. Barnhart (1971). Egoism and Idealistic Freedom. Idealistic Studies 1 (2):120-127.
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  9. Alfred Barratt (1877). The `Suppression' of Egoism. Mind 2 (6):167-186.
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  10. R. Bass (2006). Ayn Rand, by Tibor Machan. [REVIEW] Journal of Libertarian Studies 20 (2):95-101.
    Tibor Machan's _Ayn Rand_ aims to provide an introduction to Ayn Rand’s thought for “a broader readership who may have heard of Rand but not examined her ideas in detail”. . . . He portrays himself as an admirer, but not as a true believer who supposes that Rand can think no wrong. In addition to sympathetically discussing her views, he tries also to respectfully assess criticisms of those views. His position is not one of unqualified endorsement, but rather one (...)
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  11. Robert H. Bass (2006). Defending the Argument. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2):371-381.
    In "Egoism versus Rights," I argued that egoism is incompatible with rights. Here, I respond to two critics of that argument.
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  12. Robert H. Bass (2006). Egoism Versus Rights. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2):329-349.
    I develop an argument that key theses from Ayn Rand's ethics and political philosophy are incompatible with one another. Her ethical egoism is not compatible with her rights theory. Though Rand's version of rights theory is libertarian, the argument does not depend upon any claims peculiar to her theory, but would apply to the (in)compatibility of ethical egoism and almost any plausible rights theory.
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  13. William H. Baumer (1967). Indefensible Impersonal Egoism. Philosophical Studies 18 (5):72 - 75.
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  14. Benjamin Bayer, Metaethical Problems for Ethical Egoism, Reconsidered.
    Until recently it has been conventional to assume that ethical egoism is "ethical" is name, alone, and that no account that considers one's own interests as the standard of moral obligation could count as seriously "ethical." In recent years, however, philosophers have shown increasing respect for more sophisticated forms of ethical egoism which attempt to define self-interest in enriched terms characterizing self-interest as human flourishing in both material and psychological dimensions. But philosophers are still skeptical that any conception of self-interest (...)
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  15. Joseph Beatty (1979). "Because It Is Mine:" A Critique of Egoism. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 60 (2):186.
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  16. Theodore M. Benditt (1976). Egoism's Inconsistencies. [REVIEW] Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 57 (1):43.
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  17. Robert Berg (1979). Rule-Egoism? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 60 (2):211.
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  18. Robert Berg (1979). Sanders on "Egoism's Conception of the Self". Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 60 (1):114.
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  19. Eric H. Beversluis (1975). The Not So Brief History of Ethical Egoism: A Criticism of Erling Skorpen's Thesis. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):199.
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  20. Carrie-ann Biondi (2008). Tara Smith’s Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist. [REVIEW] Reason Papers 30:91-105.
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  21. Paul Bloomfield (ed.) (2008). Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press.
    The volume will act as a useful collection of scholarship by top figures, and as a resource and course book on an important topic.
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  22. M. Bozovic (2005). The Philosophy of the Metaphysical Egoism. Filozofski Vestnik 26 (3):135 - +.
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  23. Nathanial Branden (1970). Rational Egoism - Continued. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):305.
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  24. Nathaniel Branden (1970). Rational Egoism: A Reply to Professor Emmons. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 51 (2):196.
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  25. Richard Brandt (1972). Rationality, Egoism, and Morality. Journal of Philosophy 64 (20):681-697.
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  26. David O. Brink, Handout #8: Normative Authority and Metaphysical Egoism.
    Doubts about the adequacy of appeals to impartial practical reason give those with rationalist sympathies reason to explore the metaphysical, and not merely strategic, reconciliation of prudence and altruism contained in metaphysical egoism. Even if we recognize impartial practical reason, the supremacy of moral demands may depend upon the plausibility of metaphysical egoism. For as long as we recognize the demands of prudence, the conflict between altruism and prudence will threaten altruism's supremacy. We might consider one version of metaphysical egoism (...)
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  27. David O. Brink (1997). Rational Egoism and the Separateness of Persons. In J. Dancy (ed.), Reading Parfit. Blackwell. 96--134.
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  28. David O. Brink (1997). Self-Love and Altruism. Social Philosophy and Policy 14 (1):122-157.
    Whether morality has rational authority is an open question insofar as we can seriously entertain conceptions of morality and practical reason according to which it need not be contrary to reason to fail to conform to moral requirements. Doubts about the authority of morality are especially likely to arise for those who hold a broadly prudential view of rationality. It is common to think of morality as including various other-regarding duties of cooperation, forbearance, and aid. Most of us also regard (...)
