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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2007). The Moral Value of Animals. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is based on (...)
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  2. Denis Arnold, Robert Audi & Matt Zwolinski (2010). Recent Work in Ethical Theory and its Implications for Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (4):559-581.
    We review recent developments in ethical pluralism, ethical particularism, Kantian intuitionism, rights theory, and climate change ethics, and show the relevance of these developments in ethical theory to contemporary business ethics. This paper explains why pluralists think that ethical decisions should be guided by multiple standards and why particularists emphasize the crucial role of context in determining sound moral judgments. We explain why Kantian intuitionism emphasizes the discerning power of intuitive reason and seek to integrate that with the comprehensiveness of (...)
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  3. Mark Hannam, David Hume's "Of Suicide".
    A paper that discusses Hume's essay "Of Suicide".
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  4. Olof Leffler (2016). Om From Morality to the End of Reason av Ingmar Persson. [REVIEW] Filosofisk Tidskrift (1).
    Review of Ingmar Persson's book From Morality to the End of Reason (in Swedish). This is a pre-print copy, please cite (or read!) the published version in Filosofisk tidskrift (2016), No. 1.
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  5. Nancy J. Matchett (2012). Motive and Rightness. [REVIEW] Metapsychology Online Reviews 16 (37).
  6. Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). A Relational Moral Theory: Africa's Contribution to Global Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  7. Thaddeus Metz (2013). Two Conceptions of African Ethics. Quest 25:141-61.
    I focus on D A Masolo’s discussion of morality as characteristically understood by African philosophers. My goals are both historical and substantive, meaning that I use reflection on Masolo’s book as an occasion to shed light not only on the nature of recent debates about African ethics, but also on African ethics itself. With regard to history, I argue that Masolo’s discussion of sub-Saharan morality suggests at least two major ways that the field has construed it, depending on which value (...)
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  8. Thaddeus Metz (2010). An African Theory of Bioethics: Reply to Macpherson and Macklin. Developing World Bioethics 10 (3):158-163.
    In a prior issue of Developing World Bioethics, Cheryl Macpherson and Ruth Macklin critically engaged with an article of mine, where I articulated a moral theory grounded on indigenous values salient in the sub-Saharan region, and then applied it to four major issues in bioethics, comparing and contrasting its implications with those of the dominant Western moral theories, utilitarianism and Kantianism. In response to my essay, Macpherson and Macklin have posed questions about: whether philosophical justifications are something with which bioethicists (...)
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  9. Thaddeus Metz (2010). African and Western Moral Theories in a Bioethical Context. Developing World Bioethics 10 (1):49-58.
    The field of bioethics is replete with applications of moral theories such as utilitarianism and Kantianism. For a given dilemma, even if it is not clear how one of these western philosophical principles of right (and wrong) action would resolve it, one can identify many of the considerations that each would conclude is relevant. The field is, in contrast, largely unaware of an African account of what all right (and wrong) actions have in common and of the sorts of factors (...)
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  10. Thaddeus Metz (2007). The Motivation for “Toward an African Moral Theory”. South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (26):331-335.
    Here I introduce the symposium issue of the South African Journal of Philosophy that is devoted to critically analysing my article “Toward an AfricanMoral Theory.” In that article, I use the techniques of analytic moral philosophy to articulate and defend a moral theory that both is grounded on the values of peoples living in sub-Saharan Africa and differs from what is influential in contemporary Western ethics. Here, I not only present a précis of the article, but also provide a sketch (...)
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  11. Thaddeus Metz (2007). Ubuntu as a Moral Theory: Reply to Four Critics. South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):369-87.
    In this article, I respond to questions about, and criticisms of, my article “Towardan African Moral Theory” that have been put forth by Allen Wood, Mogobe Ramose, Douglas Farland and Jason van Niekerk. The major topicsI address include: what bearing the objectivity of moral value should have on cross-cultural moral differences between Africans and Westerners; whether a harmonious relationship is a good candidate for having final moral value; whether consequentialism exhausts the proper way to respond to the value of a (...)
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  12. Thaddeus Metz & Joseph Gaie (2010). The African Ethic of Ubuntu/Botho: Implications for Research on Morality. Journal of Moral Education 39 (3):273-290.
    In this article we provide a theoretical reconstruction of sub-Saharan ethics that we argue is a strong competitor to typical Western approaches to morality. According to our African moral theory, actions are right roughly insofar as they are a matter of living harmoniously with others or honouring communal relationships. After spelling out this ethic, we apply it to several issues in both normative and empirical research into morality. With regard to normative research, we compare and contrast this African moral theory (...)
