About this topic
Summary Moral norms are intimately connected to how we, as moral agents, think, feel, and behave. As the interdisciplinary study of the mind, cognitive science is well suited to address such issues as they relate to ethical theory. Fruitful areas of inquiry include, for example: the nature of happiness, character, personality, emotions, and choice; the kinds of processes in the brain that generate our moral intuitions (e.g. affective versus cognitive); the evolutionary origins of our moral capacities (e.g. moral emotions, intuitions, and motivation); cross-cultural differences in moral norms; and so on. 
Key works Collections of key works in cognitive science generally include Nadelhoffer et al 2010 (both historical and contemporary articles) and Sinnott-Armstrong 2008 (a comprehensive state of the art with multiple volumes full of new articles and replies from prominent philosophers and scientists). On some more specific topics: Sober & Wilson 1998 (evolution of altruism), Joyce 2006 (evolution of morality), Doris 2002 (skepticism about character), Haidt 2001 (moral cogniiton), Mikhail 2011 (moral cognition), Greene 2013 (neuroethics), Bloom 2013 (moral development).
Introductions Doris 2010 provides an excellent collection of original articles for a handbook. Doris & Stich 2008 and May 2012 are overviews of empirical work in moral psychology, while more specific topics are covered in Andreou 2007 (ethics and psychology), Levy 2009 (neuroethics), May 2014 (moral cognition).
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  1. A. E. T. A. E. T. (1917). MERRINGTON, E. N. -The Problem of Personality. [REVIEW] Mind 26:489.
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  2. Gordon W. Allport (1953). The Psychological Nature of Personality. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 34 (4):347.
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  3. W. P. Alston (1970). Toward a Logical Geography of Personality: Traits and Deeper Lying Personality Characteristics. In Howard Evans Kiefer & Milton Karl Munitz (eds.), Mind, Science, and History. Albany,State University of New York Press. 59--92.
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  4. Miguel Alzola (2013). The Empirics of Virtue Theory: What Can Psychology Tell Us About Moral Character? In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 89--107.
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  5. Lydia B. Amir (2005). Morality, Psychology, Philosophy. Philosophical Practice 1 (1):43-57.
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  6. Andras Angyal (1943). Foundations for a Science of Personality. Philosophical Review 52:323.
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  7. Julia Annas (1995). Reply to Commentators. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4):929 - 937.
    Response to Nancy Snow In Nancy’s impressive book she shows, through a thorough study of the philosophical debate about the position called ‘situationism’ and the psychological literature that supposedly based it, that there was a serious misconception right from the start among philosophers about the kind of disposition or trait which psychologists were concerned with. The kind of disposition the philosophers were rejecting was one taken to be expressed over a number of situations characterized from the outside, independently of the (...)
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  8. Paulo Eduardo Arantes (2003). An Irresistible Tendency to Cultivate One's Own Personality. Trans/Form/Ação 26 (1):7-51.
    Study of the relationship between the cultivated jews of Berlin and the German ical culture through the analysis of the role played in the latter by the idea of "personality", codeword of the German mandarins' ideology.Estudo da relação entre os judeus cultivados de Berlim e a cultura clássica alemã por meio da análise do papel nela representado pela idéia de "personalidade", senha da ideologia dos mandarins alemães.
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  9. C. F. D' Arcy (1911). Is Personality in Space? II., A Reply to Dr Sanday. Hibbert Journal 10:921.
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  10. Michael Argyle & Brian R. Little (1972). Do Personality Traits Apply to Social Behaviour? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 2 (1):1-33.
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  11. Raphaël Arlettaz, Veronika Braunisch, Michael Schaub & James E. M. Watson (2011). Response From Arlettaz and Colleagues. BioScience 61 (2):93-94.
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  12. J. Arthur, T. Harrison, K. Kristjánsson, I. Davidson, D. Hayes & J. Higgins, My Character: Enhancing Future Mindedness in Young People: A Feasibility Study.
    The aim of the My Character project was to develop a better understanding of how interventions designed to develop character might enhance moral formation and futuremindedness in young people. Futuremindedness can be defined as an individual’s capacity to set goals and make plans to achieve them. Establishing goals requires considerable moral reflection, and the achievement of worthwhile aims requires character traits such as courage and the capacity to delay gratification. The research team developed two new educational interventions – a website (...)
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  13. Sarah Ashelford (2012). Does Depression Require an Evolutionary Explanation? In Martin H. Brinkworth & Friedel Weinert (eds.), Evolution 2.0: Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences. Springer.
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  14. Nafsika Athanassoulis (2000). A Response to Harman: Virtue Ethics and Character Traits: Discusions. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (2):215-221.
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  15. Francis Aveling (1931). Personality and Will. Philosophy 6 (24):515-517.
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  16. John C. Avise (1979). Considerations on the Evolution of Qualitative Multistate Traits. Acta Biotheoretica 28 (3):190-203.
    Simple models for the evolution of qualitative multistate traits are considered, in which the traits are permitted to evolve in time-dependent versus speciation-dependent fashion. Of particular interest are the means and variances of distances for these traits in evolutionary phylads characterized by different rates of speciation, when alternative characters are neutral with respect to fitness, and when the total number of observable characters is limited to small values. As attainable character states are increasingly restricted, mean distance (D) in a phylad (...)
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  17. R. J. B. (1968). The Morality of Scholarship. Review of Metaphysics 21 (4):760-761.
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  18. Eugene Bagger (1949). Character and History. Thought 24 (2):216-224.