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  29. C. D. Broad (1942). Certain Features in Moore's Ethical Doctrines. In P. A. Schilpp (ed.), The Philosophy of G. E. Moore. Evanston and Chicago.
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  30. J. A. Brunton (1975). The Devil Is Not a Fool, or Egoism Re-Visited. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (4):321 - 330.
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  31. J. A. Brunton (1956). Egoism and Morality. Philosophical Quarterly 6 (25):289-303.
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  32. Keith Burgess-Jackson (2013). Taking Egoism Seriously. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):529-542.
    Though utilitarianism is far from being universally accepted in the philosophical community, it is taken seriously and treated respectfully. Its critics do not dismiss it out of hand; they do not misrepresent it; they do not belittle or disparage its proponents. They allow the theory to be articulated, developed, and defended from criticism, even if they go on to reject the modified versions. Ethical egoism, a longstanding rival of utilitarianism, is treated very differently. It is said to be “refuted” by (...)
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  33. L. Burkholder (1974). How Not to Refute Ethical Egoism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (4):653 - 657.
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  34. Donald Burrill (1976). The Rule-Egoism Principle. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 57 (4):408.
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  35. Richmond Campbell (1974). Replies to Mack and Burkholder on Ethical Egoism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (4):665 - 671.
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  36. Richmond Campbell (1972). A Short Refutation of Ethical Egoism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):249 - 254.
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  37. George R. Carlson (1990). Pain and the Quantum Leap to Agent-Neutral Value. Ethics 100 (2):363-367.
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  38. George R. Carlson (1988). Parfit, Sidgwick, and Divided Reason. Philosophia 18 (2-3):247-252.
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  39. George R. Carlson (1979). Beliefs, Wants and Ethical Egoism. Philosophia 9 (1):9-20.
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  40. George R. Carlson (1978). Weak Universal Egoism as a Non-Ethical System. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (3):499 - 509.
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  41. George R. Carlson (1977). Egoism and Internalism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 55 (2):139 – 141.
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  42. George R. Carlson (1973). Ethical Egoism Reconsidered. American Philosophical Quarterly 10 (1):25 - 33.
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  43. Chris Cathcart (2006). Egoism and Rights. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2).
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  44. Ruth Chang (2001). Review: Two Conceptions of Reasons for Action. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (2):447 - 453.
    On a ‘comparative’ conception of practical reasons, reasons are like ‘weights’ that can make an action more or less rational. Bernard Gert adopts instead a ‘toggle’ conception of practical reasons: something counts as a reason just in case it alone can make some or other otherwise irrational action rational. I suggest that Gert’s conception suffers from various defects, and that his motivation for adopting this conception – his central claim that actions can be rational without there being reasons for them (...)
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  45. Michael Cholbi (2011). The Moral Conversion of Rational Egoists. Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):533-556.
    One principal challenge to the rationalist thesis that the demands of morality are requirements of rationality has been that posed by the "rational egoist." In attempting to answer's the egoist's challenge, some rationalists have supposed that an adequate reply must take the form of a deductive argument that "converts" the egoist by showing that her position is contradictory, arbitrary, or violates some precept that defines practical rationality as such. Here I argue (a) that such rationalist replies will fail to persuade (...)
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  46. Chong Kim Chong (1992). Ethical Egoism and the Moral Point of View. Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1):23-36.
    Interpretations of ethical egoism as advocating the unconstrained harming of others, or as an absurd meta-ethical definition of morality, are unwarranted. The social definition of morality provided by, e.g., William Frankena, fails to rule out egoism. Instead, it forms the background against which egoism develops as a possible, normative position. Examples from "The Immoralist" and "Zorba the Greek" illustrate this possibility.
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  47. Chong Kim Chong (1987). Egoism in Ethics: Rationality and Motivational Considerations. In John D. Greenwood (ed.), The Idea of Psychology: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore.
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  48. Kim-Chong Chong (1996). Zorba: Justifying Ethical Egoism. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (1-2):325-328.
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  49. Andy Cochrane (2010). Egoism and Ethics. In Richard Corrigan (ed.), Ethics: A University Guide. Progressive Frontiers Pubs.. 135.
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  50. R. Crisp (2001). Rational Egoism: A Selective and Critical History. Philosophical Review 110 (1):111-113.
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