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  13. Thaddeus Metz & Sarah Clark Miller (2016). Relational Ethics. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell 1-10.
    An overview of relational approaches to ethics, which contrast with individualist and holist ones, particularly as they feature in the Confucian, African, and feminist/care traditions.
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  14. María G. Navarro (2007). Crítica a la psiquiatría clínica desde una hermenéutica bioética. Arbor 183 (726):581-597.
    Si concebimos el bienestar como condición para que se dé auténtica dignidad en la vida individual y/o colectiva, entre diferentes especies y generaciones de especies, lo cierto es que cabría colegir que la dignidad no tiene una única naturaleza ni, en relación a la que cupiera definir como la más conveniente o necesaria o justa, se instituye conforme a idénticos grados. La (esencia de la) dignidad sería, por consiguiente, relativa. Analicemos esto.
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  15. Richard Oxenberg, Caring Beings and the Immanence of Value: An Inquiry Into the Foundations of Interpersonal Morality.
    In this paper I define a 'caring being' as one with an impetus to well-being. I argue that all authentic valuing arises from this impetus. Interpersonal morality has its basis in the recognition that all caring beings deserve to be respected in their caring, a recognition we cannot but arrive at (if we are honest) upon reflection on our own demand for respect.
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  16. Alex Rajczi (2007). Integrity and Ordinary Morality. American Philosophical Quarterly 44 (1):15-27.
    Consequentialism is enticing, and yet it also seems overly demanding. As a result, many non-consequentialists try to explain why we aren’t required to maximize the good. One explanation is the Integrity Explanation: we aren’t required to maximize the good because morality must make room for us to pursue the projects we value most deeply. Some people hope that the Integrity Explanation will not just explain why consequentialism is false, but simultaneously vindicate the common-sense permission to generally refrain from promoting the (...)
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  17. Yvanka B. Raynova (ed.) (2015). Community, Praxis, and Values in a Postmetaphysical Age. Studies on Exclusion and Social Integration in Feminist Theory and Contemporary Philosophy. Axia Academic Publishers.
    The following volume is published on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Institute for Axiological Research in Vienna – the first European Institute for the advanced philosophical and interdisciplinary study of values – and is divided in two parts. The first one treats specific problems of women's struggle for rights, freedoms, and recognition, and moves successively to thematically broader methodological and hermeneutical approaches of the phenomena of exclusion and the possibilities of social integration, which are (...)
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  18. Eduardo Rivera-López (2013). Nonideal Ethics. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), Hugh LaFolette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley. Wiley-Blackwell
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  19. Erin Taylor, All Together Now: Conventionalism and Everyday Moral Life.
  20. Peter Vallentyne (1996). Response-Dependence, Rigidification and Objectivity. Erkenntnis 44 (1):101 - 112.
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  21. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Gimmicky Representations of Moral Theories. Metaphilosophy 19 (3-4):253-263.
    The teleological/deontological distinction is generally considered to be the fundamental classificatory distinction for ethics. I have argued elsewhere (Vallentyne forthcoming (a), and Ch.2 of Vallentyne 1984) that the distinction is ill understood and not as important as is generally supposed. Some authors have advocated a moral radical thesis. Oldenquist (1966) and Piper (1982) have both argued that the purported distinction is a pseudo distinction in that any theory can be represented both as teleological and as deontological. Smart (1973, p.13, and (...)
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  22. Bill Wringe (2010). Needs and Moral Necessity – Soran Reader. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (241):882-884.
    This is a review of Soran Reader's monograph 'Needs and Moral Necessity'. Although my response to her book is largely positive, I have reservations about her views of the scope of the ethical, and the coherence of her views with the McIntyrean concept of practice which she espouses.
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  23. Jason Zarri, How to Know What Should Be So: Ethical Guidance and Ethical Theories.
    If one is in a moral quandary it is wise to look for ethical guidance if one has the time to do so. Ethical theories are, among other things, intended to be one possible source of ethical guidance. If such guidance is valuable, then in ethics there is an embarrassment of riches: There are multiple, well-accepted, yet mutually inconsistent theories. The disquieting thing is that, at present, it seems that we are not at all close to being able to determine (...)
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Anti-Theory
  1. J. E. J. Altham & Ross Harrison (eds.) (1995). World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge University Press.