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  19. Albert G. A. Balz (1927). The Characterization of Moral Evolution. International Journal of Ethics 37 (4):403-418.
  20. Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno (2008). Adaptivity: From Metabolism to Behavior. Adaptive Behavior 16 (5):325-344.
  21. Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Adam B. Moore & Katrin Starcke (2012). Use of a Rasch Model to Predict Response Times to Utilitarian Moral Dilemmas. Synthese 189 (S1):107-117.
    A two-systems model of moral judgment proposed by Joshua Greene holds that deontological moral judgments (those based on simple rules concerning action) are often primary and intuitive, and these intuitive judgments must be overridden by reflection in order to yield utilitarian (consequence-based) responses. For example, one dilemma asks whether it is right to push a man onto a track in order to stop a trolley that is heading for five others. Those who favor pushing, the utilitarian response, usually take longer (...)
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  22. Baron-Cohen, Richler, Bisarya & Gurunathan & Wheelwright (2004). The Systemizing Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism and Normal Sex Differences. In Uta Frith & Elisabeth Hill (eds.), Autism: Mind and Brain. Oup Oxford.
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  23. Stanley Bates (2009). Character. In Richard Eldridge (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature. Oup Usa.
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  24. Lewis White Beck (1947). The Distinctive Traits of an Empirical Method. Journal of Philosophy 44 (13):337-344.
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  25. Marc Bekoff (2001). Science, Religion, Cooperation, and Social Morality. BioScience 51 (3):171.
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  26. Antoni Gomila Benejam (2000). Las razones de las personas primates. Laguna 7:381-385.
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  27. Louis Berg (1934). The Human Personality. The Monist 44:315.
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  28. Jose Luis Bermudez (1997). Defending Intentionalist Accounts of Self-Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):107-108.
    This commentary defends intentionalist accounts of self-deception against Mele by arguing that: (1) viewing self-deception on the model of other-deception is not as paradoxical as Mele makes out; (2) the paradoxes are not entailed by the view that self-deception is intentional; and (3) there are two problems for Mele's theory that only an intentionalist theory can solve.
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  29. Lorraine Besser-Jones (2014). Eudaimonic Ethics: The Philosophy and Psychology of Living Well. Routledge.
    In this book , Lorraine Besser-Jones develops a eudaimonistic virtue ethics based on a psychological account of human nature. While her project maintains the fundamental features of the eudaimonistic virtue ethical framework—virtue, character, and well-being—she constructs these concepts from an empirical basis, drawing support from the psychological fields of self-determination and self-regulation theory. Besser-Jones’s resulting account of "eudaimonic ethics" presents a compelling normative theory and offers insight into what is involved in being a virtuous person and "acting well." This original (...)
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  30. Michael H. Birnbaum (1974). The Nonadditivity of Personality Impressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):543.
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  31. Kaj Bjcsrkqvist, Barbara Bergbom & Nils G. Holm (1994). World-View and Personality. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 21 (1):185-207.
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  32. L. Blackman (2008). Affect, Relationality and the `Problem of Personality'. Theory, Culture and Society 25 (1):23-47.
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  33. Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe & Felix Warneken (forthcoming). The Developmental Origins of Fairness: The Knowledge–Behavior Gap. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  34. Stefaan Blancke & Johan De Smedt (2013). Evolved to Be Irrational?: Evolutionary and Cognitive Foundations of Pseudosciences. In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press.
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  35. Charlene Bolton, Ralph Bolton, Lorraine Gross, Amy Koel, Carol Michelson, Robert L. Munroe & Ruth H. Munroe (1976). Pastoralism and Personality. Ethos 4 (4):463-481.
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  36. A. Bonnett (2006). The Nostalgias of Situationist Subversion. Theory, Culture and Society 23 (5):23-48.
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  37. Robert F. Bornstein (1997). Varieties of Self-Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):108-109.
    Mele's analysis of self-deception is persuasive but it might also be useful to consider the varieties of self-deception that occur in real-world settings. Instances of self-deception can be classified along three dimensions: implicit versus explicit, motivated versus process-based, and public versus private. All three types of self-deception have implications for the scientific research enterprise.
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  38. Luc Bovens, Situationist Charges Versus Personologist Defenses and the Issue of Skills.
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  39. Robert Boyd & Simon A. Levin, Punishment Sustains Large-Scale Cooperation in Prestate Warfare.
    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial (...)
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  40. Michael Bradie (2001). Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (1):235-238.
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  41. David Braun (2012). Character, and Beyond. In Gillian Russell Delia Graff Fara (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. Routledge. 9.
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  42. David Braun (1995). What is Character? Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (3):241--273.
  43. William H. Brenner (1999). Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 39 (1):103-104.
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  44. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1943). Personality as a Metaphysical Principle. In , Personalism in Theology. Boston, Boston University Press.
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  45. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1939). What is Personality? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 20 (2):129.
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  46. Don Brothwell (1964). The Primates. The Eugenics Review 56 (1):48.
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  47. William Brown (1929). Science and Personality. Journal of Philosophical Studies 4 (16):571-572.
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  48. William Brown (1927). Mind and Personality. Journal of Philosophical Studies 2 (6):249-251.
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  49. Conrad G. Brunk (1993). Varieties of Moral Personality. International Studies in Philosophy 25 (3):120-121.
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  50. Emil Brunner (1937). God and Man. Four Essays in the Nature of Personality. Philosophy 12 (47):365-365.
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