    Bernard Williams is one of the most influential figures in recent ethical theory, where he has set a considerable part of the current agenda. In this collection, a distinguished international team of philosophers who have been stimulated by Williams' work give new responses to it. The topics covered include equality, consistency, comparisons between science and ethics, integrity, moral reasons, the moral system, and moral knowledge. Williams himself then provides a substantial reply, which in turn shows both the current directions of (...)
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  2. G. E. M. Anscombe (1958). Modern Moral Philosophy. Philosophy 33 (124):1 - 19.
    The author presents and defends three theses: (1) "the first is that it is not profitable for us at present to do moral philosophy; that should be laid aside at any rate until we have an adequate philosophy of psychology." (2) "the second is that the concepts of obligation, And duty... And of what is morally right and wrong, And of the moral sense of 'ought', Ought to be jettisoned if this is psychologically possible...." (3) "the third thesis is that (...)
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  3. Alfred Archer (2014). Sebastian Schleidgen (Ed.): Should We Act Morally? Essays on Overridingness. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):349-350.
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  4. Carla Bagnoli (2015). Moral Objectivity: A Kantian Illusion? Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):31-45.
    Some moral claims strike us as objective. It is often argued that this shows morality to be objective. Moral experience – broadly construed – is invoked as the strongest argument for moral realism, the thesis that there are moral facts or properties.See e.g. Jonathan Dancy, “Two conceptions of Moral Realism,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60 : 167–187. Realists, however, cannot appropriate the argument from moral experience. In fact, constructivists argue that to validate the ways we experience the objectivity of (...)
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  5. E. Bond (1985). Bernard Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 5:480-484.
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  6. E. J. Bond (1985). Bernard Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 5 (10):480-484.
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  7. Jason Brennan (2008). Beyond the Bottom Line: The Theoretical Goals of Moral Theorizing. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 28 (2):277-296.
    Moral theory is no substitute for virtue, but virtue is no substitute for moral theory. Many critics of moral theory, with Richard Posner being one prominent recent example, complain that moral theory is too abstract, that it cannot generally be used to derive particular rights and wrongs, and that it does not improve people's characters. Posner complains that it is thus of no use to legal theorists. This article defends moral theory, and to some degree, philosophical inquiry in general, against (...)
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  8. Keith Burgess-Jackson (1993). The Problem with Contemporary Moral Theory. Hypatia 8 (3):160 - 166.
    Feminists, especially radical feminists, have reason to be dissatisfied with contemporary moral theory, but they are understandably reluctant to abandon the theoretical project until it is seen as unsalvageable. The problem is not, however, as Margaret Urban Walker claims, that theory is abstract, that it seeks to guide conduct, or that it postulates moral knowledge. The problem is that contemporary moral theory is foundational.
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  9. Daniel John Callcut (2003). Bernard Williams and the End of Morality. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University
    My dissertation has two main aims. The first is to show how some of the central parts of Bernard Williams' conception of ethics fit together. The second is to criticize and develop Williams' thought and, by doing so, to illustrate why it offers such an important and fruitful starting point for contemporary moral philosophy. ;Much of the importance of Williams' work stems from his rich and ambivalent engagement with moral skepticism. His work forcefully engages both with philosophical and wider cultural (...)
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  10. Shaun Yip Wah Chan (1997). Williams, Ethics, and Morality. Dissertation, Queen's University at Kingston (Canada)
    This thesis considers Bernard Williams's critique of moral philosophy. ;First, I examine Williams's claim that there are no ethical theories which can provide an objective grounding or foundation for ethics. I focus on his discussion of ethical realism and ethical naturalism. Ethical realism holds that the objective foundation of ethical truths and knowledge rests on their mirroring or representing an ethical reality independent of us. Whereas ethical naturalism holds that ethical truths and knowledge are embedded in forms of ethical life (...)
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  11. Sophie Grace Chappell (2015). “How Encounters with Values Generate Demandingness”, in Michael Kuehler and Marcel van Ackeren, The Limits of Obligation, Routledge. In Michael Kuehler and Marcel van Ackeren (ed.), The Limits of Obligation, Routledge. Routledge
    I talk about the relation between the direct encounters with values that I take to be a key part of ordinary moral phenomenology, and the well-worn topic of demandingness. I suggest that an ethical philosophy based on (inter alia) such encounters sheds interesting light on some familiar problems.
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  12. Sophie Grace Chappell (ed.) (2015). Intuition, Theory, and Anti-Theory in Ethics. OUP Oxford.
    What form, or forms, might ethical knowledge take? In particular, can ethical knowledge take the form either of moral theory, or of moral intuition? If it can, should it? A team of experts explore these central questions for ethics, and present a diverse range of perspectives on the discussion.
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  13. Timothy Chappell (2014). Knowing What to Do: Imagination, Virtue, and Platonism in Ethics. OUP Oxford.
    Timothy Chappell develops a picture of what philosophical ethics can be like, once set aside from conventional moral theory. His question is 'How are we to know what to do?', and the answer he defends is 'By developing our moral imaginations'--a key part of human excellence, which plays many roles in our practical and evaluative lives.
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  14. Timothy Chappell (2011). Glory as an Ethical Idea. Philosophical Investigations 34 (2):105-134.
    There is a gap between what we think and what we think we think about ethics. This gap appears when elements of our ethical reflection and our moral theories contradict each other. It also appears when something that is important in our ethical reflection is sidelined in our moral theories. The gap appears in both ways with the ethical idea glory. The present exploration of this idea is a case study of how far actual ethical reflection diverges from moral theory. (...)
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  15. Timothy Chappell (2009). Ethics Beyond Moral Theory. Philosophical Investigations 32 (3):206-243.
    I develop an anti-theory view of ethics. Moral theory (Kantian, utilitarian, virtue ethical, etc.) is the dominant approach to ethics among academic philosophers. But moral theory's hunt for a single Master Factor (utility, universalisability, virtue . . .) is implausibly systematising and reductionist. Perhaps scientism drives the approach? But good science always insists on respect for the data, even messy data: I criticise Singer's remarks on infanticide as a clear instance of moral theory failing to respect the data of moral (...)
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  16. Timothy Chappell (2007). Integrity and Demandingness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):255 - 265.
    I discuss Bernard Williams’ ‘integrity objection’ – his version of the demandingness objection to unreasonably demanding ‘extremist’ moral theories such as consequentialism – and argue that it is best understood as presupposing the internal reasons thesis. However, since the internal reasons thesis is questionable, so is Williams’ integrity objection. I propose an alternative way of bringing out the unreasonableness of extremism, based on the notion of the agent’s autonomy, and show how an objection to this proposal can be outflanked by (...)
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  17. Stanley G. Clarke (1987). Anti-Theory in Ethics. American Philosophical Quarterly 24 (3):237 - 244.
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  18. David Copp (ed.) (2005). Particularism and Antitheory. Oxford University Press.
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  19. Christopher Cordner (2003). Bernard Williams 1929–2003 Moral Philosophy Brought Down to Earth. Sophia 42 (2):149-150.
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  20. Garrett Cullity (2002). Particularism and Moral Theory: Particularism and Presumptive Reasons: Garrett Cullity. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):169–190.
    Weak particularism about reasons is the view that the normative valency of some descriptive considerations varies, while others have an invariant normative valency. A defence of this view needs to respond to arguments that a consideration cannot count in favour of any action unless it counts in favour of every action. But it cannot resort to a global holism about reasons, if it claims that there are some examples of invariant valency. This paper argues for weak particularism, and presents a (...)
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  21. Philippa Foot (1972). Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives. Philosophical Review 81 (3):305-316.
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  22. Philippa Foot (1958). Moral Arguments. Mind 67 (268):502-513.
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  23. Nick Fotion (2014). Theory Vs. Anti-Theory in Ethics: A Misconceived Conflict. OUP Usa.
    This book argues that theory formation in ethics might be, but does not have to be, grand; local and weaker theories can also be effective. Indeed, theory formation is far more varied than theorists and anti-theorists imagine it to be.
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  24. Fabian Freyenhagen (2013). Adorno's Practical Philosophy: Living Less Wrongly. Cambridge University Press.
    Adorno notoriously asserted that there is no 'right' life in our current social world. This assertion has contributed to the widespread perception that his philosophy has no practical import or coherent ethics, and he is often accused of being too negative. Fabian Freyenhagen reconstructs and defends Adorno's practical philosophy in response to these charges. He argues that Adorno's deep pessimism about the contemporary social world is coupled with a strong optimism about human potential, and that this optimism explains his negative (...)
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  25. Allan Gibbard (1995). Review: Why Theorize How to Live with Each Other? [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (2):323 - 342.
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  26. David Glidden (1996). JEJ Altham and Ross Harrison Eds., World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 16 (4):231-236.
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  27. Lorenzo Greco (2008). Bernard Williams, Vergogna e necessità (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2007). [REVIEW] Rivista di Filosofia 99 (2):352-54.
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